Razavi Khorasan Province (Persian: استان خراسان رضوی, Ostân-e Xorâsân-e Razavi) is a province located in northeastern Iran. Mashhad is the center and capital of the province. Other cities are Bardaskan, Binalud, Chenaran, Dargaz, Fariman, Gonabad, Kalat, Kashmar, Khaf, Nishapur, Quchan, Rivash, Roshtkhar, Sabzevar, Salehabad, Sarakhs, Shahr Jadid-e Golbahar, Taybad, Torbat-e Heydarieh, and Torbat-e Jam. Razavi Khorasan is one of the three provinces that were created after the division of Khorasan province in 2004. In 2014 it was placed in Region 5 with Mashhad as the location of the region's secretariat.
Razavi Khorasan Province
استان خراسان رضوی
|• Governor-general||Yaghob-Ali Nazari|
|• Total||118,884 km2 (45,901 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,211 m (10,535 ft)|
|299 m (981 ft)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||54/km2 (140/sq mi)|
|Demonym||Khorasani (Persian: خراسانی)|
|Time zone||UTC+03:30 (IRST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+04:30 (IRST)|
high · 19th
The Greater Khorasan has witnessed the rise and fall of many dynasties and governments in its territory throughout history. Various tribes of the Arabs, Turks, Kurds, Turkmens, and Mongols brought changes to the region time and time again.
Ancient geographers of Iran divided Iran ("Ērānshahr") into eight segments of which the most flourishing and largest was the territory of Greater Khorasan. Esfarayen, among other cities of the province, was one of the focal points for residence of the Aryan tribes after entering Iran.
The Parthian Empire was based near Merv in Khorasan for many years. During the Sassanid dynasty, the province was governed by a Spahbod (Lieutenant General) called "Padgošban" and four margraves, each commander of one of the four parts of the province.
In the year 651, the army of the Rashidun Caliphate conquered Khorasan. The territory remained under the rule of the Abbasid Caliphate until 820, followed by the rule of the Iranian Tahirid dynasty until 873, and the Samanid dynasty in 900.
In 1824, Herat became independent for several years when the Afghan Empire was split between the Durranis and Barakzais. The Persians sieged the city in 1837, but the British assisted the Afghans in repelling them. In 1856, the Persians launched another invasion and briefly managed to recapture the city; it led directly to the Anglo-Persian War. In 1857 hostilities between the Persians and the British ended after the Treaty of Paris was signed, and the Persian troops withdrew from Herat. Afghanistan reconquered Herat in 1863 under Dost Muhammad Khan, two weeks before his death.
Khorasan was the largest province of Iran until it was divided into three provinces on 29 September 2004. The provinces approved by the parliament of Iran (on 18 May 2004) and the Council of Guardians (on 29 May 2004) were Khorasan-e Razavi, North Khorasan, and South Khorasan.
Among the archeological sites discovered in this province:
Excavations conducted by an American team between 1935 and 1940 in Nishapur discovered museum-worthy objects, which were shared with the government of the Shah. The Metropolitan Museum of Art's publications document its own Nishapur ceramics from those excavations. For half a century after 1945 the site of Nishapur was ransacked to feed the international market demand for early Islamic works of art. Nowadays, the Kohandezh hills reveal the remains from those excavations.
Shadiyakh was an important palace in old Nishapur up to the 7th century, and became more important and populated after that. The palace was completely ruined in the 13th century. It was the home of notables such as Farid al-Din Attar, whose tomb is found in Shadiyakh.
The counties of Khorasan-e Razavi province are Bajestan County, Bakharz County, Bardaskan County, Chenaran County, Dargaz County, Davarzan County, Fariman County, Firuzeh County, Golbahar County, Gonabad County, Joghatai County, Joveyn County, Kalat County, Kashmar County, Khaf County, Khalilabad County, Khoshab County, Kuhsorkh County, Mahvelat County, Mashhad County, Nishapur County, Quchan County, Roshtkhar County, Sabzevar County, Salehabad County, Sarakhs County, Sheshtamad County, Taybad County, Torbat-e Heydarieh County, Torbat-e Jam County, Torqabeh and Shandiz County, Zaveh County, and Zeberkhan County.
The following sorted table lists the most populous cities in Razavi Khorasan according to 2016 Census results announced by Statistical Center of Iran. Aftar Mashhad, Fariman, Nishapur, Sabzevar, and Torbat-e Heydarieh are the most populous cities of the province.
|4||Torbat-e Heydarieh||Torbat-e Heydarieh||140,019|
|7||Torbat-e Jam||Torbat-e Jam||100,449|
|Sources: Statistical Center of Iran|
This province contains many historical and natural attractions, such as mineral water springs, small lakes, recreational areas, caves and protected regions, and various hiking areas.
Besides these, Khorasan encompasses numerous religious buildings and places of pilgrimage, including the shrine of Imam Reza, Goharshad mosque and many other mausoleums and Imamzadehs which attract visitors to this province.
The Cultural Heritage of Iran lists 1179 sites of historical and cultural significance in all three provinces of Khorasan.
Some of the popular attractions of Khorasan-e Razavi are:
- Imam Reza Shrine
- Goharshad Mosque
- Tomb of Nader Shah
- Tomb of Khajeh Rabie
- Tomb of Ferdowsi
- Haruniyeh Dome
- Mausoleum of Attar of Nishapur
- Mausoleum of Omar Khayyám
- Tomb of Kamal-ol-molk
- Tomb of Heydar Yaghma
- Jameh Mosque of Nishapur
- Khosrogerd Minaret
- Pamenar Mosque, Sabzevar
- Jameh Mosque of Sabzevar
- Tomb of Hadi Sabzevari
- Tomb of Boghrat
- Arg of Kashmar
- Tomb of Hassan Modarres
- Imamzadeh Seyed Morteza
- Imamzadeh Hamzeh, Kashmar
- Imamzadeh Mohammad
- Grave of Pir Quzhd
- Jameh Mosque of Kashmar
- Haj Soltan Religious School
- Haji Jalal Mosque
- Atashgah Manmade-Cave
- Atashgah Castle
- Kohneh Castle, Zendeh Jan
- Rig Castle
- Amin al-tojar Caravansarai
- Talaabad Watermill
- Yakhchāl of Kashmar
- Tomb of Abdolabad
- Aliabad Tower
- Firuzabad Tower
- Firuzabad area
- Seyyed Bagher Ab anbar
- Darone Cave
- Sir Cave
- Rahmanniyeh Castle
- Qal'eh Dokhtar, Khooshab
- Qal'eh Dokhtar, Doruneh
- Qal'eh Dokhtar, Kuhsorkh
- Nameq Village
- Shahi Dam
- Gabar Hesar castle
- Baghdasht Peak
- Band-e Qara Bathhouse
- Natural Yakhchāl of Band-e Qara
Colleges and universitiesEdit
- Asrar Institute of Higher Education
- Bahar Institute of Higher Education
- Comprehensive University of Applied and Practical Sciences, Khorasan
- Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
- Gonabad University of Medical Sciences
- Hakim-e Sabzevari University of Sabzevar
- Imam Reza University
- Islamic Azad University of Bardaskan
- Islamic Azad University of Ghoochan
- Islamic Azad University of Gonabad
- Islamic Azad University of Mashhad
- Islamic Azad University of Neishabur
- Islamic Azad University of Sabzevar
- Islamic Azad University of Torbat e Jam
- Islamic Azad University of Torbat Heidariyeh
- Mashhad University of Medical Sciences
- Payame Noor University of Bardaskan
- Payame Noor University of Mashhad
- Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences
- Sadjad University of Technology
- Sport Sciences Research Institute of Iran
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- Avery, Peter; Hambly, Gavin; Melville, Charles, eds. (1991). The Cambridge History of Iran (Vol. 7): From Nadir Shah to the Islamic Republic. Cambridge University Press. pp. 183, 394–395. ISBN 978-0521200950.
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Media related to Razavi Khorasan Province at Wikimedia Commons
- The text of the law for division of Khorasan into three provinces (in Persian)
- Cultural Heritage Foundation of Khorasan
- Khorasan-e Razavi Province cooprative office
- Khorasan-e Razavi Province cooprative office (in Persian)
- Khorasan-e Razavi Province Department of Education (in Persian)
- Imam Reza Shrine Official website
- Mashad Mayor's Office
- Central Library of Astan Quds Razavi Official website