Ray Milton Dolby OBE (/, -/; January 18, 1933 – September 12, 2013) was an American engineer and inventor of the noise reduction system known as Dolby NR. He helped develop the video tape recorder while at Ampex and was the founder of Dolby Laboratories.
Dolby (left) being inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame, 2004
|Born||Ray Milton Dolby
January 18, 1933
Portland, Oregon, U.S.
|Died||September 12, 2013
San Francisco, California, U.S.
|Spouse(s)||Dagmar Bäumert (m. 1966)|
|Discipline||Electrical engineering, physics|
|Significant design||Surround sound|
|Years of service||early 1950s|
Dolby was born in Portland, Oregon, the son of Esther Eufemia (née Strand) and Earl Milton Dolby, an inventor. He was raised in San Francisco and attended Sequoia High School (class of 1951) in Redwood City, California. As a teenager in the decade following World War II, he held part-time and summer jobs at Ampex in Redwood City, working with their first audio tape recorder in 1949. While at San Jose State College and later at Stanford University (interrupted by two years of Army service), he worked on early prototypes of video tape recorder technologies for Alexander M. Poniatoff and Charlie Ginsburg. As a non degree-holding "consultant", Dolby played a key role in the effort that led Ampex to unveil their prototype Quadruplex videotape recorder in April 1956 which soon entered production.
In 1957, Dolby received his B.S. in electrical engineering from Stanford. He subsequently won a Marshall Scholarship for a Ph.D (1961) in physics from the University of Cambridge, where he was a Research Fellow at Pembroke College.
After Cambridge, Dolby acted as a technical advisor to the United Nations in India, until 1965 when he returned to England, where he founded Dolby Laboratories in London with a staff of four. In that same year, 1965, he officially invented the Dolby Sound System, a form of audio signal processing. His first U.S. patent was not filed until 1969, four years later. The filter was first used by Decca Records in the UK.
Dolby died of leukemia on September 12, 2013, at his home in San Francisco at the age of 80. Dolby was survived by his wife Dagmar, two sons, Tom and David, and four grandchildren. Kevin Yeaman, president and chief executive of Dolby Laboratories, said "Today we lost a friend, mentor and true visionary." Neil Portnow, president of the National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences, said Dolby had "changed the way we listen to music and movies for nearly 50 years" and that Dolby's "technologies have become an essential part of the creative process for recording artists and filmmakers, ensuring his remarkable legacy for generations to come."
In his will, Dolby bequeathed more than $52 million to Pembroke College at the University of Cambridge, the largest single donation received by the University's current fundraising campaign. In December 2017 it was announced that his family has donated a further £85m from his estate to Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory. 
Dolby noise reductionEdit
The analog Dolby B noise-reduction system works by compressing and increasing the volume of low-level high-frequency sounds during recording and correspondingly reverses the process during playback. This high-frequency round turn reduces the audible level of tape hiss.
Awards and honorsEdit
- 1971 — AES Silver Medal
- 1979 — 51st Academy Awards — Academy Award, Scientific or Technical (Scientific and Engineering Award) [plaque]
- 1983 — SMPTE Progress Medal For his contributions to theater sound and his continuing work in noise reduction and quality improvements in audio and video systems and as a prime inventor of the videotape recorder
- 1985 — SMPTE Alexander M. Poniatoff Gold Medal
- 1986 — honorary Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (OBE)
- 1988 — Eduard Rhein Ring of Honor from the German Eduard Rhein Foundation
- 1989 — 61st Academy Awards — Academy Award, Scientific or Technical (Academy Award of Merit) [statuette]
- 1989 — Emmy Award by the National Academy of Television Arts and Sciences (NATAS)
- 1992 — AES Gold Medal
- 1995 — Special Merit/Technical Grammy Award 
- 1997 — U.S. National Medal of Technology
- 1997 — IEEE Masaru Ibuka Consumer Electronics Award
- 1999 — honorary Doctor degree by the University of York
- 2000 — honorary Doctor of Science degree from Cambridge University
- 2003 — Charles F. Jenkins Lifetime Achievement Award by the Academy of Television Arts & Sciences 
- 2004 — inducted into the National Inventors Hall of Fame and the Consumer Electronics Hall of Fame
- 2010 — IEEE Edison Medal
- 2014 — Induction into the Television Hall of Fame
- 2015 — Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame
- U.S. Patent 3,631,365, Signal compressor, filed 1969.
- Schudel, Matt (September 15, 2013). "Ray Dolby, 80. Audio pioneer changed sound of music". The Washington Post. p. C8.
- "Ray Milton Dolby". Newsmakers. Detroit: Gale. 1986. K1618001948.
- "Dolby". Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.
-  Biography of Ray Dolby
- Wolpin, Stewart (Fall 1994). "The Race to Video" (PDF). American Heritage of Invention & Technology. 10 (2). ISSN 8756-7296.
- Singer, Natasha (12 September 2013). "Ray Dolby, Who Put Moviegoers in the Middle of It, Is Dead at 80". The New York Times. p. A20.
- Williamson, Marcus (13 September 2013). "Ray Dolby obituary: Inventor whose noise-reduction technology transformed sound reproduction". The Independent.
- "Founder and Director Emeritus of Dolby Laboratories Dies at Age 80". Dolby Laboratories. September 12, 2013.
- Vincent, James (September 13, 2013). "A minute's silence: audio pioneer Ray Dolby dies aged 80". The Independent.
- "Audio pioneer Ray Dolby dies aged 80". BBC News. September 13, 2013.
- "American inventor bequeaths largest-ever donation to Cambridge's Pembroke College". Cambridge News. 3 December 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- "Dolby estate gives Cambridge University Cavendish lab £85m". BBC News. December 6, 2017.
- "AES Awards". Audio Engineering Society. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- "Academy Awards Database". Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 20, 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "SMPTE Progress Medal Past Recipients". Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- "The Eduard Rhein Ring of Honor Recipients". Eduard Rhein Foundation. Archived from the original on July 18, 2011. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- "Technical GRAMMY Award". National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences. Retrieved April 20, 2015.
- "Medals, Technical Field Awards, and Recognitions". Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Retrieved 2013-09-15.
- Benzuly, Sarah (September 1, 2003). "Ray Dolby Receives Emmy Engineering Award". Mix.
- "Ray Dolby is inducted into the Television Academy Hall of Fame". Academy of Television Arts & Sciences. March 8, 2014.
- "Ray Dolby was Honored with a Posthumous Star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame". Hollywood Walk of Fame. January 22, 2015.