Religious affiliations of chancellors of Germany
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Most German chancellors have been followers of a Christian church. German society has been affected by a Catholic-Protestant divide since the Protestant Reformation, and the same effect is visible in this list of German chancellors. It is largely dominated by Catholics and Lutherans as these remain the main confessions in the country.
Most of Germany's chancellors have been either Lutherans or Catholics. A significant portion of Protestant chancellors belonged to the Prussian Union of churches, which united the Reformed and Lutheran confessions throughout the Kingdom of Prussia, and was in force since 1817. Some Catholic chancellors came from the Catholic Centre Party. The Christian Democratic Union, a party of both Roman Catholics and Protestants, produced both kinds of chancellors. One chancellor, namely Philipp Scheidemann, was Reformed (Calvinist).
Although there were some religiously sceptic chancellors, most never officially renounced their faith and were given a Christian funeral. Hermann Müller, a Social Democrat heavily influenced by his father-an advocate of Ludwig Feuerbach's views, is the only one notable for not having been a member of any confession at all. Friedrich Ebert was baptised a Roman Catholic, but later officially left the denomination. Gustav Bauer is on record as unaffiliated to any recognised religion at least from 1912 to 1924 (thus including his term of office), but he was buried on a Protestant cemetery.
As some chancellors' views are uncertain or causing confusion among researchers, such as these of Adolf Hitler or Joseph Goebbels, the official religion they were brought up in is only mentioned with a further information on their worldviews, if available. For issues pertaining to Nazi stance on religion, see Religion in Nazi Germany, Religious aspects of Nazism, and Religious views of Adolf Hitler.
North German ConfederationEdit
|1||Otto von Bismarck||1867–1871||Lutheran|
|1||Otto von Bismarck||1871–1890||Lutheran|
|2||Leo von Caprivi||1890–1894||Lutheran|
|3||Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfürst||1894–1900||Catholic|
|4||Bernhard von Bülow||1900–1909||Lutheran|
|5||Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg||1909–1917||Lutheran|
|7||Georg von Hertling||1917–1918||Catholic|
|8||Max von Baden||1918||Lutheran|
|1||Friedrich Ebert||1918–1919||Irreligious (see details above)|
|3||Gustav Bauer||1919–1920||Irreligious (see details above)|
|5||Constantin Fehrenbach||1920-1921||Roman Catholic|
|6||Joseph Wirth||1921–1922||Roman Catholic|
|7||Wilhelm Cuno||1922–1923||Roman Catholic|
|9||Wilhelm Marx||1923–1925||Roman Catholic|
|11||Wilhelm Marx||1926–1928||Roman Catholic|
|13||Heinrich Brüning||1930-1932||Roman Catholic|
|14||Franz von Papen||1932||Roman Catholic|
|15||Kurt von Schleicher||1932–1933||Lutheran|
|1||Adolf Hitler||1933–1945||initially Roman Catholic, see details|
|2||Joseph Goebbels||1945||initially Roman Catholic|
|3||Lutz Graf Schwerin von Krosigk||1945||Lutheran|
West Germany and reunified GermanyEdit
|1||Konrad Adenauer||1949–1963||Roman Catholic|
|3||Kurt Georg Kiesinger||1966–1969||Roman Catholic|
|N/A||Walter Scheel||1974, acting||Lutheran|
|6||Helmut Kohl||1982–1998||Roman Catholic|
|initially Roman Catholic||2|
- Scheidemann, Philipp Heinrich
- Federal Archives, files of the Reich chancellery, Friedrich Ebert's death
- See parliamentary handbooks downloadable here
- See "Gemeinde Glienicke/Nordbahn: Schon fast in Vergessenheit geraten"