In telecommunications, return loss is the loss of power in the signal returned/reflected by a discontinuity in a transmission line or optical fiber. This discontinuity can be a mismatch with the terminating load or with a device inserted in the line. It is usually expressed as a ratio in decibels (dB);
- where RL(dB) is the return loss in dB, Pi is the incident power and Pr is the reflected power.
Return loss is related to both standing wave ratio (SWR) and reflection coefficient (Γ). Increasing return loss corresponds to lower SWR. Return loss is a measure of how well devices or lines are matched. A match is good if the return loss is high. A high return loss is desirable and results in a lower insertion loss.
Return loss is used in modern practice in preference to SWR because it has better resolution for small values of reflected wave.
Properly, loss quantities, when expressed in decibels, should be positive numbers.[note 1] However, return loss has historically been expressed as a negative number, and this convention is still widely found in the literature.
The correct definition of return loss is the difference in dB between the incident power sent towards the Device Under Test (DUT) and the power reflected, resulting in a positive sign:
However taking the ratio of reflected to incident power results in a negative sign for return loss;
- where RL'(dB) is the negative of RL(dB).
Return loss with a positive sign is identical to the magnitude of Γ when expressed in decibels but of opposite sign. That is, return loss with a negative sign is more properly called reflection coefficient. The S-parameter S11 from two-port network theory is frequently also called return loss, but is actually equal to Γ.
Caution is required when discussing increasing or decreasing return loss since these terms strictly have the opposite meaning when return loss is defined as a negative quantity.
In metallic conductor systems, reflections of a signal traveling down a conductor can occur at a discontinuity or impedance mismatch. The ratio of the amplitude of the reflected wave Vr to the amplitude of the incident wave Vi is known as the reflection coefficient .
When the source and load impedances are known values, the reflection coefficient is given by
Return loss is the negative of the magnitude of the reflection coefficient in dB. Since power is proportional to the square of the voltage, return loss is given by,
where the vertical bars indicate magnitude. Thus, a large positive return loss indicates the reflected power is small relative to the incident power, which indicates good impedance match from source to load.
When the actual transmitted (incident) power and the reflected power are known (i.e., through measurements and/or calculations), then the return loss in dB can be calculated as the difference between the incident power Pi (in absolute decibel units, e.g., dBm) and the reflected power Pr (also in absolute decibel units),
In optics (particularly in fiberoptics) a loss that takes place at discontinuities of refractive index, especially at an air-glass interface such as a fiber endface. At those interfaces, a fraction of the optical signal is reflected back toward the source. This reflection phenomenon is also called "Fresnel reflection loss," or simply "Fresnel loss."
Fiber optic transmission systems use lasers to transmit signals over optical fiber, and a high optical return loss (ORL) can cause the laser to stop transmitting correctly. The measurement of ORL is becoming more important in the characterization of optical networks as the use of wavelength-division multiplexing increases. These systems use lasers that have a lower tolerance for ORL, and introduce elements into the network that are located in close proximity to the laser.
where is the reflected power and is the incident, or input, power.
- Except for cases where an active device succeeds in reflecting back more power than was sent into it. This is the case, for instance, with the tunnel diode amplifier.
- Trevor S. Bird, "Definition and Misuse of Return Loss", IEEE Antennas & Propagation Magazine, vol.51, iss.2, pp. 166–167, April 2009.
- Noel G. Barton, Jacques Periaux, "Coupling of fluids, structures, and waves in aeronautics", proceedings of a French-Australian workshop in Melbourne, Australia, 3–6 December 2001, p. 187, Springer, 2003 ISBN 3-540-40222-5.
- Federal Standard 1037C and from MIL-STD-188
- Optical Return Loss Testing—Ensuring High-Quality Transmission EXFO Application note #044