Open main menu

Recognition of same-sex unions in the Americas

Recognition of same-sex unions is widespread in the Americas, with a majority of people in both North America and South America living in jurisdictions providing marriage rights to LGBT citizens. In North America, same-sex marriage is recognized by Canada, the United States,[nb 1] 18 Mexican states and Mexico City. Elsewhere in Mexico, same-sex marriages are recognized by all states, and same-sex couples may get married in any jurisdiction by obtaining a court injunction ("amparo"). A limited form of domestic partnership is recognized in Costa Rica, pending full recognition of same-sex marriage by 26 May 2020, as ordered by the Constitutional Court.

Same-sex marriages are also performed in the Dutch territories of Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, the Danish autonomous territory of Greenland, the British territory of Bermuda, and in all French overseas departments (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Saint Barthélemy, Saint Martin and Saint Pierre and Miquelon). Furthermore, Aruba, Curaçao and Sint Maarten recognize same-sex marriages performed in the Netherlands, and Aruba also recognizes domestic partnerships. The high court in the British territory of the Cayman Islands ruled in favor of allowing same-sex marriage, but the ruling has been stayed pending appeal.

In South America, same-sex marriage is currently legal in Argentina, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador and Uruguay and is also legal in the jurisdictions of French Guiana, the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, and civil unions are performed in Chile.

On 8 January 2018, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights (IACHR) ruled that the American Convention on Human Rights mandates and requires the legalisation of same-sex marriage. The landmark ruling was fully binding on Costa Rica and set binding precedent in the other signatory countries. The Court recommended that governments issue temporary decrees legalising same-sex marriage until new legislation is brought in. The ruling applies to Barbados, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Suriname.

MapsEdit

Current situationEdit

National levelEdit

Status Country Legal since Country population
(Last count, 2015 est.)
Marriage
(7 countries)
  Argentina 2010[2] 43,590,400
  Brazil 2013[3] 205,574,000
  Canada 2005[4] 35,819,000
  Colombia 2016[5] 48,509,200
  Ecuador 2019[6] 16,278,844
  United States 2015[7][8] 321,234,000
  Uruguay 2013[9] 3,480,222
Subtotal 674,485,666
(69% of the American population)
Marriage recognized nationwide;

legal in some jurisdictions; allowed by injunction in others
(1 country)
† Country subject to IACHR ruling on same-sex marriage

  Mexico 2010[10] 121,006,000
Subtotal 121,006,000
(12.35% of the American population)
Other type of partnership
(1 countries)
† Country subject to IACHR ruling on same-sex marriage
  Chile 2015[11] 18,191,900
Subtotal 18,191,900
(1.75% of the American population)
Unregistered cohabitation
(1 country)
† Country subject to IACHR ruling on same-sex marriage
  Costa Rica 2013[12][13] 4,851,000
Subtotal 4,851,000
(0.49% of the American population)
Total 818,535,566
(83.65% of the American population)
No recognition
(20 countries)
† Country subject to IACHR ruling on same-sex marriage
Homosexuality is legal
  Bahamas 379,000
  Belize 369,000
  Cuba[14] 11,252,000
  El Salvador 6,460,000
  Guatemala 16,176,000
  Haiti 10,994,000
  Nicaragua 6,514,000
  Panama 3,764,000
  Peru 31,488,700
  Suriname 534,189
  Trinidad and Tobago 1,357,000
  Venezuela 31,648,930
Homosexuality is illegal but legislation is not enforced
  Barbados 283,000
  Saint Kitts and Nevis 46,000
Homosexuality is illegal
  Antigua and Barbuda 89,000
  Dominica 71,000
  Grenada 104,000
  Guyana 746,900
  Saint Lucia 172,000
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 110,000
Subtotal 122,558,719
(12.34% of the American population)
Constitutional ban on marriage
(5 countries)
** Homosexuality is illegal
† Country subject to IACHR ruling on same-sex marriage
  Bolivia 2009[15] 10,985,059
  Dominican Republic 2010[16] 9,980,000
  Honduras 2005[17][18] 8,950,000
  Jamaica** 1962[19] 2,729,000
  Paraguay 1992[20] 6,854,536
Subtotal 39,498,595
(3.98% of the American population)
Total 162,057,314
(16.35% of the American population)

Sub-national levelEdit

Status Country Jurisdiction Legal since
Marriage
(78 jurisdictions)
  Denmark 2016
  France 2013
  Mexico Varies
  Netherlands 2012
  United Kingdom Varies
  United States 2015
Varies
Other type of partnership
(2 jurisdictions)
  Mexico 2017
  Netherlands 2016
Marriage recognized,
but not performed
(3 jurisdictions)
  Netherlands 2007
No recognition
(2 jurisdictions)
  United Kingdom
Constitutional ban on same-sex marriage
(3 jurisdictions)
  United Kingdom Varies

2018 Inter-American Court of Human Rights rulingEdit

On 9 January 2018, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued an advisory opinion that states party to the American Convention on Human Rights must grant same-sex couples accession to all existing domestic legal systems of family registration, including marriage, along with all rights that derive from marriage. The opinion was issued after the Government of Costa Rica sought clarification of its obligations to LGBT people under the convention.[88] The opinion sets precedent for all 23 member states, 19 of which did not recognize same-sex marriage at the time of the ruling: Barbados, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Grenada, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru and Suriname. Of these, all but Dominica, Grenada and Jamaica recognize the jurisdiction of the Court.[89] However, states must each individually apply the ruling before it takes effect.

Future legislationEdit

MarriageEdit

Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majorityEdit

  Chile: In April 2015, the Chilean Government signed a friendly agreement with the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights, wherein it pledged to legalize same-sex marriage. On 1 July 2016, the Government announced that it would begin consultations on a same-sex marriage bill in September 2016, with the aim of finalising it by mid-2017.[90] On 28 August 2017, President Bachelet sent a same-sex marriage bill to Congress, including full adoption rights.[91] On 17 December 2017, Sebastián Piñera was re-elected president,[92] and stated that he will respect the April 2015 agreement with the Inter-American Commission of Human Rights, saying that "Chile's international commitments will be fulfilled".[93] Following the January 2018 Inter-American Court of Human Rights ruling, which requires countries signatory to the American Convention on Human Rights to legalise same-sex marriage, LGBT advocacy group MOVILH urged Piñera to implement and abide by the decision.[94] In early March 2018, a spokesperson for the Piñera Administration announced that passing the same-sex marriage bill will not be a priority, but that the Piñera Government will not veto or oppose it.[93][95]

  Costa Rica: On March 19, 2015, a bill to legalize same-sex marriage was introduced to the Legislative Assembly by Deputy Ligia Elena Fallas Rodríguez from the Broad Front.[96] On December 10, 2015, the organization Front for Equal Rights (Frente Por los Derechos Igualitarios) and a group of deputies from the Citizens' Action Party, the National Liberation Party and the Broad Front presented another bill.[97][98][99] On 9 January 2018, the Inter-American Court of Human Rights issued an advisory opinion that Costa Rica was obligated to legalize same-sex marriage. The Costa Rican Government announced that it will abide by the resolution.[100][101] The Foreign Ministry notified the Judiciary, the Supreme Electoral Court (responsible for the Civil Registry) and the Legislative Assembly about the ruling on 12 January.[102][103] On 8 August 2018 a Supreme Court ruling gave deputies 18 months to approve same-sex marriage, otherwise it will become legal without the need for new legislation.[104]

  Cuba: The National Assembly and Mariela Castro have stated that same-sex marriage will be legalised through a change to the Family Code, expected after the constitutional referendum in February 2019.[105] President Miguel Díaz-Canel announced his support for same-sex marriage in September 2018.[106]

  Mexico: A decision of the Mexico Supreme Court on 12 June 2015 ruled that state bans on same-sex marriage were unconstitutional. The court's ruling is a "jurisprudential thesis" and does not invalidate any state laws, meaning same-sex couples denied the right to wed would still have to seek individual injunctions (Spanish: amparo). The ruling standardized the procedures for judges and courts throughout Mexico to approve all applications for same-sex marriage,[107][108] and made the approval mandatory.[109] The ruling was published in the country's Judicial Gazette on 19 June 2015 and became binding on 22 June 2015.[110] Some have suggested the ruling "effectively legalises" same-sex marriage in Mexico,[111][112] though without legislative change, civil registrars are still bound to follow state laws.[113][114][115] Following the 2018 general elections, a pro-same-sex marriage party, the National Regeneration Movement (MORENA), won the majority of legislative seats in 12 states where same-sex marriage has not yet been legalized and formed a coalition with an absolute majority in both the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate with the Labor Party.[116][117] In September 2018, PRD Senator Juan Zapeda Hernández introduced a draft proposal to legalize same-sex marriage nationwide in Mexico.[118]

  Panama: On 16 January, the Panamanian Government welcomed the ruling by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights that signatories to the American Convention on Human Rights were required to allow same-sex marriages. Vice President Isabel Saint Malo, speaking on behalf of the Government, announced that the country would fully abide by the ruling. Official notices, requiring compliance with the ruling, were sent out to various governmental departments that same day.[119][120]

  Venezuela: On 31 January 2014, during a debate on a Civil Code reform bill, LGBT activists submitted a proposal seeking to alter Article 44 of the Civil Code to legalize same-sex marriage. The proposal was accompanied by 21,000 signatures as well as support from the state governments of Barinas, Falcón, Mérida, Monagas, Táchira, Yaracuy and Zulia.[121] In November 2017, President Nicolás Maduro expressed his personal support for same-sex marriage, and said that the Constituent Assembly would agree to discuss legalising same-sex marriage.[122][123] In September 2018, Hermann Escarrá, a member of the Constituent Assembly, said that there are discussions in the drafting of the new Constitution of Venezuela to allow same-sex marriage in the country,[124] and that there is majority support in the Assembly.[125] Discussion on the new Constitution was expected to begin at the end of 2018 or early 2019, though was postponed due to the presidential crisis.[126][127]

Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majorityEdit

  Peru: On 14 February 2017, a bill legalizing same-sex marriage was introduced in the Peruvian Congress, sponsored by a group of legislators from the Broad Front and Peruvians for Change.[128] The proposal seeks to alter Article 234 of the Civil Code to define marriage as "the union voluntarily agreed upon by two persons legally able to do so".[129]

Non-marital partnershipEdit

Opposition proposals or proposals without a parliamentary majorityEdit

  Guatemala: In December 2016, Congresswoman Sandra Morán of the Convergence Party announced the introduction of a civil union bill to the Congress of Guatemala.[130]

  Peru: On 30 November 2016, a pair of representatives introduced a civil union bill in the Peruvian Congress.[131]

Ban on same-sex marriageEdit

Government proposals or proposals with a parliamentary majorityEdit

  Guatemala: In 2017, a bill was introduced to Congress, containing measures to ban same-sex marriage. It passed its committee stage and received its first debate in Congress on 22 August 2018.[132] The law may be vulnerable to a constitutional challenge, as the Guatemalan Constitution places international human rights treaties, including rulings by the IACHR, above domestic law.[133]

  Haiti: In August 2017, the Haitian Senate approved a bill that would ban same-sex marriage and criminalize anyone who entered or facilitated a same-sex marriage.[134] It must be passed by the Chamber of Deputies and signed by the President before it becomes law, but as of 2019, the measure has progressed no further through the legislative process.[135]

Public opinionEdit

  Indicates the country/territory has legalized same-sex marriage nationwide
  Indicates that same-sex marriage is legal in certain parts of the country
  Indicates that the country has civil unions or registered partnerships
  Indicates that same-sex sexual activity is illegal
Opinion polls for same-sex marriage by country
Country Pollster Year For Against Neutral[a] Margin
of error
Source
  Antigua and Barbuda AmericasBarometer 2017 12% - - [136]
  Argentina AmericasBarometer 2017 65% - - [136]
  Bahamas AmericasBarometer 2014 11% - - [137]
  Belize AmericasBarometer 2014 8% - - [137]
  Bolivia AmericasBarometer 2017 35% - - [136]
  Brazil AmericasBarometer 2017 52% - - [136]
  Canada CROP 2017 74% 26% - [138]
  Chile Plaza Pública-Cadem 2019 66% - - [139]
  Colombia Gallup 2019 41% 54% [140]
  Costa Rica AmericasBarometer 2017 35% - - [136]
  Dominica AmericasBarometer 2017 10% - - [136]
  Dominican Republic CDN 37 2018 45% 55% - [141]
  Ecuador AmericasBarometer 2017 33% - - [136]
  El Salvador AmericasBarometer 2017 19% - - [136]
  Grenada AmericasBarometer 2017 12% - - [136]
  Guatemala AmericasBarometer 2017 23% - - [136]
  Guyana AmericasBarometer 2017 21% - - [137]
  Haiti AmericasBarometer 2017 5% - - [136]
  Honduras CID Gallup 2018 17% 75% 8% [142]
  Jamaica AmericasBarometer 2017 16% - - [136]
  Mexico AmericasBarometer 2017 51% - - [136]
  Nicaragua AmericasBarometer 2017 25% - - [136]
  Panama AmericasBarometer 2017 22% - - [136]
  Paraguay AmericasBarometer 2017 26% - - [136]
  Peru Ipsos 2019 29% 67% 4% [143]
  Saint Kitts and Nevis AmericasBarometer 2017 9% - - [136]
  Saint Lucia AmericasBarometer 2017 11% - - [136]
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines AmericasBarometer 2017 4% - - [136]
  Suriname AmericasBarometer 2014 18% - - [137]
  Trinidad and Tobago AmericasBarometer 2014 16% - - [137]
  United States General Social Survey 2019 68% 22% 10% [144]
  Uruguay AmericasBarometer 2017 75% - - [136]
  Venezuela AmericasBarometer 2017 39% - - [136]
Opinion polls for same-sex marriage by dependent territory and sub-national entities
Country Pollster Year For Against Neutral[a] Margin
of error
Source
  Aguascalientes INEGI 2017 - 35.9% - [145]
  Baja California INEGI 2017 - 30.7% - [145]
  Baja California Sur INEGI 2017 - 42.1% - [145]
  Bermuda Global Research 2015 48% 45% 7% [146]
  Campeche INEGI 2017 - 56.1% - [145]
  Chiapas INEGI 2017 - 58.7% - [145]
  Chihuahua INEGI 2017 - 36.4% - [145]
  Coahuila INEGI 2017 - 46.8% - [145]
  Colima INEGI 2017 - 39.2% - [145]
  Durango INEGI 2017 - 38.8% - [145]
  Guanajuato INEGI 2017 - 38.7% - [145]
  Guerrero INEGI 2017 - 54% - [145]
  Hidalgo INEGI 2017 - 41.7% - [145]
  Jalisco INEGI 2017 - 34.2% - [145]
  Mexico City INEGI 2017 - 28.6% - [145]
  Michoacán INEGI 2017 - 46% - [145]
  Morelos INEGI 2017 - 38.5% - [145]
  Nayarit INEGI 2017 - 38.8% - [145]
  Nuevo León INEGI 2017 - 44.4% - [145]
  Oaxaca INEGI 2017 - 52.2% - [145]
  Puebla INEGI 2017 - 37.1% - [145]
  Puerto Rico Pew Research Center 2014 33% 55% 12% [147]
  Querétaro INEGI 2017 - 32.4% - [145]
  Quintana Roo INEGI 2017 - 37.9% - [145]
  San Luis Potosí INEGI 2017 - 38.6% - [145]
  Sinaloa INEGI 2017 - 37.7% - [145]
  Sonora INEGI 2017 - 31.4% - [145]
  State of Mexico INEGI 2017 - 33.8% - [145]
  Tabasco INEGI 2017 - 56.5% - [145]
  Tamaulipas INEGI 2017 - 44.4% - [145]
  Tlaxcala INEGI 2017 - 43.9% - [145]
  Veracruz INEGI 2017 - 54.3% - [145]
  Yucatán INEGI 2017 - 43% - [145]
  Zacatecas INEGI 2017 - 37.4% - [145]


Other pollsEdit

  • Argentina: A November 2009 poll conducted in the six biggest cities of Argentina found support for same-sex marriage at 63.3%, opposition was at 23.1%.[148]
  • Brazil: A July 2012 nationwide poll revealed that 50% of Brazilians were in favor of the Supreme Court decision that expanded civil unions to same-sex couples. Those in favor were mostly women, younger people and Catholics.[149] Another poll released in March 2013 showed that 47% of the population was in favor of same-sex marriage, while 57% of Brazilians were in favor of same-sex couples adopting children.[150]
  • Chile: A January 2017 nationwide poll found that 45% of Chileans supported same-sex adoption.[151]
  • Colombia: A poll conducted between December 2009 and January 2010 in Colombia's capital, Bogotá, showed that 63% of the city's population was in favor of legalizing same-sex marriage, while 36% was against it.[152]
  • Peru: In August 2010, a poll revealed 21.3% of Peruvians approved of same-sex marriage, 71.5% were against it. Support in younger people was higher at 31.9%.[153]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Excluding certain Native American tribes. (Same-sex marriage is legal at least in 42 of them)
  1. ^ a b Also comprises: Don't know; No answer; Other; Refused.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Reingreso de Venezuela a la jurisdicción de Corte Interamericana de Derechos Humanos". Exmanen ONU Venezuela (in Spanish). 3 June 2019.
  2. ^ (in Spanish) Ley 26.618
  3. ^ (in Portuguese) DIÁRIO DA JUSTIÇA CONSELHO NACIONAL DE JUSTIÇA Edição nº 89/2013
  4. ^ "Canada passes bill to legalize gay marriage". The New York Times. June 29, 2005. Retrieved November 3, 2013.
  5. ^ "Histórico: Colombia tiene matrimonio homosexual". El Tiempo. 7 April 2016.
  6. ^ "Decisión de matrimonio igualitario deberá publicarse en Gaceta Constitucional". El Universo (in Spanish). 2019-06-12. Retrieved 2019-06-12.
  7. ^ Wolf, Richard (June 26, 2015). "Supreme Court strikes down bans on same-sex marriage". USA Today. Retrieved June 26, 2015.
  8. ^ Liptak, Adam (26 June 2015). "Gay Marriage Backers Win Supreme Court Victory". nytimes.com. Retrieved 26 June 2015.
  9. ^ (in Spanish) Ley Nº 19.075 MATRIMONIO IGUALITARIO
  10. ^ "Supreme court rules gay weddings valid in all Mexico". BBC News. 10 August 2010.
  11. ^ (in Spanish) Ley número 20.830. - Crea el Acuerdo de Unión Civil
  12. ^ "Costa Rica Accidentally Approves Same-Sex Unions". The Huffington Post. 3 July 2013. Retrieved July 5, 2013.
  13. ^ "Presidenta ya firmó ley que podría legalizar derechos a homosexuales". La Nación. 4 July 2013.
  14. ^ "Cuba Scraps Words Establishing Same-Sex Marriage From Drafted Constitution". NPR.org. Retrieved 2019-06-13.
  15. ^ "Constitución Política del Estado (CPE) (7-Febrero-2009)" (in Spanish). Infoleyes. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
  16. ^ (in Spanish) Constitución Política de la República Dominicana, proclamada el 26 de enero 2010, Publicada en la Gaceta Oficial No. 10561, del 26 de enero de 2010.
  17. ^ (in Spanish) CONSTITUCION POLITICA DE LA REPUBLICA DE HONDURAS DE 1982
  18. ^ "Honduras Bans Gay Marriage & Adoption". Global Gayz. March 30, 2005. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
  19. ^ Constitution of Jamaica
  20. ^ "Paraguay – Constitution". Retrieved 2010-10-15.
  21. ^ "Lov om ændring af myndighedsloven for Grønland, lov om ikrafttræden for Grønland af lov om ægteskabets retsvirkninger, retsplejelov for Grønland og kriminallov for Grønland" (in Danish). Government of Denmark. 4 February 2016. Retrieved 3 April 2016.
  22. ^ a b c d e f Vignal, Francois (April 15, 2013). "Mariage pour tous : le détail du vote au Sénat" (in French). Public Senat. Retrieved October 27, 2013.
  23. ^ "Matrimonio Igualitario una REALIDAD en Baja California. - AlfaMedios". AlfaMedios (in Spanish). Retrieved 2017-11-05.
  24. ^ El Congreso aprueba la Ley de Matrimonios Igualitarios
  25. ^ "Suprema Corte avala el matrimonio igualitario en Chiapas". Excelsior (in Spanish). 2017-07-11. Retrieved 2017-07-11.
  26. ^ "Ante polémica, descarta Congreso legislar matrimonios" (in Spanish). El Diario de Chihuahua. 22 June 2015.
  27. ^ "Mexican state of Coahuila legalizes same-sex marriage". LGBTQ Nation.
  28. ^ "Gay Marriage Law Takes Effect In Mexican State Of Coahuila". ontopmag.com. 2014-09-17. Retrieved 2014-09-18.
  29. ^ (in Spanish) Jalisco: Ordenan a registros no negar trámites a gays
  30. ^ "First same-sex couples married in Puerto Vallarta". Puerto Vallarta Daily News. 20 April 2016.
  31. ^ Castillo, E. Eduardo (December 21, 2009). "Mexico City Approves Gay Marriage". The Huffington Post. Retrieved December 21, 2009.
  32. ^ (in Spanish) Diputados aprueban matrimonios igualitarios en Michoacán
  33. ^ "Periodico Oficial, Organo Del Gobierno Del Estado De Nayarit" (PDF). 22 December 2015.
  34. ^ (in Spanish) Corte invalida artículos que impedían el matrimonio igualitario en Nuevo León
  35. ^ "SCJN aprueba matrimonio igualitario en Puebla" [SCJN approves equal marriage in Puebla] (in Spanish). Puebla City, Mexico: Publimetro. 1 August 2017. Retrieved 1 August 2017.
  36. ^ Vázquez, Jesús (18 July 2012). "Bodas gay generan interés en el sector turismo de Quintana Roo". El Economista (in Spanish). El Economista S.A. de C.V. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  37. ^ a b c "Burgerlijk wetboek BES, boek 1" (in Dutch). overheid.nl. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
  38. ^ Farge, Emma. "Bermuda top court reverses government's gay marriage ban". U.S. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  39. ^ 12 facts about South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands - where you could be the first LGBTI couple to wed. Gay Star News, 26 January 2018
  40. ^ Falkland Islands Same-Sex Marriage Update
  41. ^ Beard Rau, Alia (October 25, 2017). "Court orders Ak-Chin tribe to recognize marriages of same-sex couples". The Arizona Republic. Retrieved October 25, 2017.
  42. ^ (page 3) "Bay Mills News, July 2019" Check |url= value (help). https://www.baymillsnews.com/. Retrieved 29 July 2019. External link in |website= (help)
  43. ^ Federal Judge Rules Against Montana’s Ban On Same-Sex Marriage
  44. ^ "Blue Lake Rancheria Ordinance 13-08" (PDF). Bluelakerancheria-nsn.gov. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  45. ^ "Tribal court to conduct same-sex marriages". Juneau Empire. February 23, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  46. ^ Cherokee Nation attorney general OKs same-sex marriage
  47. ^ "Same-sex Oklahoma couple marries legally under tribal law". KOCO. September 26, 2013. Retrieved October 22, 2013.
  48. ^ "Domestic Relations Code: Article 2: Marriage and Divorce" (PDF). CRIT. August 8, 2019. Retrieved September 19, 2019.
  49. ^ "Title Another tribe recognizes same-sex marriages". dailykos.com. Retrieved 2016-07-27.
  50. ^ Siletz Tribe becomes latest to join marriage equality movement, Indianz.Com, June 4, 2015
  51. ^ "Colvilles recognize same sex marriage".
  52. ^ "Tribal Council approves new marriage ordinance". Confederated Tribes of Grande Ronde. Retrieved 2 November 2015.
  53. ^ Robinson, B.A. (May 5, 2012). "Adoption of SSM by the Coquille Nation of Oregon". Same-sex marriage (SSM) among Native Americans. Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance.
  54. ^ a b "Wind River tribal judge presides over first same-sex marriage". Indianz.Com. November 17, 2014. Retrieved November 18, 2014.
  55. ^ "Nahgahchiwanong Dibahjimowinn, August 2014 (page 5)" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-27.
  56. ^ Legal hurdles cleared, Nevada sees first same-sex marriage
  57. ^ a b c d e Federal Judge Strikes Down Arizona’s Same-Sex Marriage Ban
  58. ^ Minnesota set to legalize same-sex marriage
  59. ^ Same-sex marriage provisions approved by Ho-Chunk Legislature
  60. ^ "Santa Ysabel Tribe First in California to Support Same-Sex Marriage". Indian Country Today Media Network. June 28, 2013. Retrieved June 14, 2014.
  61. ^ "Keweenaw Bay Indian Community backs marriage equality law". Indianz.com. June 10, 2015. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
  62. ^ Supreme Court Rejects Gay Marriage Appeals From 5 States
  63. ^ "8th US Native American tribe allows same-sex couples to wed". Gay Star News.
  64. ^ "Council of Michigan Indian tribe OKs gay marriage". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Associated Press. March 5, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2013.
  65. ^ Mashantucket Pequot Tribal Laws Annotated 2010-2011 Pocket Part
  66. ^ "Ord. No. 16-28" (PDF). eCode360. Retrieved January 30, 2017.
  67. ^ Ernestine Chasing Hawk (3 February 2016). "Traditional elders question same-sex marriage". Native Sun News.
  68. ^ "Oglala Sioux Tribe legalizes same-sex marriage, considering updated hate crime law". Argus Leader.
  69. ^ Ted Miller (28 May 2015). "Oneida Tribe approves same-sex marriage". WBAY.
  70. ^ Native American Osage Nation Votes in Favor of Same-Sex Marriage
  71. ^ POKAGON BAND OF POTAWATOMI INDIANS MARRIAGE CODE
  72. ^ "Title 4 Domestic Relations (page 9)" (PDF). Poncatribe-ne.org. Retrieved March 19, 2019.
  73. ^ Forget Las Vegas. There’s Heronswood.
  74. ^ "PRAIRIE ISLAND MDEWAKANTON DAKOTA COMMUNITY JUDICIAL CODE TITLE 3: DOMESTIC RELATIONS" (PDF). prairieisland.org. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
  75. ^ Nagle, Matt (July 16, 2014). "Puyallup Tribe Recognizes Same-Sex Marriages". Tacoma Weekly. Retrieved July 21, 2014.
  76. ^ "Win Awenen Nisitotung, Vol.36, No.8 (page 5)" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-25.
  77. ^ "CHAPTER 61 STOCKBRIDGE-MUNSEE TRIBAL LAW MARRIAGE" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-07-25.
  78. ^ Gardner, Steven (August 1, 2011). "Suquamish Tribe approves same-sex marriage". Kitsap Sun. Archived from the original on August 2, 2011. Retrieved August 2, 2011.
  79. ^ "Tulalip Tribal Codes". Retrieved 2016-07-28.
  80. ^ Enactment of Ordinance No. 261, Amending the Domestic Relations Code of the White Mountain Apache Tribe
  81. ^ (in Spanish) Periódico Oficial No. 2 Primera Sección, Enero 11 del 2017
  82. ^ (in Dutch) AMENDEMENT van de leden Bikker, Wever-Croes, Herde, Lopez-Tromp
  83. ^ a b c "Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands" (in Dutch). Government of the Netherlands. 10 October 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
  84. ^ "The Cayman Islands Constitution Order 2009" (PDF). Cayman Constitution. Retrieved September 15, 2012.
  85. ^ "The Montserrat Constitution Order 2010". Government of Montserrat. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  86. ^ "Constitution of Montserrat Part I: Fundamental Rights & Freedoms". Government of Montserrat. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  87. ^ "The Turks and Caicos Islands Constitution Order 2011" (PDF). Government of the Turks and Caicos Islands. Retrieved 15 July 2014.
  88. ^ "Landmark ruling recognizes marriage, trans rights in the Americas". Washington Blade: Gay News, Politics, LGBT Rights. 2018-01-09. Retrieved 2018-01-10.
  89. ^ The Inter-American System of Human Rights: A Research Guide
  90. ^ Matrimonio Igualitario: Ejecutivo define cronograma para envío de proyecto
  91. ^ News, ABC. "Chile's Bachelet presents gay marriage bill". ABC News. Retrieved 2017-08-29.
  92. ^ Will Chile Be the First Nation to Win Marriage Equality in 2018?
  93. ^ a b (in Spanish) Movilh achieves commitment to command Sebastián Piñera to respect an equal marriage project
  94. ^ MOVILH: NUEVA RESOLUCIÓN DE LA CIDH OBLIGA A PIÑERA A APROBAR IDENTIDAD DE GÉNERO
  95. ^ New Chilean government says they won’t “prioritise” legalising same-sex marriage, GayTimes, 3 March 2018
  96. ^ (in Spanish) Proyecto de ley N.°19.508
  97. ^ (in Spanish) Proyecto de organizaciones sociales para Matrimonio Igualitario ya está en la Asamblea Legislativa
  98. ^ (in Spanish) 12 Diputados respaldan proyecto de ley para permitir matrimonio gay
  99. ^ (in Spanish) Proyecto de Ley Matrimonio Igualitario by Frente Por los Derechos Igualitarios
  100. ^ "Corte Interamericana de DD. HH: Costa Rica debe garantizar plenos derechos a población LGBTI". Teletica. 9 January 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  101. ^ Ramírez, Luis (9 January 2018). "Implementar matrimonio gay como pide Corte IDH no requiere del Congreso, según gobierno". Amelia Rueda. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  102. ^ "Costa Rica's Foreign Ministry Initiates Notification Process To Execute Court Order On Gay Marriage". Q Costa Rica. 12 January 2018. Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  103. ^ López, Ronny (12 January 2018). "Gobierno ordena a instituciones aplicar criterio de CIDH sobre matrimonio gay". AM Prensa. Retrieved 14 January 2018.
  104. ^ Chinchilla, Sofía (9 August 2018). "Sala IV da 18 meses para que entre en vigencia el matrimonio homosexual". La Nación. Retrieved 9 August 2018.
  105. ^ Lotto Persio, Sofia (19 December 2018). "Cuba gay marriage option dropped from new constitution". PinkNews.
  106. ^ New Cuban president says he supports same-sex marriage
  107. ^ "Mexico supreme court says state laws limiting marriage to man and woman unconstitutional". Minneapolis Star Tribune. 12 June 2015.
  108. ^ "Suprema Corte ampara matrimonio igualitario" (in Spanish). Mexico: Animal Politico. 13 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  109. ^ "SCJN abre la puerta a matrimonio gay en todo el país" (in Spanish). Mexico City, Mexico: La Journada. 12 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  110. ^ México avalará el matrimonio gay a partir del lunes
  111. ^ "Mexico is the latest Latin American country to introduce marriage for same-sex couples". The Independent. 16 June 2015.
  112. ^ "With Little Fanfare, Mexican Supreme Court Legalizes Same-Sex Marriage". New York Times. 16 June 2015.
  113. ^ "Organizaciones civiles demandan a tribunal de Yucatán por obstaculizar el matrimonio homosexual" (in Spanish). Mérida, Mexico: Animo Politico. 14 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  114. ^ "Puebla entre los estados que violan la Constitución por impedir matrimonio entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Puebla, Mexico: Periodico Central. 14 June 2015. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  115. ^ Rodríguez Castro, Óscar (14 June 2014). "Genera división de opiniones aprobación de la SCJN a la legalización de la unión entre personas del mismo sexo" (in Spanish). Mexico: El Diario de Delicias. Retrieved 15 June 2015.
  116. ^ Buscará Morena legislar matrimonio igualitario en Sinaloa
  117. ^ Mexico: President-Elect Lopez Obrador and His Morena Party Secure Congressional Control
  118. ^ "PRD propone garantizar matrimonio homosexual en todo el país". televisa.news (in Spanish). 31 October 2018.
  119. ^ "Panamá acoge a la opinión de Corte IDH sobre matrimonio gay". La Estrella de Panamá. 16 January 2018.
  120. ^ "El Gobierno panameño acoge opinión de la CorteIDH sobre matrimonio homosexual". W Radio. 16 January 2018.
  121. ^ Becker, Sabina (29 January 2014). "Equal marriage: coming soon to Venezuela?". News of the Restless.
  122. ^ (in Spanish) Maduro: "Creo que todo el mundo se puede casar, aunque sea homosexual" shangay.com, 20 November 2017
  123. ^ (in Spanish) ¿Está Maduro a favor de legalizar el matrimonio homosexual y despenalizar el aborto en Venezuela? La Sexta, 20 November 2017
  124. ^ Comunas, milicia y matrimonio gay; posibles en nueva Constitución
  125. ^ Nueva Constitución podría legalizar el matrimonio gay en Venezuela
  126. ^ MATRIMONIO GAY PODRÍA LEGALIZARSE EN VENEZUELA
  127. ^ En el 2019 se podría legalizar el matrimonio gay en Venezuela
  128. ^ Peruvian Lawmakers Introduce Gay Marriage Bill On Valentine's Day
  129. ^ (in Spanish) Se presentó proyecto de ley de Matrimonio Igualitario en el Peru
  130. ^ (in Spanish) Preparan reformas al Código Civil para legalizar unión de personas del mismo sexo
  131. ^ "Presentan nuevo proyecto de ley de unión civil gay en Perú". Retrieved 2016-12-02.
  132. ^ "Iniciativa de Ley (Detalle) « Congreso de Guatemala". www.congreso.gob.gt. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  133. ^ "Por qué la Iniciativa de Ley 5272 no debe ser aprobada - Visibles". Visibles (in Spanish). 2018-08-28. Retrieved 2018-08-29.
  134. ^ "Haitian Senate approves bill to ban same-sex marriage".
  135. ^ "In Haiti, Slight Progress for LGBT Rights Seen as Victory". VOA News. 14 August 2018.
  136. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u "Cultura polítical de la democracia en la República Dominicana y en las Américas, 2016/17" (PDF). Vanderbilt University (in Spanish). 13 November 2017. p. 163.
  137. ^ a b c d e Barómetro de las Américas: Actualidad – 2 de junio de 2015
  138. ^ "I find it great that in our society, two people of the same sex can get married" (PDF). CROP Panorama.
  139. ^ "Encuesta Plaza Pública - Cuarta semana de agosto - Estudio N° 293" (PDF). Plaza Pública-Cadem. pp. 21, 22, 24. Retrieved 26 August 2019.
  140. ^ https://imgcdn.larepublica.co/cms/2019/03/07181304/017100190000-GALLUP-POLL-129.pdf?w=auto
  141. ^ (in Spanish) CDN survey on homosexual marriage in DR receives more than 300 thousand votes
  142. ^ (in Spanish) Más del 70% de los hondureños rechaza el matrimonio homosexual
  143. ^ "LGTB: el 49% de peruanos dice que tiene opinión favorable hacia los homosexuales".
  144. ^ Staff. "Poll: Should Homosexuals Have The Right To Marry?". General Social Survey. Retrieved May 14, 2019.
  145. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af "¿Quién está en contra del matrimonio gay?". El Sol de México (in Spanish). 15 April 2019.
  146. ^ Poll: support for same-sex marriage
  147. ^ "Social Attitudes on Moral Issues in Latin America - Pew Research Center". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. November 13, 2014. Retrieved June 29, 2015.
  148. ^ Most Argentineans Support Same-Sex Marriage
  149. ^ (in Portuguese) Evolução: 50% da população brasileira aprova o casamento gay, diz pesquisa
  150. ^ Quase 60% dos brasileiros são a favor de adoção de crianças por gays
  151. ^ "Encuesta Plaza Pública primera semana de julio Estudio Nº 234" (PDF). Plaza Pública Cadem. July 9, 2018. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 9, 2018.
  152. ^ (in Spanish) Los habitantes de Bogotá aprueban el matrimonio homosexual, según encuesta
  153. ^ (in Spanish) ESTUDIO DE OPINIÓN PÚBLICA A NIVEL PERÚ URBANO - Informe de resultados - (5 al 9 de agosto de 2010)