Rhynchophorus vulneratus

The palm weevil Rhynchophorus vulneratus is one of two species of snout beetle known as the red palm weevil, Asian palm weevil, or Sago palm weevil. The adult beetles are relatively large, ranging between 2 and 4 centimetres (1 and 1+12 inches) long, and vary from a rusty red colour to almost entirely black; many colour variants exist and have led to considerable confusion with other species (e.g., Rhynchophorus ferrugineus). Weevil larvae of these species can excavate holes in the trunk of a palm tree up to 1 metre (3 feet 3 inches) long, thereby weakening and eventually killing the host plant. As a result, these weevils are considered major pests in palm plantations, including the coconut palm, date palm and oil palm.[1]

Rhynchophorus vulneratus
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Infraorder: Cucujiformia
Family: Curculionidae
Genus: Rhynchophorus
R. vulneratus
Binomial name
Rhynchophorus vulneratus
(Panzer, 1798)
  • Curculio vulneratus Panzer, 1798
  • Calandra schach Fabricius, 1801
  • Rhynchophorus pascha Boheman in Schönherr, 1845
  • Rhynchophorus ferrugineus v. tenuirostris Chevrolat, 1882
  • Rhynchophorus glabrirostris Schaufuss, 1885

Distribution edit

The native range of this species is considered to include Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Singapore, and Thailand; outside its native range it has been reported and confirmed only from the United States.[2]

Originally from tropical Asia, this palm weevil (initially misidentified as the closely related species, R. ferrugineus) was recorded in the United States at Laguna Beach, CA late in 2010.[3][4] However it was successfully eradicated and did not become established.[2]

Taxonomy edit

Primarily due to the existence of numerous color forms across their ranges, the taxonomy and classification of red palm weevils has undergone a number of changes in understanding and circumscription. As such, the information in the literature should be viewed as a compilation of data which may apply to both species, depending primarily upon the biogeography. The most recent genus-level revision in 1966[5] recognized two species of red palm weevils, ferrugineus and vulneratus, and for decades these were interpreted as separate taxa. A genetic study in 2004[6] concluded that vulneratus was not distinct from ferrugineus, and treated them as synonyms, a view that was accepted until 2013, when yet another genetic study[7] came to the opposite conclusion, based on more comprehensive geographic sampling. Accordingly, the "red palm weevil" species that appeared in the US was vulneratus rather than ferrugineus, though the latter is the invading species in all of the other global introductions.[7]

Hosts edit

Red palm weevils are reported to attack 19 palm species worldwide; due to the taxonomic confusion, it is unclear whether R. vulneratus and R. ferrugineus favor different hosts, though nearly all of the invasive populations known are of ferrugineus, so one of the only confirmed hosts for vulneratus outside of Asia is the Canary Island date palm, Phoenix canariensis.[2]

Culinary uses edit

A fried sago larvae dish in Sarawak, Malaysia

The larval grub is considered a delicacy in Southeast Asian countries, including Brunei,[8] and Malaysian Borneo.[9][10] Sago grubs have been described as creamy tasting when raw, and like bacon or meat when cooked. They are often prepared with sago flour. The larvae are also eaten either raw or roasted in the Malaysian Bornean states of Sabah and Sarawak, and regarded as a special high-nutrient meal among the natives there like the Kadazan-Dusun, Melanau and the Dayak.[10][11] In Sabah the dish is called butod.[12]

Kidu edit

In the Karo language of North Sumatra, kidu refers to the wood-eating larvae of Rhynchophorus vulneratus, historically misidentified as a related beetle, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus.[7][13] The larvae are typically harvested from sugar palm, and are eaten, either raw or deep-fried, sometimes served in arsik sauce.[14][15]

References edit

  1. ^ "Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Oliver". Phytosanitary Alert System. North American Plant Protection Organization (NAPPO). 2009-01-26. Retrieved 2022-05-20.
  2. ^ a b c Hoddle, Mark S.; Hoddle, Christina D.; Alzubaidy, Mohammed; Kabashima, John; Nisson, J. Nicholas; Millar, Jocelyn; Dimson, Monica (2016). "The palm weevil Rhynchophorus vulneratus is eradicated from Laguna Beach". California Agriculture. UC Agriculture and Natural Resources (UC ANR). 71 (1): 23–29. doi:10.3733/ca.2016a0012. ISSN 0008-0845.
  3. ^ [1] Orange County Register, "Destructive exotic beetle found in Laguna Beach."
  4. ^ [2] Archived 2011-09-28 at the Wayback Machine CDFA; Red Palm Weevil, Worst Known Pest of Palm Trees Detected in Laguna Beach
  5. ^ Wattanapongsiri, A. 1966. A revision of the genera Rhynchophorus and Dynamis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). Department of Agriculture Science Bulletin 1: 1-328
  6. ^ Hallett, R.H., Crespi, B.J., Borden, J.H. 2004. Synonymy of Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier), 1790 and R. vulneratus (Panzer), 1798 (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Rhynchophorinae). J. Nat. Hist. 38:2863-2882
  7. ^ a b c Rugman-Jones, P.F.; C.D. Hoddle; M.S. Hoddle; R. Stouthamer (15 October 2013). "The Lesser of Two Weevils: Molecular-Genetics of Pest Palm Weevil Populations Confirm Rhynchophorus vulneratus (Panzer 1798) as a Valid Species Distinct from R. ferrugineus (Olivier 1790), and Reveal the Global Extent of Both". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): e78379. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...878379R. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0078379. PMC 3797061. PMID 24143263.
  8. ^ "Food documentary showcases Bruneian cuisines". 2 January 2019. Retrieved 13 September 2019.
  9. ^ Adam Leith Gollner (11 June 2013). The Fruit Hunters: A Story of Nature, Adventure, Commerce, and Obsession. Simon and Schuster. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-1-4767-0499-9.
  10. ^ a b Tamara Thiessen (5 January 2016). Borneo. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 190–. ISBN 978-1-84162-915-5.
  11. ^ Kuan Leong Yew; Victoria Shinq Ling Kok (2012). "Exotic Food Anaphylaxis and the Broken Heart: Sago Worm and Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy" (PDF). Heart Centre, Sarawak General Hospital, Sarawak, Malaysia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 October 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  12. ^ Anna Vivienne (3 September 2012). "Magahavat: Celebrating sago". The Borneo Post. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
  13. ^ Hasairin, Ashar; Nasution, Aswarina (1 April 2021). "Kajian Etnobiologi Terites dan Kidu-Kidu Makanan Budaya Suku Batak Karo di Sumatera Utara". Journal of Tropical Ethnobotany: 29–33. ISSN 2722-0257. Retrieved 11 July 2022.
  14. ^ Charly Silaban, www.jeefuu.net. "Kidu, Si Ulat Enau · Silaban Brotherhood". Silaban.net. Archived from the original on 2019-11-04. Retrieved 2019-06-19.
  15. ^ "Batak Karo, Extremes in Cuisine - the Jakarta Globe". Archived from the original on 2010-07-06. Retrieved 2010-11-02.

Additional resources edit