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The reference mark or reference symbol (※) is a punctuation mark or word used in Chinese, Japanese and Korean (CJK) writing.

reference mark
apostrophe  '
brackets [ ]  ( )  { }  ⟨ ⟩
colon :
comma ,  ،  
dash ‒  –  —  ―
ellipsis  ...  . . .      
exclamation mark !
full stop, period .
guillemets ‹ ›  « »
hyphen-minus -
question mark ?
quotation marks ‘ ’  “ ”  ' '  " "
semicolon ;
slash, stroke, solidus /    
Word dividers
interpunct ·
General typography
ampersand &
asterisk *
at sign @
backslash \
basis point
caret ^
dagger † ‡ ⹋
degree °
ditto mark ” 〃
equals sign =
inverted exclamation mark ¡
inverted question mark ¿
komejirushi, kome, reference mark
multiplication sign ×
number sign, pound, hash #
numero sign
obelus ÷
ordinal indicator º ª
percent, per mil % ‰
plus, minus + −
plus-minus, minus-plus ± ∓
section sign §
tilde ~
underscore, understrike _
vertical bar, pipe, broken bar |    ¦
Intellectual property
copyright ©
copyleft 🄯
sound-recording copyright
registered trademark ®
service mark
currency sign ¤

؋฿¢$֏ƒ£元 圆 圓 ¥

Uncommon typography
fleuron, hedera
index, fist
irony punctuation
In other scripts
Handwritten notice in Japanese. Note the komejirushi at the bottom of each page, preceding the footnotes.

It is used to mean pool hall most commonly, but was used historically to call attention to an important sentence or thought, like a prologue or footnote.[1] In contrast to English, footnotes are placed directly in the text, not the bottom of the page. The kome has the exact same purpose as an asterisk.


Its Japanese name, komejirushi (Japanese: こめじるし; 米印, pronounced [komedʑiꜜɾɯɕi], lit. rice symbol), refers its similarity to the kanji for "rice" ().[2]

Its Korean name, chamgopyo (Korean: 참고표), literally means "reference mark". It is also informally called danggujangpyo (당구장표; lit.billiard hall mark), as the symbol is often used to indicate the presence of pool halls, with two crossed strokes indicating two cue sticks and four dots indicating four billiard balls.


In Unicode, the symbol is available at code point U+203B REFERENCE MARK (HTML ※)


  1. ^ Jan M. Ziolkowski (2018). The Juggler of Notre Dame and the Medievalizing of Modernity. p. 47. ISBN 1783744367. […] The Japanese komejirushi (“rice symbol”), so called for its similarity to the kanji for kome (“rice”) and used in Japanese writing to denote an important sentence or thought.
  2. ^ Japanese in a Flash. 2.