Rasht District (Tajik: Ноҳияи Рашт Nohiyai Rasht, formerly called Gharm District) is a district in Tajikistan, one of the Districts of Republican Subordination. It lies between the city of Vahdat in the west and Lakhsh District in the east; its southern neighbors are Nurobod, Sangvor, and Tojikobod districts; its northern border runs along the eastern finger of Sughd Region and along the international border with Kyrgyzstan. Its capital is the town Gharm. The population of Rasht District are known as Gharmis. The population of the district is 127,400 (January 2020 estimate).
Location of the district in Tajikistan
|Region||Districts of Republican Subordination|
|• Total||4,600 km2 (1,800 sq mi)|
|• Density||28/km2 (72/sq mi)|
|Jamoat||Population (Jan. 2015)|
During the 1920s Rasht was a hotbed for the Basmachi, the anti-Soviet resistance in Central Asia. In 1929 Basmachi commander Faizal Maksum crossed from Afghanistan into Tajikistan and briefly captured the city Gharm, only to later be expelled by Soviet forces. In the 1920s, during the reorganization of borders in Central Asia, a Gharm Oblast was created out of the old Qarategin and Darvaz, districts of Bukhara. The Garm Oblast consisted of much of the Qarategin Valley, as well as the district of Kalai-Khumb. During the 1950s much of the population of Gharm was forcibly relocated by the government to western Tajikistan. This population of people was known as the Gharmis.
In 1955 the Garm oblast was abolished and the land was redistributed to the Gorno-Badakshan Autonomous Oblast and the Regions under Republican Subordination Oblast. The Gharmis continued to have a distinct clan identity in Tajikistan and when the Civil War in Tajikistan broke out in the newly independent country in 1992 many Gharmis sided with the Islamic opposition. During the war many Gharmis were targeted for massacres. The town of Gharm was controlled by the opposition during the later part of the civil war in Tajikistan.
In 1998 four members of the United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan were murdered by armed men allied with the United Tajik Opposition. These victims were Yutaka Akino, a noted Japanese scholar of Central Asian history, Major Ryszard Szewczyk from Poland; Major Adolfo Scharpegge from Uruguay; and Jourajon Mahramov from Tajikistan.
In July 2007 Rasht District suffered a devastating earthquake (5.5 on the Richter scale).
- "Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January 2020" (PDF) (in Russian). Statistics office of Tajikistan. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- "Regions of the Republic of Tajikistan 2017" (PDF) (in Russian). Statistics office of Tajikistan. pp. 17, 21. Retrieved 13 October 2020.
- Jamoat-level basic indicators, United Nations Development Programme in Tajikistan, accessed 13 October 2020
- "Population of the Republic of Tajikistan as of 1 January 2015" (PDF) (in Russian). Statistics office of Tajikistan. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 July 2015.
- Ritter, William S (1990). "Revolt in the Mountains: Fuzail Maksum and the Occupation of Garm, Spring 1929". Journal of Contemporary History. 25 (4): 547–580. doi:10.1177/002200949002500408. S2CID 159486304.
- Ritter, William S (1985). "The Final Phase in the Liquidation of Anti-Soviet Resistance in Tadzhikistan: Ibrahim Bek and the Basmachi, 1924-31". Soviet Studies. 37 (4): 484–493. doi:10.1080/09668138508411604.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2006-06-17. Retrieved 2010-05-01.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Tajikistan: Rasht Earthquake and UN Joint appeal[permanent dead link]