Mangammal

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Rani Mangammal (Mangamma)(died 1705) was a queen regent of the Madurai Nayak kingdom (in present-day Madurai, India) during the minority of her grandson Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha in 1689—1704.[1] She was a popular administrator and is still widely remembered as a maker of roads and avenues, and a builder of temples, tanks and choultries with many of her public works still in use. She is also known for her diplomatic and political skills and successful military campaigns. The capital of Madurai Kingdom during her times was Tiruchy.

Rani Mangammal
Queen Regent of Madurai Nayak Kingdom
Queen Mangammal.jpg
Reign1689– 1704 C.E.
PredecessorRangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak
SuccessorVijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayak
BornMadurai
DiedCirca 1705
Madurai, present dayTamil Nadu, India
SpouseChokkanatha Nayak
IssueRangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak
HouseMadurai Nayaks
FatherTupakula Lingama Nayaka
Kings and Queen Regents of
Madurai Nayak Dynasty
Part of History of Tamil Nadu
Tirumalai Nayak Palace
Madurai Nayak rulers
Viswanatha Nayak1529–1563
Kumara Krishnappa Nayak1563–1573
Joint Rulers Group I1573–1595
Joint Rulers Group II1595–1602
Muttu Krishnappa Nayak1602–1609
Muttu Virappa Nayak1609–1623
Tirumala Nayak1623–1659
Muthu Alakadri Nayak1659–1662
Chokkanatha Nayak1662–1682
Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak1682–1689
Rani Mangammal1689–1704
Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayak1704–1731
Queen Meenakshi1731–1736
‡ Regent Queens
Capitals
Madurai1529–1616
Tiruchirapalli1616–1634
Madurai1634–1665
Tiruchirapalli1665–1736
Major forts
Madurai 72 Bastion Fort
Tiruchirapalli Rock Fort
Dindigul Fort
Thirunelvelli Fort
other Military forts
Namakkal Fort
Sankagiri Fort
Attur Fort
Palaces
Thirumalai Nayak Mahal, Madurai
Chokkanatha Nayak Palace a.k.a. Durbar Hall, Tiruchirapalli
Rani Mangammal Tamukkam palace Madurai

Life and regencyEdit

Mangammal was the daughter of Tupakula Lingama Nayaka, a general of Madurai ruler Chokkanatha Nayak (1659–1682). She married Chokkanatha Nayak and became the mother of Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak (1682—1689).[2]

When her husband died in 1682, he was succeeded by her son. Upon the death of her son in 1689, her son's widow was pregnant. Her son was succeeded by her grandson in 1689. Her daughter-in-law committed sati, and Mangammal became regent during the minority of her grandson.[2][3]

During Mangammal's regency, many irrigation channels were repaired, new roads were constructed, avenue trees were planted, and several municipal buildings were completed, including temples and her "Spring Palace" at TumKum.[4] The "Spring Palace" now houses the Gandhi Memorial Museum in Madurai.[4] The highway from Cape Comorin was originally built during the time of Mangammal and it was known as Rani Mangammal Salai.[3][5]

She played a key role in assisting the Mughal Army during the Siege of Jinji (Gingee). Queen Mangammal had realized that the renegade Rajaram had entrenched himself within Jinji and had been bent upon attacking Thanjavur and Madurai if the Mughal Army were to withdraw. Mangammal soon recognized Aurangzeb and the Mughals as her allies and she began to assist Zulfiqar Khan in attacking the Jinji fort. When the fort was captured by both Zulfiqar Khan and Mangammal after 8 years, she and her family had control over the fort under the leadership of the Mughals.

When her grandson, Vijayaranga Chokkanatha Nayaka, came of age in 1704, she and her prime minister, Achayya, refused to relinquish power. They were seized by the army commander and executed.[3][6]

 
Queen's Summer Palace
 
Queen's Summer Palace

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ N. Subrahmanian: History of Tamilnad, Koodal Publishers, 1972
  2. ^ a b Madhavananda, Swami; Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra, eds. (1953). Great Women of India. Mayavati, Almora, Himalayas, Uttarakhand: Advaita Ashrama. pp. 341–342. OCLC 602056.
  3. ^ a b c E.H.B. (1899). "Mangamma's Folly". Calcutta Review. 109 (218 (October 1899)): 350–352.
  4. ^ a b Pal̲aniyappan̲, Ki (1963). The Great Temple of Madurai: English version of the book Koilmanagar. Madurai: Sri Meenakshisundareswarar Temple Renovation Committee. p. 24. OCLC 1031652394. (no preview)
  5. ^ "Plan to improve Rani Mangammal Salai". The Hindu. 17 February 2006. Archived from the original on 10 August 2007.
  6. ^ Balendu Sekaram, Kandavalli (1975). The Nayaks of Madura. Hyderabad: Andhra Pradesh Sahithya Akademi. p. 24. OCLC 3929107. (no preview)

External linksEdit