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Ratnasambhava (Lit. "Jewel-Born")[1] is one of the Five Dhyani Buddhas (or "Five Meditation Buddhas") of Vajrayana or Tantric Buddhism. Ratnasambhava's mandalas and mantras focus on developing equanimity and equality and, in Vajrayana Buddhist thought is associated with the attempt to destroy greed and pride. His consort is Mamaki and his mount is a horse or a pair of lions. His wrathful manifestation is Gundari. Often included in his retinue is the worldly dharmapāla Jambhala.

Hōshō Nyorai/ Ratnasambhava
Japanese宝生如来 Hōshō Nyorai
Korean宝生如来 보생여래
Mongolianᠡᠷᠳᠡᠨᠢ ᠭᠠᠷᠬᠣ ᠢᠢᠨ ᠣᠷᠣᠨ
Эрдэнэ гарахын орон
Erdeni garkhu yin oron
Tibetanརིན་ཆེན་འབྱུང་གནས Rinchen Jung ne
VietnameseBảo Sanh Như Lai
Venerated byVajrayana
AttributesEquality, Equanimity
Dharma Wheel.svg Buddhism portal


Textual HistoryEdit

The first documented mention of Ratnasambhava is found in the Ārya Suvarna-prabhā-sottamasutrendrarājamahāyana Sutra (Sutra of Golden Light) and in the Guhyasamāja tantra (4th Century CE), and he subsequently appears in a number of vajrayana texts. The most elaborate account of him is to be found in the Panchakara section of the Advyavajra sangrah.

Ratnasambhava is also mentioned as one of the Buddhas worthy of praise in the Earth Store Bodhisattva Sutra, chapter 9:[2]


The Wisdom King Gundari is a manifestation of Ratnasambhava.

Ratnasaṃbhava is associated with the skandha of feeling or sensation and its relationship with consciousness. His activity in promoting Buddhism is enriching and increasing knowledge of Dharma. Ratnasambhava is associated with the jewel symbol, which corresponds with his family, Ratna or jewel. In artwork he is shown in the mudra of giving.

He is usually coloured yellow or gold. He is associated with the element earth, the heavenly quarter of the south and the season of spring. His cardinal direction is the south. His Buddha field is known as Śrimat.

In the Bardo Thodol, he is depicted in union with Mamaki and attended by the male bodhisattvas Akasagarbha and Samantabhadra and the female bodhisattvas Mala and Dhupa.

In Tibet, Vaiśravaṇa, also known as Jambhala and Kubera, is considered a worldly dharmapāla, and is often depicted as a member of the retinue of Ratnasambhava.[3]

The Wisdom King Gundari is a manifestation of Ratnasambhava (Hōshō Nyorai).[4]


Ratnasambhava, around 1200, Los Angeles County Museum of Art
  1. ^
  2. ^ Shih, Tao-tsi. The Sutra of Bodhisattva Ksitigarbha's Fundamental Vows (2nd ed.). Sutra Translation Committee of the United States and Canada. p. 63.
  3. ^ Meeting the Buddhas By Vessantara. Windhorse Publications, 2004. ISBN 0-904766-53-5 pg 84
  4. ^ Hackin, Joseph. Asiatic Mythology 1932. p. 428. Retrieved 2013-06-14.


  • Mythology of India: Myths of India, Sri Lanka and Tibet, Rachel Storm, Anness Publishing Limited, Editor Helen Sudell, Page 69, Column 1, Lines 9–18, Caption, Page 69, Column 4, Lines 1–4
  • Five Dhyani Buddhas Table 1, Row 4, Columns 1–5, Table 2, Row 2, Columns 1–12

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