Ramon Berenguer III, Count of Barcelona

Ramon Berenguer III the Great was the count of Barcelona, Girona, and Ausona from 1086 (jointly with Berenguer Ramon II and solely from 1097), Besalú from 1111, Cerdanya from 1117, and count of Provence in the Holy Roman Empire, from 1112, all until his death in Barcelona in 1131. As Ramon Berenguer I, he was Count of Provence in right of his wife.

Ramon Berenguer III
Ramon Berenguer IV (Barcelona).jpg
Ramon Berenguer in the late 12th-century Liber feudorum maior
Count of Barcelona
Reign1086–1131
PredecessorBerenguer Ramon II
SuccessorRamon Berenguer IV
Born11 November 1082
Rodez, Viscounty of Rodez
Died23 January/19 July 1131 (aged 48)
Barcelona
BuriedSanta Maria de Ripoll
Noble familyBarcelona
Spouse(s)María Rodríguez de Vivar
Almodis
Douce I of Provence
IssueMaría
Jimena or Eixemena
Almodis
Berenguela or Berengaria
Ramon Berenguer IV, Count of Barcelona
Berenguer Ramon I, Count of Provence
FatherRamon Berenguer II
MotherMaud of Apulia
SignatureSignum-ramon-berenguer-III-barcelona.jpg

BiographyEdit

Born on 11 November 1082 in Rodez, Viscounty of Rodez, County of Toulouse, Francia, he was the son of Ramon Berenguer II.[1] He succeeded his father to co-rule with his uncle Berenguer Ramon II. He became the sole ruler in 1097, when Berenguer Ramon II was forced into exile.

Responding to increased raids into his lands by the Almoravids in 1102, Ramon counter-attacked, assisted by Ermengol V, Count of Urgell, but was defeated and Ermengol killed at the battle of Mollerussa.[2]

During his rule Catalan interests were extended on both sides of the Pyrenees. By marriage or vassalage he incorporated into his realm almost all of the Catalan counties (except Urgell and Peralada). He inherited the counties of Besalú (1111) and Cerdanya (1117) and in between married Douce, heiress of Provence (1112). His dominions then stretched as far east as Nice.

In alliance with the Count of Urgell, Ramon Berenguer conquered Barbastro and Balaguer. He also established relations with the Italian maritime republics of Pisa and Genoa, and in 1114 and 1115 attacked with Pisa the then-Muslim islands of Majorca and Ibiza.[3] They became his tributaries and many Christian slaves there were recovered and set free. Ramon Berenguer also raided mainland Muslim dependencies with Pisa's help, such as Valencia, Lleida and Tortosa. In 1116, Ramon traveled to Rome to petition Pope Paschal II for a crusade to liberate Tarragona.[4] By 1118 he had captured and rebuilt Tarragona, which became the metropolitan seat of the church in Catalonia (before that, Catalans had depended ecclesiastically on the archbishopric of Narbonne).[citation needed]

In 1127, Ramon Berenguer signed a commercial treaty with the Genoese.[5] On July 14, 1130,[6] toward the end of his life, he became an associate member of the Templars.[7] He gave his five Catalan counties to his eldest son Ramon Berenguer IV and Provence to the younger son Berenguer Ramon.

He died on 23 January/19 July 1131 and was buried in the Santa Maria de Ripoll monastery.

Marriages and descendantsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Cheyette 2001, p. 20.
  2. ^ Reilly 2003, p. 107.
  3. ^ Reilly 1995, p. 176.
  4. ^ Reilly 1995, p. 177.
  5. ^ Phillips 2007, p. 254.
  6. ^ Upton-Ward 1992, p. 4.
  7. ^ Nicholson 2010, p. 102.
  8. ^ Sabaté 2017, p. 144.
  9. ^ a b Graham-Leigh 2005, p. table 4.

SourcesEdit

  • Cheyette, Fredric L. (2001). Ermengard of Narbonne and the World of the Troubadours. Cornell University Press.
  • Graham-Leigh, Elaine (2005). The Southern French Nobility and the Albigensian Crusade. The Boydell Press.
  • Nicholson, Helen (2010). A Brief History of the Knights Templar. Constable & Robinson Ltd.
  • Phillips, Jonathan P. (2007). The Second Crusade: Extending the Frontiers of Christendom. Yale University Press.
  • Reilly, Bernard F. (1995). The Contest Christian and Muslim Spain:1031-1157. Blackwell Publishing.
  • Reilly, Bernard F. (2003). The Medieval Spains. Cambridge University Press.
  • Sabaté, Flocel, ed. (2017). The Crown of Aragon: A Singular Mediterranean Empire. Brill.
  • Upton-Ward, J.M. (1992). The Rule of the Templars: The French Text of the Rule of the Order of the Knights Templar. The Boydell Press.
Preceded by Count of Osona
1086–1107
with Berenguer Ramon II (1082–1097)
Succeeded by
Count of Barcelona
1086–1131
with Berenguer Ramon II (1082–1097)
Succeeded by
Preceded by Count of Cerdanya
1118–1131
Preceded by Count of Provence
1112–1131
with Douce I (1112–1127)
Succeeded by