Open main menu

Wikipedia β

Reactions to Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions

BDS protest in Melbourne, Australia against Israel's Gaza Blockade and attack on humanitarian flotilla in 2010.

Reactions to Boycott, Divestment and Sanctions (BDS) refer to the views of international actors on the BDS movement, which is, according to Elhanan Yakira, Ethan Felson, and Roberta Rosenthal Kwall, a campaign motivated by anti-Zionism and anti-Israel sentiment.[1][2][3] Executive vice chairman of the Conference of Presidents of Major American Jewish Organizations Malcolm Hoenlein called BDS a "'politically correct' form of anti-Semitism."[3]




In 2011, a series of protests were staged at Max Brenner outlets, a franchise of the Israeli food manufacturer Strauss Group, which provides soldiers in the Israeli Defence Forces with care packages.[4][5]

The NSW Greens State Conference prior to the 2011 NSW State Election adopted a resolution in support of BDS.[6] In support of the statement, Senator Lee Rhiannon said it was "motivated by the universal principles of freedom, justice and equal rights"[6] and also "I see the value of that tactic as a way to promoting Palestinian human rights."[7] Following the election, Federal leader Bob Brown said that he had conveyed his disapproval of this policy emphasis to Rhiannon.[8]

In December 2011, the NSW Greens reviewed their support for the BDS campaign against Israel, bringing the branch more closely in line with the federal Greens Party position. However, they did vote to support BDS as a "legitimate political tactic". Rhiannon said that this was not a defeat, but rather, "The resolution recognizes the legitimacy of the BDS as a political tactic."[9][10]


In October 2011, Izzat Abdulhadi, head of the General Delegation of Palestine to Australia said that he is against the "full-scale" BDS campaign, and condemned the occasionally violent protests at the Max Brenner stores in Australia, saying, "BDS is a non-violent process and I don't think it's the right of anybody to use BDS as a violent action or to prevent people from buying from any place."[11]

In New South Wales in 2011, Walt Secord of the Labor Party's NSW Legislative Council, called on the NSW Minister for Police, Michael Gallacher, to "provide assurances for the protection of businesses with Israeli links" after two BDS protesters were arrested outside a Max Brenner store.[12] Also in New South Wales, on 19 April 2011, Marrickville municipal council held a fiery meeting over whether to support the global BDS campaign. Though they struck down the motion, one councillor went on record hoping Israelis and Palestinians could "live in peace in the future without Marrickville Council trying to interfere".[13]

In August 2012, Liberal MP David Southwick said in parliament that Labor MP Martin Foley had links to BDS group through union membership. Foley responded by saying "I seek his withdrawal of these comments where he has sought to associate [me] with this racist, anti-Semitic and anti-Israel boycott movement."[14]

Following the incident, Prime Minister Julia Gillard said that the "campaign does not serve the cause of peace and diplomacy for agreement on a two-state solution between Israel and Palestine", and added that Australia has always had firm opposition to the BDS movement.[15] Others, including former Prime Minister Kevin Rudd, also condemned the protests in a follow-up article by the Australian discussing protests at the University of New South Wales.[16]

Representing the Coalition prior to the 2013 federal election, Liberal Party deputy leader Julie Bishop reaffirmed Gillard's stance by promising to cut off federal grants for individuals and institutions who support the BDS campaign. On 29 May 2013, Jewish Australian academics Andrew Benjamin, Michele Grossman, and David Goodman condemned the Coalition's election promise as "an anti-democratic gesture par excellence".[17]



The most visible face of organizing in support of BDS in Canada is Israeli Apartheid Week, originally started in Toronto in 2005. The United Church of Canada voted to boycott products from Israeli settlements.[18] In March 2014, the University of Windsor Student Alliance is considering plans to implement the results of a referendum vote in which the majority of voters called for the University to boycott companies with ties to Israel.[19][20]

In Québec the political party Québec solidaire, the second largest public sector union Centrale des syndicats du Québec and the feminist organization Fédération des femmes du Québec have all supported the BDS campaign. Amir Khadir has sponsored a petition to the National Assembly of Quebec calling for the suspension of Québec's cooperation accord with Israel.[21]

In 2006, the Canadian Union of Public Employees voted to join the boycott of Israel "until that state recognizes the Palestinian right to self-determination" and "until Israel meets its obligation to recognize the Palestinian people's inalienable right to self-determination and fully complies with the precepts of international law".[22][23][24]

According to the Canadian academics Abigail Bakan and Yasmeen Abu-Laban, the BDS campaign has been important in contesting what they describe as "the hegemonic framing of Israel as a victim state in the face of Palestinian 'terrorism'."[25]


In February 2011, the Québec National Assembly voted against a motion that condemned boycotts of Québec businesses that sell products made in Israel and "reiterates Québec's support for the understanding on co-operation between the government of Québec and the government of the State of Israel, which was signed in Jerusalem in 1997 and renewed in 2007".[26][27]



An Israeli activist group launched in 2009 to support BDS from within Israel. It concentrates on cultural boycott by appealing to international personalities, artists and academics who consider visiting Israel.[28]

The 'Who profits?' project is another Israeli group involved in the BDS campaign that documents and publicizes how profits are made from the Israeli occupation of the Palestinian territories, including documentation of who benefits from the occupation. According to 'Who Profits?', both Israeli and international corporations are involved "in the construction of Israeli colonies and infrastructure in the Occupied Territories, in settlements' economy, in building walls and checkpoints, in the supply of specific equipment used in the control and repression of civilian population under occupation".[28][importance?]


A group of Israeli businessmen have started a sales website called "Shop-a-Fada" in order to promote Israeli products. Tal Brody is the honorary chairman of the initiative and said the purpose is to "fight back against those who think that they'll be able to destroy Israel by waging economic warfare".[29][importance?]

Some Jewish factory managers who employ Palestinian labor have condemned the boycott, claiming a boycott of Israeli products will result in the loss of Palestinian jobs.[30]

The NetherlandsEdit

The lower house of the Dutch Parliament passed a motion on 18 March 2014 undermining the concept of BDS. It came in response to the support of BDS by water company Vitens. Kees van der Staaij of the Reformed Political Party and Joel Voordewind of the ChristianUnion jointly submitted the motion. It calls on the government "to indicate in a visible and convincing way that it encourages relations between Dutch and Israeli businesses and institutions" because "economic cooperation promotes peace, security, stability in the region." It passed by a large majority.[31][32]


Claiming "respect for international law, the positions of the EU and the protection of Romanian citizens", Romania announced in 2012 that it will not allow Romanian labourers to be sent to Israel unless guarantees are provided that they will not be employed in construction projects in the West Bank. Commenting on the refusal to grant this condition for Romanian workers, Israeli MK Michal Rozin stated that "Israelis are being harmed by the government's activity in the territories."[33][34][35]

South AfricaEdit

The University of Johannesburg has issued conflicting stances toward BDS. In 2011, it voted not to renew a joint agreement with Israel's Ben-Gurion University for research in biotechnology and water purification. A campaign before the vote cited BGU's cooperation with the military, occupation and apartheid. The vote did not preclude faculty members from individually choosing to continue in the joint project.[36] However, two days after the vote, Vice Chancellor Ihron Rensburg, a principal of UJ, stated that "UJ is not part of an academic boycott of Israel. ... It has never been UJ's intention to sever all ties with BGU, although it may have been the intention of some UJ staff members."[37]

On 31 August 2012, the Wits University Students' Representative Council (Wits SRC) adopted a declaration of academic and cultural boycott of Israel.[38] Several days later, the Executive Committee of Wits Convocation, representing the alumni and academic staff of the university, distanced itself from the declaration. The South African Union of Jewish Students, sharply criticized the resolution, calling it "a vicious and one-sided resolution aimed at shutting down all debate and discussion surrounding the Israeli–Palestinian conflict".[39]

In March 2013, eleven student BDS supporters at the Wits University were charged by the university after they forced the cancellation of a concert by Israeli pianist Yossi Reshef. They were subsequently sentenced by the university to community service. At a follow up concert held on 28 August 2013, which featured Israeli jazz saxophonist Daniel Zamir, dozens of BDS protesters gathered outside. Due to security measures implemented by the University, the protesters were unable to disrupt the performance, as they were kept from entering the venue.[40] However, concert goers were subject to verbal abuse including the singing of a song that included the lyrics "Dubula iJuda" (Shoot the Jew), at as well as chants of "There is no such thing as Israel" and "Israel apartheid". Some attendees were also pelted with sheets of paper. The actions of the protesters were condemned by University Vice-Chancellor Adam Habib and by the South African Jewish Board of Deputies. Muhammed Desai, coordinator of BDS South Africa later went on to justify the actions.[41][42][43] Several days later, however, BDS released an official statement condemning the chants of "dubula ijuda". Desai was later called on to resign by BDS supporters.[44]

On 8 March 2015, outside a South African Zionist Federation event, BDS supporters staged a protest at which protesters threatened to kill Jews. They chanted antisemitic slogans such as "You think this is Israel, we are going to kill you!" and "You Jews do not belong here in South Africa!"[45] The picketers who were joined by members of the South African Communist Party also included the head of the ruling African National Congress (ANC)'s International Relations, Government Deputy Minister Obed Bapela who accused Israel of oppressing Palestinians.[46] In another March 2015 event in South Africa, a mob of BDS supporters threw rocks, broke equipment, and looted a store that sells products from Israel.[47]



BDS has received a mixed reaction in Spain. In 2016, four Spanish municipalities passed pro-BDS policies, only to later drop the policies once it became apparent that they were inconsistent with Spain's anti-discrimination laws. Also in 2016, pro-BDS motions in five other Spanish municipalities were defeated.[48]

The Rototom Sunsplash and Matisyahu affairEdit

The organizers of the week long Rototom Sunsplash music festival held in Spain from August 15 to 22nd 2015, cancelled the scheduled appearance of Jewish American rapper Matisyahu after he refused to sign a statement supporting a Palestinian state. Matisyahu stated that it was "appalling and offensive" that he was singled out as the "one publicly Jewish-American artist."[49]

El País Spain's highest-circulation daily paper wrote "The decision by the organizers of the Rototom Sunsplash music festival in Benicássim to ban reggae singer Matisyahu from performing this Saturday is a serious case of religious and political discrimination. ... He is the only musician performing at Rototom, which is funded with public money, who has been demanded to make such a statement, and to make matters worse, he has been asked to do so solely on the grounds that he is Jewish".[50]

After further criticism from the Spanish government as well as Jewish organisations,[51] the organisers apologised to Matisyahu re-inviting him to perform on Saturday August 22. The organizers stated that "it made a mistake, due to the boycott and the campaign of pressure, coercion and threats employed by the BDS País Valencià."[52]

United KingdomEdit

On 22 April 2005, the Association of University Teachers (AUT) Council voted to boycott two Israeli universities: University of Haifa and Bar-Ilan University (the vote was held on Passover eve, which prevented most Jewish members of the AUT from participating in the process).[53] The motions to AUT Council were prompted by the call for a boycott from Palestinian academics and others.[54] The AUT Council voted to boycott Bar-Ilan because it runs courses at colleges in the occupied West Bank (in Ariel College) and "is thus directly involved with the occupation of Palestinian territories contrary to United Nations resolutions." It boycotted Haifa because it was alleged that the university had wrongly disciplined a lecturer. The action against the lecturer was supposedly for supporting a student who wrote about attacks on Palestinians during the founding of the state of Israel (he withdrew the claims when sued for libel and the University denied having disciplined the lecturer[55]). The boycott, which was not compulsory, was set to last until Haifa "ceases its victimisation of academic staff and students who seek to research and discuss the history of the founding of the state of Israel"[56][57][58][59] and by Universities UK.

After both internal and external backlash and condemnation, members of the AUT, headed by Open University lecturer Jon Pike – gathered enough signatures to call a special meeting on the subject. The meeting was held on 26 May 2005, at Friends Meeting House in London. At the meeting the AUT decided to cancel the boycott of both Israeli universities. Reasons cited for the decision were the damage to academic freedom, the hampering of dialogue and peace effort between Israelis and Palestinian, and that boycotting Israel alone could not be justified.[60]

At the 2006 annual conference of the United Kingdom lecturers' union, the National Association of Teachers in Further and Higher Education (NATFHE), members were asked to support a motion calling for a boycott of Israeli academics and universities that did not distance themselves from "apartheid policies".[61] Although the motion was passed it ceased to be official policy just two days later when the union merged with the Association of University Teachers.[61]

Prior to the NATFHE debate the Federation of Unions of Palestinian University Professors and Employees and the Palestinian Campaign for the Academic and Cultural Boycott of Israel described the campaign in a letter to the Times Higher Education Supplement as "the only non-violent forms of action available to people of conscience the world over" adding, "We salute those who recognise that, since justice for Palestinians cannot be expected from the international centres of world power, they must organise to further the cause of justice and genuine peace."[62] In contrast, Nobel laureate Steven Weinberg argued:

"it is never a good idea for academics to boycott colleagues in other countries on political grounds. During the Cold War, American and Soviet scientists were careful to keep intellectual communication open; this not only served the cause of science, but promoted personal relationships that led to initiatives in arms control. In a similar spirit, when I ran the Jerusalem Winter School of Theoretical Physics we did what we could to recruit Arab students from Muslim countries whose governments discriminated against Jews. We never dreamt of boycotting them."[62]

BDS supporters protesting in London. The poster reads, "Boycott Israeli Products".
A sign on the front door of a Palestinian house that reads: "I have a clear conscience, do you? This home is free of products produced in Israeli settlements."

In March 2009, large scale student demonstrations were held at several UK Universities to protest Israel's actions in Gaza. At Cardiff University the protests led to the University divesting all investments in BAE Systems, an arms manufacturer that co-operates with Israel.[28] In May 2009, advertisements for tourism in Israel were removed from the London underground network in response to pressure from the Palestinian Solidarity Campaign.[28] In July 2009, Dexia, a Belgian-French financial group, stopped all financial services to Israeli settlements in the West Bank.[28] In 2009, the UK's University and College Union passed a resolution to boycott Israeli academics and academic institutions by a large majority. Delegates stated that Israeli academics were complicit in their government's acts against Palestinians. However, the vote was immediately declared invalid as UCU attorneys repeated previous warnings that such a boycott would likely trigger legal action against the union.[63][64]

In 2013, "a motion calling for blanket sanctions against Israel was rejected by the Oxford University Students' Union."[65] The motion was defeated by a large margin: 69–10.

In July 2014, UK department store John Lewis removed all SodaStream products from all its shelves, amid growing pressure from the public and declining sales. John Lewis' Oxford Street, London, store has been the site of biweekly BDS protests for its sale of SodaStream products. SodaStream operates its primary manufacturing facility in an Israeli settlement in the occupied West Bank. Additionally, after two years of weekly BDS protests, SodaStream closed its Brighton store in July 2014.[66]

In November 2015, Boris Johnson, Mayor of London and Conservative MP, described proponents of a "so-called" boycott of goods and services, as well as other punitive measures such as sanctions or divestment of shares in Israeli companies, as "corduroy jacketed-academics... by and large lefty academics who have no real standing in the matter and are unlikely to be influential on Britain". He subsequently cancelled planned public events in the West Bank because of security fears, with suggestions that the charity that had invited him to the West Bank had withdrawn their invitation, and that Palestinian politicians had also refused to meet him.[67]

United StatesEdit

Activist group Code Pink in Los Angeles, supporting Israeli boycotts, specifically targeting Israeli-owned Ahava, for the company's factory in the occupied Palestinian West Bank.

Noam Chomsky is against the formal BDS movement, but supports certain aspects of boycotting Israel. The prominent activist for Palestinian human rights and 2011 Sydney Peace Prize recipient stated he supports the "boycott and divestment of firms that are carrying out operations in the occupied territories"[68][69] but the current BDS movement's "hypocrisy rises to heaven". He stated that the BDS campaign harms the "whole movement. It harms the Palestinians and it is a gift to the Israeli hardliners and their American supporters", because the BDS's "hypocrisy is so transparent... why not boycott the United States?.. Israeli crimes [are] a fragment of US crimes, which are much worse". He also argued that the Palestinian people don't support boycotting Israel and that the BDS movement is run by "one man NGOs" who falsely claim to represent the Palestinian people.[70] In the same interview, he also criticized BDS founder Omar Barghouti for advocating a full boycott of Israel, despite having studied at Tel Aviv University. Despite his disdain for the formal BDS movement, he was among the academics who lobbied Stephen Hawking to boycott an Israeli conference.[71] In a subsequent letter to Artists for Palestine, Chomsky clarified his position, writing "I’ve been involved in activities to hold Israel accountable for its international law violations since before the BDS movement took shape. While I have some tactical differences with the BDS movement, I strongly support the actions and continue to participate in them".[72]

Norman Finkelstein, a harsh critic of Israel's occupation of Palestinian territory, has also expressed an ambivalent attitude towards BDS. He has supported economic boycott of Israel[73] and said that BDS has the "right tactics", but that it needs to be "explicit on its goal" and that "the goal has to include recognition of Israel, or it won't reach the public". He is hostile towards the BDS movement in its current form, labeling it a "hypocritical, dishonest cult" led by "dishonest gurus" who want to "selectively enforce the law" and try to cleverly pose as human rights activists, whereas their real goal is the destruction of Israel.[74][75] In addition, he said, "I'm getting a little bit exasperated with what I think is a whole lot of nonsense. I'm not going to tolerate silliness, childishness and a lot of leftist posturing. I loathe the disingenuousness. We will never hear the solidarity movement [back a] two-state solution." Furthermore, Finkelstein stated that the BDS movement has had very few successes, and that like a cult, the leaders pretend that they are hugely successful when in reality the general public rejects their extreme views.[76]

In April 2014, the Washington State Court of Appeals upheld a 2012 ruling, affirming the dismissal of a lawsuit against the Olympia Food Co-op for their 2011 decision to boycott Israeli products, mandating the plaintiffs pay $160,000 in statutory damages as well as other legal fees. In a press release, the Center for Constitutional Rights quoted one of the defendants and a Co-op staff member: "We are thrilled to hear that ... our right to freedom of speech has been upheld [..] Boycotts are a longstanding form of non-violent political expression; using the Court system to attempt to silence our right of expression clearly qualifies as a Strategic Lawsuit Against Public Participation."[77][78]

On 4 December, a chapter of US Student-Workers Union at University of California have voted to support BDS campaign and became the first US labor union to join.[79][80]

In the sixth of December 2015 Hillary Clinton The democrat contestant and former secretary of the United States, said in the saban forum "As Secretary of State I called out systemic structural anti-Israel basis at the UN and fought to block the one sided Goldstone report particularly at a time when antisemitism is on the rise across the world especially in Europe. We need to repudiate efforts to malign and undermine Israel and the Jewish people. The boycott, divestment and sanctions movement known as BDS is the latest front in this battle. Demonizing Israeli scientists and intellectuals, even young students, comparing Israel to South African apartheid, now no nation is above criticism. But this is wrong and it should stop immediately. Some proponents of BDS may hope that pressuring Israel may lead to peace. Well that’s wrong too."[81][82][83]

In January 2016 the General Board of Pension and Health Benefits, the United Methodist Church's investment agency, announced that it would no longer invest in Israel's five main banks since they did not meet their standards for sustainable investment.[84] In February 2016, the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church(USA) was lobbied by its Advisory Committee on Social Witness Policy (ACSWP) to lay aside a quest for a two state solution and support BDS.[85][86] This was described as a "one-sided, zero-sum solution", by Presbyterians for Middle East Peace.[87]

Official government responses and legislationEdit

In February 2015, the "U.S.-Israel Trade and Commercial Enhancement Act" was introduced to Congress by Peter Roskam and Juan Vargas. According to its authors, the bill will "leverage ongoing trade negotiations to discourage prospective U.S. trade partners from engaging in economic discrimination against Israel" through the monitoring of pro-BDS activities of foreign companies that trade on American stock exchanges and by prohibiting American courts from "enforcing rulings made by foreign courts against American companies solely for conducting business in Israel." However, the bill does not actually impose penalties for supporting BDS. Roskam justified the bill, which may affect current negotiations for the Transatlantic Free Trade Area, stating that there are "an alarming number of countries within the European Union and beyond have embraced BDS as a form of economic warfare aimed to cripple Israel’s economy and demonize its very existence. These attacks not only threaten Israel but commercial relations across the globe."[88][89][90] Another bill introduced in March 2015, the "Boycott Our Enemies, Not Israel Act," would require that contractors with whom the US government does business to certify that they do not participate in boycotts against Israel.[91]

Illinois became the first state in the US to pass a bill that requires state pension funds to divest from companies that support BDS.[92] According to Eugene Kontorovich, professor at Northwestern University School of Law and the head of the International Law Department at the Kohelet Policy Forum, this law and a similar one in South Carolina do not violate the First Amendment.[93]

On 9 April 2015, the Tennessee General Assembly passed a resolution formally condemning BDS. The resolution passed the upper house by a vote of 30-0 and the lower house by a vote of 93-1. The resolution, the first of its kind to be passed by a state government, declared that BDS is "one of the main vehicles for spreading anti-Semitism and advocating the elimination of the Jewish state" and "undermine[s] the Jewish people’s right to self-determination, which they are fulfilling in the State of Israel." The bill was introduced by State Senator Dolores Gresham and co-sponsored with State Representative Sheila Butt. In an interview, Gresham stated that the resolution is proof that the state legislature "chooses to preserve its values by publicly condemning this blatantly anti-Semitic, anti-Israel bigotry, and send a clear message that Tennessee condemns such views."[94][95] In December 2015, Florida became the fifth state to adopt the Tennessee resolution against BDS.[96][97]

In April 2015, the Indiana General Assembly passed a resolution that "condemns" the BDS movement for "seeking to undermine the Jewish people’s right to self-determination", "activities that contribute directly or indirectly to the denial, violation, or delegitimization of any people’s academic freedom", "agenda inherently antithetical and deeply damaging to the cause of peace, justice, equality, democracy, and human rights" and "promoting a climate of hatred, intimidation, intolerance and violence against Jews".[98][99][100][101] In January 2016, the Indiana House of Representatives passed a bill that defined “'the promotion of activities to boycott, divest from, or sanction Israel' as meeting the standard of 'extraordinary circumstances' necessary under state law to mandate divestment from a company."[102]

In January 2016, the New York State Senate passed a bill that would prohibit New York from doing business with European companies that supported BDS. The threat of legislation has already prompted Erste Group to close an Austrian BDS group's account. Other banks will likely follow suit if the bill passes in the state Assembly.[103]

Academic responseEdit

"In 2007, some 300 university presidents denounced BDS as inimical to the academic spirit"[104] and as of 2012, "[n]o American university has divested from Israel and prominent campus presidents have said they would oppose such efforts."[105] University of Pennsylvania President Amy Gutmann said in January 2012 that the university "has clearly stated on numerous occasions that it does not support sanctions or boycotts against Israel". She said that the school was not a sponsor of a BDS conference taking place on campus in February 2012.[106]

In January 2012, The Forward published an article about Jewish presidents of universities, saying that "many college presidents" see BDS as a "red line" and "presidents who were previously disinclined to speak out against anti-Israel activity on campus in the name of preserving open dialogue found themselves publicly opposing the movement."[107]

As of 2015, student governments at six of the 10 University of California (UC) system schools (Berkeley, Irvine, Riverside, San Diego, Santa Cruz, and UCLA) have passed resolutions calling for their schools to divest themselves of their investments in Israel. The UC Student Association passed resolutions calling for the UC Board of Regents not only to boycott Israel, but also to boycott the United States and several other countries.[108] The Board of Regents stated it will disregard any students' resolutions for divestment.[108][109] In response to this, Herbert London, president of the London Center for Policy Research, wrote University of California President Janet Napolitano, urging her to promote Israel and get personally involved in the debate at UC system schools about divesting themselves of investments in Israel.[110]

Omri Boehm argued in the Los Angeles Review of Books that "a boycott on Israeli academics is an obvious form of a violent political action".[111]

During the mid-2010s, BDS efforts were largely obstructed. International academic conferences continued in Israel and Israeli academics were invited to international academic conferences abroad with BDS having no noticeable effect.[112] Furthermore, according to American studies professor Thomas Doherty of Brandeis University, the highly public reputation-destroying results of BDS adoption in the American Studies Association have deterred other academic organizations from following suit.[113] This, according to William A. Jacobson of Cornell Law, was because those who oppose BDS have "produced fact sheets and other factual information to counter the false narratives and ahistorical arguments of BDS."[114]


  1. ^ Yakira, Elhanan (2013). "Antisemitism and Anti-Zionism as a Moral Question". In Rosenfeld, Alvin H. Resurgent Antisemitism: Global Perspectives. Bloomington, Ind.: Indiana University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-253-00890-9. What explains these anti-Israeli and so-called anti-Zionist campaigns, such as the BDS (or the Boycott, Divestment, Sanctions campaign) ...? 
  2. ^ Felson, Ethan (2013). "National Affairs". In Dashefsky, Arnold; Sheskin, Ira. American Jewish Year Book 2012: The Annual Record of the North American Jewish Communities. Dordrecht: Springer. p. 101. ISBN 978-94-007-5204-7. A well-coordinated 'delegitimization' campaign, replete with anti-Zionist rhetoric and drawing inspiration from anti-apartheid efforts from the 1980s, pursued a strategy of anti-Israel boycotts, divestment, and sanctions (BDS). 
  3. ^ a b Rosenthal Kwall, Roberta. "The Myth of the Cultural Jew: Culture and Law in Jewish Tradition." Google Books. 8 June 2016.
  4. ^ "BDS action against Max Brenner undeterred by counter protest". Green Left Weekly. 27 August 2011. Retrieved 2 January 2016. 
  5. ^ "Strauss Group Ltd. Annual Report, 31 December 2012" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  6. ^ a b "Israel boycotts now official NSW Greens policy". The Australian Jewish News. 9 December 2010. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  7. ^ Kerr, Christian (29 August 2011). "Greens senator Lee Rhiannon stands by Israel boycott". The Australian. Retrieved 30 August 2011. 
  8. ^ Massola, James; Kelly, Joe (1 April 2011). "Greens leader Bob Brown slaps down Lee Rhiannon on Israel boycott policy". The Australian. Retrieved 9 May 2011. 
  9. ^ "Greens NSW Reviews BDS". Greens NSW. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  10. ^ "Local Australian political party drops Israel boycott". Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA). 6 December 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2012. 
  11. ^ Imre Salusinszky (26 October 2011). "Palestinian consul rejects BDS violence". The Australian. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  12. ^ Gareth Narunsky (24 June 2011). "Police called to action on BDS". The Australian Jewish News. Retrieved 13 July 2011. 
  13. ^ Aikman, Amos; Shanahan, Leo (20 April 2011). "Greens forced to back down on Israel boycott". The Australian. 
  14. ^ Ric Willmot. "Martin Foley, Victorian Labor MP scared of Year 12 student". Retrieved 27 October 2013. 
  15. ^ "Julia Gillard Denounces Activists as Anti-Israel Protest Turns Anti-Semitic". The Australian. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  16. ^ Ean Higgins and Christian Kerr (3 May 2013). "Jihad Sheila link to anti-Jewish posts". The Australian. Retrieved 14 May 2013. 
  17. ^ Ean Higgins (29 May 2013). "In a democracy freedom of expression had to allow a capacity for dissent". The Australian. Retrieved 29 May 2013. 
  18. ^ Csillag, Ron (2012-08-19). "United Church of Canada approves boycott of settlement goods | Jewish Telegraphic Agency". Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  19. ^ Boycott of Israel delayed by University of Windsor students, CBC News, 14 March 2014.
  20. ^ Irish student union joins boycott Israel campaign, Press TV, 9 March 2014.
  21. ^ Jerome Klassen; Gregory Albo (2013-01-10). Empire's Ally: Canada and the War in Afghanistan. University of Toronto Press. p. 407. ISBN 978-1-4426-1304-1. 
  22. ^ CUPE joins boycott of Israel, National Post, 26 May 2006.
  23. ^ CUPE in Ontario votes to boycott Israel, CBC News, 27 May 2006.
  24. ^ CUPE Ontario's Resolution 50: Towards peace and justice in the Middle East, CUPE Ontario International Solidarity Committee, Page 2.
  25. ^ Palestinian resistance and international solidarity: the BDS campaign. Abigail B. Bakan and Yasmeen Abu-Laban. Race and Class, vol. 51 no. 1 pp. 29-54, July 2009; doi: 10.1177/0306396809106162.
    "The BDS movement has been framed to expose and challenge a series of corresponding repressive policies. These include the denial of the right of return of Palestinian refugees, militarised violence directed against Palestinian men, women and children, the confiscation of land from Palestinians, the demolition of Palestinian homes and the daily racism invoked by a series of policies directed at Palestinians that encumber their freedom of mobility, access to education and ability to earn a living."
  26. ^ Khadir blocks debate on anti-Israel boycott motion by Janice Arnold, Canadian Jewish News, Staff Reporter, 17 February 2011.
  27. ^ Barbara Kay: Quebec strikes a blow against anti-Israel heels by Barbara Kay, National Post, 4 March 2011.
  28. ^ a b c d e Marcelo Svirsky (28 October 2011). Arab-Jewish activism in Israel-Palestine. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. pp. 121–124. ISBN 978-1-4094-2229-7. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  29. ^ "Site launched to counter boycotts of Israeli goods". The Jerusalem Post. Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA). 15 May 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  30. ^ Elior Levy (20 May 2012). "'Palestinians will lose jobs if boycott persists'". Ynetnews. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  31. ^ Swiss government, Dutch lawmakers denounce boycotts of Israel, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), 21 March 2014.
  32. ^ Dutch MP tells 'Post': Boycotting Israel is wrong by Moshe Arenstein, The Jerusalem Post, 10 January 2014.
  33. ^ Israel-Romania row over settlements building, Al Jazeera, 11 December 2013.
  34. ^ Romania stops sending construction workers to Israel over settlements by Jonathan Lis, Haaretz, 10 December 2013.
  35. ^ Romanian FM expected to address labor disagreement during visit by Herb Keinon, The Jerusalem Post, 22 December 2013.
  36. ^ Ben Hartman (24 March 2011). "University of Johannesburg votes to sever ties with BGU". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  37. ^ Matthew Kalman (25 March 2011). "U. of Johannesburg Official: 'UJ Is Not Part of an Academic Boycott of Israel'". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 9 September 2012. 
  38. ^ Ant Katz (1 September 2012). "Wits students join UJ boycott". My shtet. Retrieved 4 September 2012. 
  39. ^ "South African university distances itself from student boycott of Israel". Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA). 4 September 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  40. ^ Student BDS supporters sentenced for disrupting Israeli pianist, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), 22 January 2014.
  41. ^ Emelia Motsai (29 August 2013). BDS protests Daniel Zamir concert at Wits Wits Vuvuzela. Retrieved 2 January 2014
  42. ^ David Lev. (1 September 2013. South African BDS Protesters: 'Shoot the Jew' Arutz Sheva. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  43. ^ South Africa BDS leader defends call to 'kill the Jew' by Sam Sokol, The Jerusalem Post, 2 September 2013.
  44. ^ BDS distances itself from "shoot the Jew" by Emelia Motsai, Wits Vuvuzela, 3 September 2013.
  45. ^ "South African BDS protesters threaten to kill Jews". Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  46. ^ "At Israel Trade Event in South Africa BDS Supporters Threaten to 'Kill Jews'". Retrieved 13 March 2015. 
  47. ^ Eichner, Itamar. "21 arrested at violent BDS protest in South Africa." Ynetnews. 23 March 2015. 23 March 2015.
  48. ^ "Four Spanish Cities Retract Support for BDS Amid Legal Action by pro-Israel Groups." Haaretz. 8 June 2016. 8 June 2016.
  49. ^ "Matisyahu Kicked Off Festival Over Palestinian Politics". 
  50. ^ "Unacceptable discrimination | In English | EL PAÍS". Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  51. ^ "Spanish Official Condemn Matisyahu Cancellation". Billboard. 2015-08-18. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  52. ^ "A Rototom Sunsplash public institutional declaration regarding Matisyahu". 2015-08-19. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  53. ^ Wistrich, Robert S. A Lethal Obsession: Anti-Semitism from Antiquity to the Global Jihad. New York: Random House, 2010. p. 404
  54. ^ "Palestinian academics call for international academic boycott of Israel". Birzeit University. 7 July 2004. Retrieved 22 May 2005. 
  55. ^ "The University of Haifa Response to the AUT Decision". University of Haifa. 15 May 2008. Retrieved 15 May 2008. 
  56. ^ Curtis, Polly (24 May 2005). "Second Opinion". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 16 May 2008. 
  57. ^ BBC News (22 April 2005). "Academics back Israeli boycotts". Retrieved 31 December 2009. 
  58. ^ "Joint Hebrew university—al-quds university statement on academic cooperation signed in London". Hebrew University. Retrieved 15 May 2008. 
  59. ^ Ewing, Jim (6 April 2005). "NPC Says: Don't take Academia Hostage". National Postgraduate Committee. Retrieved 12 August 2007. 
  60. ^ "Academics vote against Israeli boycott". London: The Guardian. 26 May 2005. Retrieved 22 May 2005. 
  61. ^ a b "Lecturers call for Israel boycott". BBC News. 30 May 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  62. ^ a b Steven Weinberg and Palestinian academics, 'A Nobel laureate and Palestinian academics on Natfhe's proposed boycott of Israel', Times Higher Education Supplement, 26 May 2006, Pg. 16 No. 1744.
  63. ^ "British union votes to boycott Israeli universities, academics". Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA). 1 June 2009. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  64. ^ Jessica Shepherd (27 May 2009). "Lecturers vote to boycott Israeli universities". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  65. ^ "Oxford students reject boycott Israel motion". Jewish Journal 27 February 2013. 27 February 2013.
  66. ^ "BDS bursts SodaStream's U.K. bubble". Haaretz. 3 July 2014. Retrieved 18 July 2014. 
  67. ^ "Boris Johnson cancels West Bank events amid Israeli boycott row". BBC News. 11 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015. 
  68. ^ Harriet Sherwood and Matthew Kalman in Jerusalem. "Stephen Hawking joins academic boycott of Israel | World news". The Guardian. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  69. ^ "Noam Chomsky". The Agenda with Steve Paikin. TVOntario. Retrieved 10 August 2012. 
  70. ^ Noam Chomsky Interviewed by Frank Barat, on Israel/Palestine (4/4). 2010. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  71. ^ Robert Booth and Harriet Sherwood (10 May 2013). "Noam Chomsky helped lobby Stephen Hawking to stage Israel boycott". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 11 May 2013. 
  72. ^ "Chomsky clarifies position on the cultural boycott of Israel". Artists for Palestine. Retrieved 12 October 2017. 
  73. ^ "Economic boycott of Israel? - Norman G. Finkelstein Norman G. Finkelstein". 2006-01-13. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  74. ^ "Norman Finklestein on the BDS movement [WHOLE VIDEO]". YouTube. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  75. ^ "Norman Finkelstein Interview with Frank Barat: BDS Campaign". Imperial College London. 2012-09-02. 
  76. ^ Marcus Dysch (16 February 2012). "Finkelstein disowns 'silly' Israel boycott". The Jewish Chronicle Online. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  77. ^ "Appeals Court Upholds Olympia Food Co-op's Boycott of Israeli Goods". Center for Constitutional Rights. 
  78. ^ Appeals Court upholds Olympia Food Co-op's boycott of Israeli goods by Jeremy Pawloski, The Olympian 7 April 2014.
  79. ^ "2014 BDS Vote". 2014-12-04. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  80. ^ "US student workers' union becomes first US labor union to back BDS". 2014-12-11. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  81. ^ Clinton, Hillary. "Hillary Clinton: "the BDS is another step in antisemitism"". The Coordination Forum for Countering Antisemitism. Retrieved 14 January 2016. 
  83. ^ Clinton, Hillary. "Hillary Clinton Speech at Brookings Institute Saban Forum". Youtube. PSB SATELLITE NEWS. Retrieved 13 January 2016. 
  84. ^ "U.S. Church Puts Five Israeli Banks on Investment Blacklist — Israel News". Haaretz. 2016-01-13. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  85. ^ "PC(USA) policy committee issues new report on Israel-Palestine". PCUSA website. 2016-02-29. Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  86. ^ "Israel-Palestine: For Human Values in the Absence of a Just Peace". PC(USA) Advisory Committee on Social Witness Policy. 2016-02-29. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  87. ^ "Two States for Two Peoples". Presbyterians for Middle East Peace website. 2016-02-01. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2016-03-04. 
  88. ^ US bill seeks to tie massive trade pact to EU rejection of BDS by Rebecca Shimoni Stoil, Times of Israel, 10 February 2015.
  89. ^ Proposed congressional bill links BDS prevention, EU trade deal, Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA), 10 February 2015.
  90. ^ New bill in Congress prioritizes fight against BDS in EU trade talks by Michael Wilner, Jerusalem Post 10 February 2015.
  91. ^ "U.S. lawmakers introduce legislation to prevent Israel boycotts." Haaretz. 27 March 2015. 26 March 2015.
  92. ^ "Illinois governor to sign anti-BDS bill". Al-Jazeera. 19 May 2015. 
  93. ^ Kontorovich, Eugene. "Can States Fund BDS?" Tablet Magazine. 13 July 2015. 18 July 2015.
  94. ^ Tennessee General Assembly becomes first state legislature to condemn BDS by Sean Savage, (reprinted by the Connecticut Jewish Ledger), 22 April 2015.
  95. ^ Fight against Boycott Movement Moving to State Legislatures, Jewish Press, 24 April 2015.
  96. ^ Anti BDS law introduced into California legislature, Jerusalem Post, 5 January 2016.
  97. ^ Florida and California Pass Groundbreaking Legislation in Fight Against BDS, Breaking Israel News, 5 January 2016.
  98. ^ "House Resolution No. 59". 23 April 2015. 
  99. ^ Indiana Stands With Israel, Opposes BDS by Tony Katz, 93.1FM WIBC, 23 April 2015.
  100. ^ Pro-Israel Effort to Combat BDS on US State Level Gains Steam by Sean Savage, (reprinted by The Jewish Chronicle, originally published 23 April 2015.
  101. ^ Indiana Passes Bill Opposing BDS by Elad Benari, Arutz Sheva, 1 May 2015.
  102. ^ "Indiana House unanimously passes anti-BDS bill." Jewish Journal. 29 January 2016. 1 February 2016.
  103. ^ Weinthal, Benjamin and Asaf Romirowsky. "How New York can help stop Europe’s rampaging Israel boycotters." New York Post. 10 May 2016. 12 May 2016.
  104. ^ Green, Dominic. "The intersectionality of fools." New Criterion, vol. 35, no. 5, 2017, p. 34+. General OneFile, Accessed 26 September 2017.
  105. ^ "Study: No anti-Semitism, anti-Israel push at most college campuses". Jewish Journal. 23 October 2012. 23 October 2012.
  106. ^ "Penn distances itself from BDS conference". Jewish Telegraphic Agency (JTA). 5 January 2012. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  107. ^ Naomi Zeveloff (20 January 2012). "College Leaders Balance Israel and Speech". The Forward. Retrieved 16 September 2012. 
  108. ^ a b "One resolution targeted a number of corporations doing business with Israel .... The other called for divestment from the governments of several countries — what the resolution described as an 'illustrative and non-exhaustive list' that included Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Israel, Russia, Turkey, Sri Lanka, Mexico and the United States." "U. of Calif. student association votes to divest from Israel, U.S." Haaretz. 10 February 2015. 10 February 2015.
  109. ^ Wen, Melissa. "UC Student Association votes to divest from companies allegedly violating Palestinian rights." The Daily Californian. 9 February 2015. 9 February 2015
  110. ^ "Don't Dismiss California School System's Fights Over Israel Divestment | Jewish & Israel News". 2014-07-27. Retrieved 2016-02-17. 
  111. ^ Boehm, Omri. "Violent Boycotts and the BDS Movement." The Los Angeles Review of Books. 16 June 2015. 4 January 2016.
  112. ^ Newman, David. "The Failure of Academic Boycotts." Geographical Review. Vol. 106, Issue 2, 2016, pp. 264–69. Wiley Online Library.
  113. ^ Doherty, T. (2014, Nov 06). The boycott that backfired. Los Angeles Times Retrieved from
  114. ^ Weinthal, Benjamin. "US Academic Group Overwhelmingly ...." 15 June 2017. 25 September 2017.

External linksEdit