Ranni is a small village in the Pathanamthitta district of Kerala, in India. The taluk headquarters is a small township on both sides of the Pamba River. Ranni is also one of the largest taluks in Kerala. The renowned Hindu temple of Sabarimala is in this taluk, situated approximately 66 km from the main town, Ittiyappara. Ranni is known for its natural environment, forests, hills, river and good climate.[2][3]

The dilapidated old bridge and new bridge at Ranni
The dilapidated old bridge and new bridge at Ranni
Ranni is located in Kerala
Location in Kerala, India
Ranni is located in India
Ranni (India)
Coordinates: 9°22′0″N 76°46′0″E / 9.36667°N 76.76667°E / 9.36667; 76.76667Coordinates: 9°22′0″N 76°46′0″E / 9.36667°N 76.76667°E / 9.36667; 76.76667
Country India
 • TypeTaluk
 • Total1,004 km2 (388 sq mi)
331 m (1,086 ft)
 • Total198,194
 • Density200/km2 (510/sq mi)
 • OfficialMalayalam, English
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
Telephone code04735
Vehicle registrationKL-62
Nearest cityPathanamthitta
Sex ratio47:50 /
Lok Sabha constituencyPathanamthitta


Ranni is derived from similar word in malayalam which means "Queen" or "Rani". Ranni is known as "The Queen of the Eastern Hill Lands"(മലനാടിന്റെ റാണി).


The history of Ranni can be traced 5000 years back to the early settlement activity of Adi Dravidans around Sabarimala and Nilakkal. The temple at Sabarimala is an early temple of Kerala, dating back to around 2000 years. The deity's sitting posture and resemblance of the prayer 'Sharanam vili' to "Buddham Sharanam / Sangam Sharanam" points to the Buddhist past.[citation needed] Buddhist hermits always prefer to stay in interior jungles for solitary contemplation to attain Nirvana.[4] The word 'Ayya' is a Buddhist Pali word that means Lord/God. There was an ancient trade route passed through Nilackal between Kerala and Pandian kingdom.[5]

Ranni KarthakalEdit

The former rulers of Ranni were known as Ranni Kartha or Karthkal of Ranni they were the "Samanthas" and blood- related family of Thekkamamkoor Raja.18th Century Anizham Thirunal Marthandavarma of Vennad annexed Thekkamkoor kingdom and confiscated all the lands that belongs to the former rulers. Ranni Karthas Kioyikal (Palace) were stand at a place called Areekkal. Ranni karthas build Ranni Manjor Ramapuram temple. The temple is same as the construction of the Aranmula Sreeparthasaradhy temple but the darshan is towards southern direction.

The Famous Devi Temple Thottamon Kavu Devi temple is its famous landmark. Thottamonkavu devi is believed the daughter of Paramashiva so the song "Mukkannan Thirumakale is famous" where Mukkannan is Shivan. It is a part of Ranni Taluk which lies in the valley of the Western Ghats.

Thottamon kavu Devi Temple is a resting place for pilgrims to sabarimala. The temple belongs to some nair families in Ranni. The family who administrated the temple were known as naaluveedanmaar (നാലുവീടന്മാർ), the four nobles. The four Panikar families are who held the title were Meempallil (മീമ്പള്ളിൽ), Kerukattu (Padiyarakkalayil, കേറുകാട്ട്), Pangattu (പങ്ങാട്ട്) and Cheruthalayathu (ചെറുതാലയത്ത്).

In the 18th century, Knanaya Christians migrated to Ranni from Kallissery and later established the church, St. Thomas Church of Ranni. A significant number of Malankara Orthodox Christians & Mar Thomites also migrated from surrounding areas. In the early 19th century, Dr. Claudius Buchanan visited Ranni and was presented an old hand written Syriac Bible, from Ranni St. Thomas church.[6]

Ranni was a part of Central Travancore region before the unification. Until the formation of Pathanamthitta district in 1982, Ranni was a part of Kollam district.[7]


Ranni is located at 9°23′N 76°49′E / 9.38°N 76.81°E / 9.38; 76.81. It has an average elevation of 131 m (433 ft) above sea level.[8] The location and elevation is measured around the township. However, towards the east, the elevation is much higher. River Pamba flows through Ranni. The township is situated on either side of the river. According to the Census of India, Ranni has a total of 1,004.61 square kilometres (387.88 sq mi).[9] Out of the total area, 708 square kilometres (273.36 sq mi) or 70% is forest.[10] This forest cover gives Ranni its green environment.[citation needed]


Climate data for Ranni, Kerala
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 31.2
Average low °C (°F) 22.4
Average precipitation mm (inches) 21
Source: Climate-Data.org[11]

Like the rest of the state, Ranni has a wet and maritime tropical climate. The region receives most of the rain from the South-West monsoon from June to August and the North-East monsoon during October and November. Although the summer is from March to May, it receives locally developed thundershowers in May. Due to the higher elevation, the climate is cooler towards the eastern area.


Ranni market on a rainy evening

Business is centered on the market in the main township, Ittiyappara situated on the northern side of the river. The economy of Ranni is primarily from agriculture. Ranni is the largest rubber producing taluks in Kerala.[12] The hilly terrain, high humidity and good rain makes it suitable for rubber cultivation. Other major crops are cocoa, coconut, tapioca and pepper. NRIs are also another major source of income. It has the largest NRI population in a state of Kerala.


Bridge near Vadasserikara

Ranni is largely dependent on private buses. Most of the long route KSRTC buses ply on the State Highway - 08. The State Highway - 08 (Punalur-Pathanamthitta-Pala-Muvattupuzha Road) connects the town to other major towns. There is a KSRTC bus depot in Ranni adjacent to Private bus stand. Auto rickshaws are available and generally hired for short distances (1–3 km) where bus services are non-existent or rare. Jeep is another preferred mode of transport where the terrain is hilly or rugged.

A train service connecting Ranni is one of the long-standing demands. Although the Union Government has cleared a proposal in 1995, the project awaits implementation.[13] The nearest railway stations are at Thiruvalla and Chengannur which are at a distance of nearly 30 km each.

The nearest airports are Cochin International Airport (110 km) and Thiruvanathapuram International Airport (125 km).

Sabari International AirportEdit

The proposed Sabari International Airport, Cheruvally would be the closest airport upon completion, at 10 km away from ranni town. Proposed to be at Belivers Church Cheruvally estate, will be the 5th airport of the state of Kerala.


As of 2011 census, Ranni taluk had a population of 198,194 of which 94,773 males and 103,421 are females. The female-to-male ratio is 1091:1000 higher than the state average of 1059:1000 and significantly higher than the national average of 933:1000. There were 53,172 households in taluk limits. A very low housing density owes to a large reserved forest area. Ranni's literacy rate is 95%.[14]

Although most of the residents are Malayalis there are some Tamil, Sikh, Bihari, Bengali settlers. Much of the population are temporary workers who are mainly employed in the construction sector. The population of migrant workers from the northern parts of India has increased over the last few years because of the shortage of local unskilled manpower. Ranni still has a few settlements of aborigines known as 'adivasis' deep in the forest area.

Ranni's major religions are Hinduism and Christianity.


-Part of Taluk having largest forest area (Ranni taluk) in Kerala state.

-Gavi and Perumthenaruvi are located nearby and these are tourist hotspots.

-Shares border with Kottayam District.

-Is famous for its rubber plantations and padayani at kottangal temple.

-Landmarked by sincere citizens, tourist hotspots, paddy fields, noval constructions, industries, quarries, etc...

Civic administrationEdit

Ranni taluk is a part of Pathanamthitta district administration. The taluk headquarters is at Block pady. Ranni taluk is divided into 11 villages.[15] Villages are the smallest subdivision. The following are the list of villages:


Primary, middle and secondary schools are run in all the villages of Ranni taluk. However, there are only 7 senior secondary schools covering 6 out of the 11 villages. This is primarily due to the reason that till 1997–98, these were offered as pre-degree courses in colleges.[16] As of 2001, there are 138 primary, 59 middle and 35 secondary schools.[10]

There are three colleges in Ranni taluk. St. Thomas college, Ranni affiliated to the M.G. University, is an arts and science college established in 1964.[17] For almost four decades this was the only college in the taluk. In 2005, Caarmel Engineering College, a self-financing engineering college was established. This is situated in the Ranni-Perunad division. The college is now closed due to financial crisis. The Vishwa bhramana arts college and Govt polytechnic college are situated in vechuchira. The Mar Thoma Teachers’ Training College Ranny is a self- financing institution affiliated to the M.G. University, and approved by NCTE.

Apart from the schools and colleges, Ranni also has 3 adult literacy centers. Ranni is a hub of cental board schools the most elite one being St.Marys school, Ranni with a legacy of over 40 years. Cornerstone school (play school also) and citadel are other secondary options among CBSE schools. These literacy centers or Saksharatha Kendram came as a state effort to attain total literacy.[18]


Ranni assembly constituency is part of Pathanamthitta (Lok Sabha constituency).[19] The main political parties are the Congress and the CPM, CPI, Kerala Congress. BJP (Bharatiya Janatha Party) now AAP (Aam Aadmi Party) has significant importance in the election. Raju Abraham is the elected representative of Ranni assembly constituency.[20] He successfully contested assembly election in 1996 and has been winning every elections since.[21]


There is 3 local television channels, Citi TV, operational in Ranni. The channel, established in 2002 telecasts news, documentaries, advertisements, albums and other program Malanad TV is operating from Pazhavangadi and Vismaya TV established 2014 this is the largerst local channel in Pathanamthitta district.[22]

Facilities offeredEdit

A taluk hospital located near to Perumpuzha bus stand. There are two theatres namely Upasana and Sreelakshmi in Ranni. It houses a RTO office, a police station, law court situated in the town itself. Several health care centres and Akshaya centres offer their services here. Private hospitals like Marthoma hospital, Menanthottam hospital, Trinity Hospital, Thiruvalla Medical Mission hospital (Mannamaruthy) and Trinity hospital are centered around the township.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ https://censusindia.gov.in › 3...PDF Pathanamthitta - DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK
  2. ^ "Tourist attractions, Ranni". Webindia123.com. 20 February 2007. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  3. ^ "Homestay in Ranny - Ranny :: Heritage Homestay India". Heritagestay.com. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  4. ^ "About Sabarimala". Archived from the original on 26 October 2011.
  5. ^ "St.Thomas Ecumenical Church Nilackal- Pilgrimage India". Indiantemplesportal.com. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  6. ^ "The History of the Christian Jews in Asia". Archived from the original on 19 January 2012.
  7. ^ "History". Pathanamthitta District. Archived from the original on 29 July 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  8. ^ "Maps, Weather, Videos, and Airports for Rani, India". Fallingrain.com. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  9. ^ "Basic Details of Panchayats/Municipalities/Corporations as on 01.07.2000" (PDF). Panchayat Level Statistics, Pathanamthitta 2001. Government of Kerala. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 January 2009.
  10. ^ a b "Census of India Website : Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India". Censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  11. ^ "CLIMATE: RANNI", Climate-Data.org. Web: [1].
  12. ^ "Kinfra to develop second rubber park in Ranni". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 11 July 2007. Archived from the original on 6 October 2008.
  13. ^ "State urged to implement Sabari rail project". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 24 February 2009. Archived from the original on 2 March 2009.
  14. ^ https://censusindia.gov.in › 3...PDF Pathanamthitta - DISTRICT CENSUS HANDBOOK
  15. ^ "Administration". Pathanamthitta District. Retrieved 17 April 2012.
  16. ^ "School Education". Government of Kerala. Archived from the original on 26 December 2010.
  17. ^ "History of St. Thomas College". Archived from the original on 28 July 2013.
  18. ^ "Kerala State Literacy Mission". Government of Kerala. Archived from the original on 31 October 2010.
  19. ^ "Assembly Constituencies — Corresponding Districts and Parliamentary Constituencies" (PDF). Kerala. Election Commission of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
  20. ^ "Members of Legislative Assembly". Archived from the original on 23 January 2011.
  21. ^ "Raju Abraham" (PDF). Kerala Legislative Assembly. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 November 2011.
  22. ^ "Citi News, Ranni, Kerala". Citinews.in. 15 December 2002. Retrieved 17 April 2012.

External linksEdit