Rani Mangammal (Mangamma)(died 1705) was a queen regent of the Madurai Nayak kingdom (in present-day Madurai, India) during the minority of her grandson Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha in 1689—1704. She was a popular administrator and is still widely remembered as a maker of roads and avenues, and a builder of temples, tanks and choultries with many of her public works still in use. She is also known for her diplomatic and political skills and successful military campaigns. The capital of Madurai Kingdom during her times was Tiruchy.
|Queen Regent of Madurai Nayak Kingdom|
|Reign||1689– 1704 C.E.|
|Predecessor||Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak|
|Successor||Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayak|
Madurai, present dayTamil Nadu, India
|Issue||Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak|
|Father||Tupakula Lingama Nayaka|
|Kings and Queen Regents of|
Madurai Nayak Dynasty
|Part of History of Tamil Nadu|
|Madurai Nayak rulers|
|Kumara Krishnappa Nayak||1563–1573|
|Joint Rulers Group I||1573–1595|
|Joint Rulers Group II||1595–1602|
|Muttu Krishnappa Nayak||1602–1609|
|Muttu Virappa Nayak||1609–1623|
|Muthu Alakadri Nayak||1659–1662|
|Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak||1682–1689|
|Vijaya Ranga Chokkanatha Nayak||1704–1731|
|‡ Regent Queens|
|Madurai 72 Bastion Fort|
|Tiruchirapalli Rock Fort|
|other Military forts|
|Thirumalai Nayak Mahal, Madurai|
|Chokkanatha Nayak Palace a.k.a. Durbar Hall, Tiruchirapalli|
|Rani Mangammal Tamukkam palace Madurai|
Life and regencyEdit
Mangammal was the daughter of Tupakula Lingama Nayaka, a general of Madurai ruler Chokkanatha Nayak (1659–1682). She married Chokkanatha Nayak and became the mother of Rangakrishna Muthu Virappa Nayak (1682—1689).
When her husband died in 1682, he was succeeded by her son. Upon the death of her son in 1689, her son's widow was pregnant. Her son was succeeded by her grandson in 1689. Her daughter-in-law committed sati, and Mangammal became regent during the minority of her grandson.
During Mangammal's regency, many irrigation channels were repaired, new roads were constructed, avenue trees were planted, and several municipal buildings were completed, including temples and her "Spring Palace" at TumKum. The "Spring Palace" now houses the Gandhi Memorial Museum in Madurai. The highway from Cape Comorin was originally built during the time of Mangammal and it was known as Rani Mangammal Salai.
She played a key role in assisting the Mughal Army during the Siege of Jinji (Gingee). Queen Mangammal had realized that the renegade Rajaram had entrenched himself within Jinji and had been bent upon attacking Thanjavur and Madurai if the Mughal Army were to withdraw. Mangammal soon recognized Aurangzeb and the Mughals as her allies and she began to assist Zulfiqar Khan in attacking the Jinji fort. When the fort was captured by both Zulfiqar Khan and Mangammal after 8 years, she and her family had control over the fort under the leadership of the Mughals.
- N. Subrahmanian: History of Tamilnad, Koodal Publishers, 1972
- Madhavananda, Swami; Majumdar, Ramesh Chandra, eds. (1953). Great Women of India. Mayavati, Almora, Himalayas, Uttarakhand: Advaita Ashrama. pp. 341–342. OCLC 602056.
- E.H.B. (1899). "Mangamma's Folly". Calcutta Review. 109 (218 (October 1899)): 350–352.
- Pal̲aniyappan̲, Ki (1963). The Great Temple of Madurai: English version of the book Koilmanagar. Madurai: Sri Meenakshisundareswarar Temple Renovation Committee. p. 24. OCLC 1031652394. (no preview)
- "Plan to improve Rani Mangammal Salai". The Hindu. 17 February 2006. Archived from the original on 10 August 2007.
- Balendu Sekaram, Kandavalli (1975). The Nayaks of Madura. Hyderabad: Andhra Pradesh Sahithya Akademi. p. 24. OCLC 3929107. (no preview)
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Mangammal.|
- "The Hindu : A town by the Vaigai". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 17 August 2008. Retrieved 14 June 2008.
- Meenakshi Temple
- Madurai.com - Rani Mangammal
- The Hindu: Rani Mangammal Durbar Hall Palace at Trichy
- Tamukkam Palace at Madurai, Now Gandhi Memorial Museum