The red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus), or crested bulbul, is a passerine bird found in Asia. It is a member of the bulbul family. It is a resident frugivore found mainly in tropical Asia. It has been introduced in many tropical areas of the world where populations have established themselves. It feeds on fruits and small insects. Red-whiskered bulbuls perch conspicuously on trees and have a loud three or four note call. They are very common in hill forests and urban gardens within their range.
|P. j. pyrrhotis (Nepal)|
Taxonomy and systematicsEdit
The red-whiskered bulbul was originally described with the shrikes within the genus Lanius in 1758 by Carl Linnaeus in his Systema Naturae. Hybrids have been noted in captivity with the red-vented, white-eared, white-spectacled, black-capped and Himalayan bulbuls. Leucism has also been recorded.
- P. j. fuscicaudatus - (Gould, 1866): Originally described as a separate species. Found in western and central India. Has a nearly complete breast band and no white tip to tail.
- P. j. abuensis - (Whistler, 1931): Found in north-western India (type locality Mount Abu) Is pale and has a broken breast band and no white tip to tail.
- P. j. pyrrhotis - (Bonaparte, 1850): Originally described as a separate species in the genus Ixos. Found in the Terai of northern India and Nepal. It is pale above with white tail tips and a widely separated breast band
- P. j. emeria - (Linnaeus, 1758): Originally described as a separate species in the genus Motacilla. Found from eastern India to south-western Thailand. Is warm brown above with a slim bill and a long crest (also introduced into Florida)
- P. j. whistleri - Deignan, 1948: Found in the Andaman Islands and has a warm brown plumage above, a heavier bill and a shorter crest than P. j. emeria
- Chinese red-whiskered bulbul (P. j. monticola) - (Horsfield, 1840): Originally described as a separate species in the genus Ixos. Found from eastern Himalayas to northern Myanmar and southern China and has darker upperparts than P. j. pyrrhotis
- P. j. jocosus - (Linnaeus, 1758): Found in south-eastern China
- P. j. hainanensis - (Hachisuka, 1939): Found on Hainan Island (off south-eastern China)
- P. j. pattani - Deignan, 1948: Found from southern Myanmar and northern Malay Peninsula through Thailand and southern Indochina
The red-whiskered bulbul is about 20 centimetres (7.9 in) in length. It has brown upper-parts and whitish underparts with buff flanks and a dark spur running onto the breast at shoulder level. It has a tall pointed black crest, red face patch and thin black moustachial line. The tail is long and brown with white terminal feather tips, but the vent area is red. Juveniles lack the red patch behind the eye, and the vent area is rufous-orange.
The loud and evocative call is a sharp kink-a-joo (also transcribed as pettigrew or kick-pettigrew or pleased to meet you) and the song is a scolding chatter. They are more often heard than seen, but will often perch conspicuously especially in the mornings when they call from the tops of trees. The life span is about 11 years.
Distribution and habitatEdit
This is a bird of lightly wooded areas, more open country with bushes and shrubs, and farmland. Irruptions have been noted from early times with Thomas C. Jerdon noting that they were "periodically visiting Madras and other wooded towns in large flocks."
It has established itself in Australia and in Los Angeles, Hawaii, and Florida in the United States, as well as in Mauritius, on Assumption Island and Mascarene Islands. In Florida, it is only found in a small area, and its population could be extirpated easily. It was eradicated from Assumption Island in 2013–2015 to prevent colonisation of nearby Aldabra, the largest introduced bird-free tropical island.
The red-whiskered bulbul was introduced by the Zoological and Acclimatization Society in 1880 to Sydney, became well established across the suburbs by 1920, and continued to spread slowly to around 100 km away. It is now also found in suburban Melbourne and Adelaide, although it is unclear how they got there.
Behaviour and ecologyEdit
On the island of Réunion, this species established itself and also aided the spread of alien plant species such as Rubus alceifolius. In Florida they feed on fruits and berries of as many as 24 exotic plants including loquat (Eriobotrya japonica), Lantana spp., Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) and figs (Ficus). In Mauritius they aid the dispersal of Ligustrum robustum and Clidemia hirta. Seeds that pass through their gut germinate better. Populations of the red-whiskered bulbul on the island of Reunion have diversified in the course of thirty years and show visible variations in bill morphology according to the food resources that they have adapted to utilize.
The breeding season is spread out and peaks from December to May in southern India and March to October in northern India. Breeding may occur once or twice a year. The courtship display of the male involves head bowing, spreading the tail and drooping wings. The nest is cup-shaped, and is built on bushes, thatched walls or small trees. It is woven of fine twigs, roots, and grasses, and embellished with large objects such as bark strips, paper, or plastic bags. Clutches typically contain two to three eggs. Adults (possibly the female) may feign injury to distract potential predators away from the nest. The eggs have a pale mauve ground colour with speckles becoming blotches towards the broad end. Eggs measure 21 mm and are 16 mm wide. Eggs take 12 days to hatch. Both parents take part in raising the young. Young birds are fed on caterpillars and insects which are replaced by fruits and berries as they mature. The chicks are psilopaedic (having down only in the pterylae). Eggs and chicks may be preyed on by the greater coucal and crows.
Food and feedingEdit
Several avian malaria parasites have been described from the species.
Relationship with humansEdit
This species was once a popular cage bird in parts of India. C. W. Smith noted that
- These birds are in great request among the natives, being of a fearless disposition, and easily reclaimed. They are taught to sit on the hand, and numbers may thus be seen in any Indian bazaar.
The species continues to be a popular cagebird in parts of Southeast Asia.
- BirdLife International (2017). "Pycnonotus jocosus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T22712634A119273079. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-3.RLTS.T22712634A119273079.en.
- McCarthy, Eugene M. (2006). Handbook of Avian Hybrids of the World. Oxford University Press. pp. 257–258. ISBN 0-19-518323-1.
- Law, S. C. (1921). "An albinoid Otocompsa emeria". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 28 (1): 281–282.
- "Bulbuls « IOC World Bird List". www.worldbirdnames.org. Retrieved 2017-03-12.
- Whistler, H. (1931). "Description of new races". Bull. Brit. Orn. Club. 52: 40–41.
- Carleton, Alison Rand & Owre, Oscar T (1975). "The Red-whiskered Bulbul in Florida:1960–71" (PDF). Auk. 92 (1): 40–57. doi:10.2307/4084416.
- Ali, S. & Ripley, S. D. (1996). Handbook of the birds of India and Pakistan. 6 (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. pp. 75–80.
- Brown, C. Emerson (1928). "Longevity of birds in captivity" (PDF). The Auk. 45 (3): 345–348. doi:10.2307/4076026.
- Jerdon, TC (1863). The Birds of India. Volume 2, part 1. Military Orphan Press, Calcutta. pp. 92–93.
- Van Riper, Charles, III; Van Riper, Sandra G.; Berger, Andrew J. (1979). "The Red-Whiskered Bulbul in Hawaii" (PDF). The Wilson Bulletin. 91 (2): 323–328.
- Rand, Alison C. (1980). Factors responsible for the successful establishment of exotic avian species in southeastern Florida in Proceedings of the 9th Vertebrate Pest Conference. University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
- Prys-Jones, RP; MS Prys-Jones & JC Lawley (1981). "The birds of Assumption Island, Indian Ocean: Past and future" (PDF). Atoll Research Bulletin. 248. doi:10.5479/si.00775630.248.1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 September 2006.
- Philippe, Clergeau; Mandon-Dalger, Isabella (2001). "Fast Colonization of an Introduced Bird: the Case of Pycnonotus jocosus on the Mascarene Islands". Biotropica. 33 (3): 542–546. doi:10.1111/j.1744-7429.2001.tb00210.x.
- Rand, Alison C. (1980). Factors responsible for the successful establishment of exotic avian species in southeastern Florida in Proceedings of the 9th Vertebrate Pest Conference (1980). University of Nebraska, Lincoln.
- Rising, James D. (2001). "Bulbuls". In Elphick, Chris; Dunning, John B. Jr.; Sibley, David Allen (eds.). The Sibley Guide to Bird Life and Behavior. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. pp. 448–449. ISBN 978-1-4000-4386-6.
- "Eradication success – Seychelles wins war against invasive red-whiskered bulbul".
- Long, John L. (1981). Introduced Birds of the World: The worldwide history, distribution and influence of birds introduced to new environments. Terrey Hills, Sydney: Reed. p. 298. ISBN 0-589-50260-3.
- Daniel Simberloff & Betsy Von Holle (1999). "Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: invasional meltdown?" (PDF). Biological Invasions. 1: 21–32. doi:10.1023/A:1010086329619.
- Linnebjerg, JF; DM Hansen; JM Olesen (2009). "Gut passage effect of the introduced red-whiskered bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus) on germination of invasive plant species in Mauritius" (PDF). Austral Ecology. 34 (3): 272–277. doi:10.1111/j.1442-9993.2008.01928.x.[permanent dead link]
- Amiot, Christophe; Lorvelec, Olivier; Mandon-Dalger, Isabelle; Sardella, Antonia; Lequilliec, Patricia; Clergeau, Philippe (2007). "Rapid morphological divergence of introduced Red-whiskered Bulbuls Pycnonotus jocosus in contrasting environments". Ibis. 149 (3): 482–489. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X.2007.00671.x.
- Rasmussen, PC & Anderton, JC (2005). Birds of South Asia: The Ripley Guide. Smithsonian Institution and Lynx Edicions.
- Begbie, Arundel (1908). "Note on the habits of the Bengal Red-whiskered Bulbul Otocompsa emeria". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 18 (3): 680.
- Aitken, E.H. (1901). "Artifices practised by bulbuls". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 14: 162–163.
- Herklots GAC (1934). "The Birds of Hong Kong. Part XIV. The Bulbuls" (PDF). Hong Kong Naturalist. 5 (1): 1–5.
- Sotthibandhu, S. (2003). "Territorial defense of the red-whiskered bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus (Pycnonotidae), in a semi-wild habitat of the bird farm" (PDF). Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol. 25 (5): 553–563.
- De, G (1976). "Communal roosting of Redwhiskered Bulbuls". Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 16 (4): 11–12.
- Neelakantan, K. K. (1976). "Communal roosting in the Redwhiskered Bulbul". Newsletter for Birdwatchers. 16 (2): 4–5.
- Raj, PJ Sanjeeva (1963). "Additions to the list of birds eating the fruit of Yellow Oleander (Thevetia neriifolia )". J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 60 (2): 457–458.
- Peirce, M. A. (1984). "Haematozoa of Zambian birds IX. Redescription of Haemoproteus otocompsae, a parasite of Pycnonotidae". Journal of Natural History. 18 (6): 965. doi:10.1080/00222938400770841.
- Pearson, J. T. (1841). "Catalogue of the Birds in the Museum of the Asiatic Society". Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. 10 (116): 628–660.
- Deignan, H.G. (1948). The races of the Red-whiskered Bulbul, Pycnonotus jocosus (Linnaeus). J. Washington Acad. Sci. 38(8): 279–281.
- Fraser, F.C. (1930). Note on the nesting habits of the Southern Red-whiskered Bulbul (Otocompsa emeria fuscicaudata). J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 34(1): 250–252.
- Michael, Bindhu; Amrithraj, M.; Pillai, K. Madhavan (1997). "A note on Isospora infection in a Southern Redwhiskered Bulbul (Pycnonotus jocosus fuscicaudatus)". Zoos' Print Journal. 12 (12): 5.
- Kinloch, A. P. (1922). "Nidification of the Southern Redwhiskered Bulbul Otocompsa emeria fuscicaudata". Journal of the Bombay Natural History Society. 28 (2): 545.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pycnonotus jocosus.|