Rail transport in India
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|Rail transport in India|
|National railway||Indian Railways|
|Ridership||8.107 billion (2016)|
|Passenger km||1.143 billion (2016)|
|Freight||1.108 billion tonnes (2016)|
|Total||66,687 kilometres (route)
119,640 kilometres (total track)
|Electrified||23,555 kilometres (route)
43,357 kilometres (running track)
|1,676 mm (5 ft 6 in) broad gauge||61,037 km|
|1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1/2 in) standard gauge||? km|
|1,000 mm (3 ft 3 3/8 in) metre gauge||3,715 km|
|Two narrow gauges, 762 mm (2 ft 6 in) and 610 mm (2 ft)||1,935 km|
|Longest tunnel||Pir Panjal Railway Tunnel (11.215 km)|
|No. bridges||133,160 (2011)|
|Longest bridge||Vembanad Rail Bridge (4.62 km)|
|Highest elevation||2,257 m (7,405 ft)|
|at||Ghum on the Darjeeling Himalayan Railway|
|Lowest elevation||4 m (13 ft)|
Rail transport is commonly used mode of long-distance transport in India, especially for passenger travel. Almost all rail operations in India are handled by Indian Railways, a state-owned organization of the Ministry of Railways. As on 31 March 2016, the rail network traverses the length and breadth of the country, comprising 119,630 km of track over a route of 66,687 km and 7,216 stations. It is the fourth largest railway network in the world (after USA, Russia and China), transporting 8.107 billion passengers and over 1.108 billion tonnes of freight annually, as of 2016. Its operations cover twenty nine states and three union territories and also provides limited service to Nepal, Bangladesh and Pakistan.
Railways were introduced to India in 1853 from Mumbai to Thane, and by the time of India's independence in 1947 they had grown to forty-two rail systems. In 1951 the systems were nationalised as one unit—Indian Railways—to form one of the largest networks in the world. The entire network is in broad gauge barring urban rail and heritage railways. The steam locomotives have been replaced over the years with diesel and electric locomotives.
India has rail links with Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh and plans to install a rail system in southern Bhutan. Colour signal lights are used as signals, but in some remote areas of operation, older semaphores and disc-based signalling are still in use. Accommodation classes range from general to first class with air conditioning and trains are classified according to speed and area of operation. The ticketing system has been computerised to a large extent, and there are reserved as well as unreserved categories of tickets.
The laying of railways in India is also described by some scholars such as Tharoor as one of the prime examples of British colonial loot, as companies were encouraged to overspend due to the high rates of returns that had been proposed to the British shareholders of railway companies. "As a result, each mile of Indian railway construction in the 1850s and 1860s cost an average of £18,000, as against the dollar equivalent of £2,000 at the same time in the US."
A plan for a rail system in India was first put forward in 1832 by the British East India Company. The first rail line of the Indian sub-continent came up near Chintadripet Bridge (presently in Chennai) in Madras Presidency in 1836 as an experimental line. In 1837, a 3.5-mile (5.6 km) long rail line was established between Red Hills and stone quarries near St. Thomas Mount. In 1844, the Governor-General of India Lord Hardinge allowed private entrepreneurs to set up a rail system in India. The East India Company (and later the British Government) encouraged new railway companies backed by private investors under a scheme that would provide land and guarantee an annual return of up to five percent during the initial years of operation. The companies were to build and operate the lines under a 99-year lease, with the government having the option to buy them earlier.
Two new railway companies, Great Indian Peninsular Railway (GIPR) and East Indian Railway (EIR), were created in 1853–54 to construct and operate two 'experimental' lines near Mumbai and Kolkata respectively. The first train in India had become operational on 22 December 1851 for localised hauling of canal construction material in Roorkee. A year and a half later, on 16 April 1853, the first passenger train service was inaugurated between Bori Bunder in Mumbai and Thane. Covering a distance of 34 kilometres (21 mi), it was hauled by three locomotives, Sahib, Sindh, and Sultan. This was soon followed by opening of the first passenger railway line in North India between Allahabad and Kanpur on 3 March 1859.
In 1854 Lord Dalhousie, the then Governor-General of India, formulated a plan to construct a network of trunk lines connecting the principal regions of India. Encouraged by the government guarantees, investment flowed in and a series of new rail companies were established, leading to rapid expansion of the rail system in India. Soon various native states built their own rail systems and the network spread to the regions that became the modern-day states of Assam, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh. The route mileage of this network increased from 1,349 kilometres (838 mi) in 1860 to 25,495 kilometres (15,842 mi) in 1880 – mostly radiating inland from the three major port cities of Mumbai, Madras, and Calcutta. Most of the railway construction was done by Indian companies. The railway line from Lahore to Delhi was done B.S.D. Bedi and Sons (Baba Shib Dayal Bedi), this included the building of the Jamuna Bridge. By 1895, India had started building its own locomotives, and in 1896 sent engineers and locomotives to help build the Uganda Railway.
At the beginning of the twentieth century India had a multitude of rail services with diverse ownership and management, operating on broad, metre and narrow gauge networks. In 1900 the government took over the GIPR network, while the company continued to manage it. With the arrival of the First World War, the railways were used to transport troops and foodgrains to the port city of Mumbai and Karachi en route to UK, Mesopotamia, East Africa etc. By the end of the First World War, the railways had suffered immensely and were in a poor state. In 1923, both GIPR and EIR were nationalised with the state assuming both ownership and management control.
It was after independence that railways in India truly expanded, as new lines were laid keeping the needs of Indian people in mind and new factories were set up in India to build locomotives, coaches and rails including those at Chittaranjan. The forty-two separate railway systems, including thirty-two lines owned by the former Indian princely states, were amalgamated to form a single unit named the Indian Railways. The existing rail networks were abandoned in favour of zones in 1951 and a total of six zones came into being in 1952. India also started converting all metre and narrow gauges to broad gauge across the country.
As the economy of India improved, almost all railway production units were 'indigenised' (produced in India). By 1985, steam locomotives were phased out in favour of diesel and electric locomotives. The entire railway reservation system was streamlined with computerisation between 1987 and 1995.
In 2003, the Indian Railways celebrated 150 years of its existence. Various zones of the railways celebrated the event by running heritage trains on routes similar to the ones on which the first trains in the zones ran. The Ministry of Railways commemorated the event by launching a special logo celebrating the completion of 150 years of service. Also launched was a new mascot for the 150th year celebrations, named "Bholu the guard elephant".
In February 2017, Finance Minister Arun Jaitley allocated US$15 billion in the Union Budget towards improvement of the safety systems on the railway network. As part of the plan, wheel-based sensors and fixed monitors will be installed at certain positions on the track and used to detect fractures in the track. Indian Railways will phase out the current system of daily track inspections carried out manually by 125,000 engineers.
Indian Railways use a specialised classification code for identifying its locomotives. The code is usually three or four letters, followed by a digit identifying the model (either assigned chronologically or encoding the power rating of the locomotive). This could be followed by other codes for minor variations in the base model.
The three (or four) letters are, from left to right, up to down[clarification needed] the gauge of tracks on which the locomotive operates, the type of power source or fuel for the locomotive, and the kind of operation the locomotive can be used for. The gauge is coded as 'W' for broad gauge, 'Y' for metre gauge, 'Z' for the 762 mm narrow gauge and 'N' for the 610 mm narrow gauge. The power source code is 'D' for diesel, 'A' for AC traction, 'C' for DC traction and 'CA' for dual traction only operation, 'P' for passenger trains-only operation, 'M' for mixed operation (both passenger and freight) and 'S' for shunting operation. A number alongside it indicates the power rating of the engine. For example, '4' would indicate a power rating of above 4,000 hp (2,980 kW) but below 5,000 hp (3,730 kW). A letter following the number is used to give an exact rating. For instance 'A' would be an additional 100 horsepower (75 kW); 'B' 200 hp (150 kW) and so on. For example, a WAM-3D is a broad-gauge, electric-powered, mixed mode (suitable for both freight and passenger duties) and has a power rating of 3400 hp (2.5 MW).
There is a wide variety of electric locomotives used, ranging between 2,800 and 6,500 hp (2.1 to 4.85 MW).in the Indian railway. They also accommodate the different track voltages in use. Most electrified sections in the country use 25,000 volt AC, but railway lines around Mumbai use the older 1,500 V DC system. Thus, Mumbai and surrounding areas are the only places where one can find AC/DC dual locomotives of the WCAM and WCAG series. All other electric locomotives are pure AC ones from the WAP, WAG and WAM series. Some specialised EMU (electric multiple units) are running on Mumbai Suburban System of Central Railway and Western Railway also use dual-power systems, these are new-age rakes manufactured in ICF (Integral Coach Factory) in Perambur usually white and purple livery color. There are also some very rare battery-powered locomotives, primarily used for shunting and yard work.
The only steam engines still in service in India operate on two heritage lines (Darjeeling Himalayan Railway and Nilgiri Mountain Railway), and on the tourist train Palace on Wheels. Plans are afoot to bring back steam engines on the Matheran Hill Railway. The oldest steam engine in the world in regular service, the Fairy Queen, operates between Delhi and Alwar.
The Indian Railways use colour signal lights, but in some remote areas of operation, the older semaphores and discs-based signalling (depending on the position or colour) are still in use. Except for some high-traffic sections around large cities and junctions, the network does not use automatic block systems. However, the signals at stations are almost invariably interlocked with the setting of points (routes) and so safety does not depend on the skill of the station masters. With the planned introduction of Cab signalling/Anti collision devices the element of risk on account of drivers overshooting signals will also be eliminated.
Coloured signalling uses multi-coloured lighting, and in many places is automatically controlled. There are three modes:
- Two aspect signalling, which uses a red (bottom) and green (top) lamp
- Three aspect signalling, which uses an additional amber lamp in the centre
- Four (multiple) aspect signalling uses four lamps. The fourth is amber and is placed above the other three.
Multiple aspect signals, by providing several intermediate speed stages between 'clear' and 'on', allow high-speed trains sufficient time to brake safely if required. This becomes very important as train speeds rise. Without multiple-aspect signals, the stop signals must be placed far apart to allow sufficient braking distance and this reduces track utilisation. At the same time, slower trains can also be run closer together on track with multiple aspect signals.
Semaphores make use of a mechanical arm to indicate the line condition. Several subtypes are used:
- Two aspect lower quadrant
- Three aspect modified lower quadrant
- Multiple aspect upper quadrant
- Disc-based: These signals are located close to levers used to operate points. They are all two-aspect signals.
The Chittaranjan Locomotive Works in Chittaranjan makes electric locomotives. The Diesel Locomotive Works in Varanasi makes diesel locomotives. The Integral Coach Factory in Perambur, Chennai makes integral coaches. These have a monocoque construction, and the floor is an integral unit with the undercarriage. The Rail Coach Factory in Kapurthala also makes coaches. The Rail Wheel Factory at Yelahanka, Bangalore and Rail Wheel Plant, Bela, Chhapra, Bihar manufactures wheels and axles, Diesel-Loco Modernisation Works, Patiala upgrade the WDM-2 Diesel loco from 2600 hp to 3100 hp. Some electric locomotives have been supplied by BHEL, Jhansi and Palakkad, and locomotive components are manufactured in several other plants around the country.
Trains are sorted into various categories that dictate the number of stops along their route, the priority they enjoy on the network, and the fare structure. Each express train is identified by a five-digit number, the first digit as 1 and 2 for long-distance Express trains. If the first digit is 0, then the train is a Special. The first digit as 5 denotes a passenger train. The second digit indicates the zone that operates the train, the third the division within the zone that controls the train and is responsible for its regular maintenance and cleanliness, and the last two digits are the train's serial number. The system was changed from four digits from 20 December 2010, to accommodate an increasing number of trains.
For super-fast trains, the second digit is always 2 (the first remains 1 or 2), the third digit is the zone, the fourth is the division and only the last digit is the serial number within the division. Trains travelling in opposite directions along the same route are usually labelled with consecutive numbers. However, there is considerable variation in train numbers and some zones, such as Central Railway, has a less systematic method for numbering trains. Most express trains also have a unique name that is usually exotic and taken from landmarks, famous people, rivers and so on.
Hierarchy of trainsEdit
Trains are classified by their average speed. A faster train has fewer stops ("halts") than a slower one and usually caters to long-distance travellers.
|1||Duronto Express||These are the non-stop point to point trains (except for operational stops) introduced in 2009 connecting metros and major state capitals and are faster than Rajdhani Express. They consist of first AC, two-tier AC, three-tier AC and sleeper classes.They have top speeds around 130-145 km/h (81-90 mph).|
|2||Rajdhani Express||These are air-conditioned trains linking major cities to New Delhi. They are one of the fastest trains in India, travelling at about 140 km (87 mi) per hour. There are only a few stops on a Rajdhani route.|
|3||Shatabdi Express and Jan Shatabdi Express||These are air-conditioned and non-airconditioned respectively intercity trains for day travel. They generally have only seats. Some of them also have one coach with berths. They travel at 140-150 (90-93 mph) km/h and 120 km/h (75 mph) respectively.|
|4||Garib Rath||These trains contain AC three-tier and AC chair car coaches with fares less than the fares for the same classes in other trains. They are almost as fast as Shatabdi and Rajdhani trains.|
|5||Superfast Express||These trains have an average speed greater than 55 km (34 mi) per hour and stop at a few stations. The tickets for these trains have an additional superfast surcharge.|
|6||Express and Mail trains[disambiguation needed]||These are the most common kind of trains in India. They have more stops than their superfast counterparts but they stop only at relatively important intermediate stations.|
|7||Passenger and Fast Passenger||These are slow trains that stop at most stations along the route and have the lowest fare. The trains generally have unreserved seating accommodation but some night trains have sleeper and 3A coaches.|
|8||Suburban trains||These trains operate in urban and suburban areas of major cities, usually stop at all stations, have unreserved seating accommodation and also have one or more separate coaches only for women. They have the same low fare as passenger trains. Monthly and quarterly tickets (referred to as season tickets) for suburban trains are also available at subsidised prices.|
Delhi Metro, operational since 2002
The first modern rapid transit in India was the Kolkata Metro, with operations starting in 1984. Chennai MRTS acts as second urban mass transit system since 1997 and differs from country's other MRTS suburban systems. The Delhi Metro in the capital city of New Delhi is third conventional metro beginning operations in 2002.The Namma Metro in Bangalore is India's fourth operational rapid transit beginning operations in 2011. Currently, rapid transit systems have been deployed in these cities and more are under construction or in planning in several major cities of India.
Cities that have a metro system:
Metro systems under Construction
The Mumbai Monorail is the first monorail system in India after the Patiala State Monorail Trainways closed in 1927. The Wadala-Chembur section opened in February 2014, and the rail company plans to extend service to Sant Gadge Maharaj Chowk in South Mumbai. Another monorail system under construction is the Thiruvananthapuram Monorail. Monorail systems have been planned in Chennai, Bangalore, Delhi, Indore, Kanpur, Kolkata, Kozhikode, Navi Mumbai, Patna, Pune, Aizawl and Tiruchirappalli.
Tram and Light railEdit
The advent of the British had seen trams introduced in many cities in India. Cities that introduced tram systems in India included Kolkata, Mumbai, Delhi, Patna, Kanpur, Nasik and Chennai. While the other cities had discontinued tram services between 1930 and 1960, Kolkata has remained the only city in India with an operating tram network.
Many cities have their own dedicated suburban networks to cater to commuters. Currently, suburban networks operate in Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata, Delhi, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, Pune, Lucknow-Kanpur and Bangalore.
India has some of the lowest train fares in the world, and passenger traffic is heavily subsidised by more expensive higher class fares. Until the late 1980s, Indian Railway ticket reservations were done manually. In late 1987, the Railways started using a computerised ticketing system. The entire ticketing system went online in 1995 to provide up to date information on status and availability. Today the ticketing network is computerised to a large extent, with the exception of some remote places. Computerized tickets can be booked for any two points in the country. Tickets can also be booked through the internet and via mobile phones, though this method carries an additional surcharge.
Discounted tickets are available for senior citizens (above sixty years) and some other categories of passengers including the disabled, students, sports persons, persons affected by serious diseases, or persons appearing for competitive examinations. One compartment of the lowest class of accommodation is earmarked for ladies in every passenger carrying train. Some berths or seats in sleeper class and second class are also earmarked for ladies. Season tickets permitting unlimited travel on specific sections or specific trains for a specific time period may also be available. Foreign tourists can buy an Indrail Pass, which is modelled on the Eurail Pass, permitting unlimited travel in India for a specific time period.
For long-distance travel, reservation of a berth can be done for comfortable travel up to 120 days before the date of intended travel. Details such as the name, age and concession (if eligible) are required and are recorded on the ticket. The ticket price usually includes the base fare, which depends on the classification of the train (example: super-fast surcharge if the train is classified as a super-fast), the class in which one wishes to travel and the reservation charge for overnight journeys.
If a seat is not available, then the ticket is given a wait listed number; else the ticket is confirmed, and a berth number is printed on the ticket. A person receiving a wait listed ticket must wait until there are enough cancellations to enable him to move up the list and obtain a confirmed ticket. If his ticket is not confirmed on the day of departure, he may not board the train. Some of the tickets are assigned to the RAC or Reservation against Cancellation, which is between the waiting list and the confirmed list. These allow the ticket holder to board the train and obtain an allotted seat decided by a ticket collector, after the ticket collector has ascertained that there is a vacant (absentee) seat.
Reserved Railway Tickets can be booked through the website of Indian Railway Catering and Tourism Corporation Ltd. and also through mobile Phones and SMS. Tickets booked through this site are categorised into iTickets and eTickets. iTickets are booked by a passenger and then printed and delivered to the passenger for carrying during journey. eTickets are printed by the passenger and carried while travelling. While travelling on an eTicket, one must carry one of the authorised valid Photo Identity Cards. Cancellation of eTickets are also done online, without the requirement for the passenger to go to any counter. Unreserved tickets are available for purchase on the platform at any time before departure. An unreserved ticket holder may only board the general compartment class. All suburban networks issue unreserved tickets valid for a limited time period. For frequent commuters, a season pass (monthly or quarterly) guarantees unlimited travel between two stops.
India has rail links with Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. It also plans to install a rail system in southern Bhutan. A move to link the railways of India and Sri Lanka never materialised. However, for a while a train ferry, the Boat Mail existed.
Before the Partition of India there were eight rail links between what are now India and Pakistan. However, currently there are only two actively maintained rail links between the two countries. The first one is at Wagah in Punjab. The Samjhauta Express plies this route from Amritsar in India to Lahore in Pakistan. The second one, the Thar Express, opened in 2006 runs between Munabao (in Rajasthan in India) and Khokhrapar (in Sindh in Pakistan). Other discussed links are Ferozepur–Samasata, Ferozepur–Lahore, Amritsar–Lahore, Amritsar–Sialkot and Jammu–Sialkot.
After the creation of East Pakistan (later Bangladesh), many trains that used to run between Assam and Bengal had to be rerouted through the Siliguri Corridor. As of March 2010, there exists one passenger link between India and Bangladesh, the Maitree Express, which plies between Kolkata and Dhaka twice a week. A rail link exists between Mahisasan (Mohishashon) and Shahbazpur. Another link is between Radhikapur and Birol. These two links are used occasionally for freight. A rail link between Akhaura in Bangladesh and Agartala in India was approved by the Government of India in September 2011. The 15 km rail line will cost ₹2.52 billion and is expected to be completed by 2014.
- The Indian railways is also planning to build the Bilaspur-Mandi-Leh Railway, which would be the highest railway track in the world, overtaking the current record of the Beijing-Lhasa Railway line.
- Indian Railways has planned to install a rail system in southern Bhutan that would be connected to India.
- A railway between Manipur, India and Burma is under construction.
- On 9 April 2010, Union Minister of India, Shashi Tharoor announced that the central government is considering a rail link from Manipur to Vietnam via Burma.
- Indian Railways and rail authorities in China are interested in starting a high-speed rail link that would link New Delhi with Kunming, China via Myanmar The rail link would utilise the under construction railway from Manipur, India to Burma and the under construction railway from Kunming to Burma.
- A rail link to Thailand is possible if Burma Railway is rebuilt. Would also allow trains to Malaysia and Singapore.
- A rail link between Akhaura in Bangladesh and Agartala in India was approved by the Government of India in September 2011. The 15 km rail line will cost ₹2.52 billion and is expected to be completed by 2015. The project and laying off new tracks will be done by Ircon International
Though the Indian Railways enjoys a near monopoly in India, a few private railways do exist, left over from the days of the Raj, usually small sections on private estates, etc. There are also some railway lines owned and operated by companies for their own purposes, by plantations, sugar mills, collieries, mines, dams, harbours and ports, etc. The Mumbai Port Trust runs a BG railway of its own, as does the Madras Port Trust. The Calcutta Port Commission Railway of Calcutta Port Trust is a BG railway. The Visakhapatnam Port Trust has BG railway.
The Bhilai Steel Plant has a BG railway network. The Tatas (a private concern) operate funicular railways at Bhira and at Bhivpuri Road (as well as the Kamshet–Shirawta Dam railway line, which is not a public line). These are not common carriers, so the general public cannot travel using these. The Pipavav Rail Corporation holds a 33-year concession for building and operating a railway line from Pipavav to Surendranagar. The Kutch Railway Company, a joint venture of the Gujarat state government and private parties, is involved (along with the Kandla Port Trust and the Gujarat Adani Port) to build a Gandhidham–Palanpur railway line. These railway lines are principally used to carry freight and not for passenger traffic.
Although generally IR has decided the freight tariffs on these lines, recently (February 2005) there have been proposals to allow the operating companies freedom to set freight tariffs and generally run the lines without reference to IR.
A Daily Telegraph article says that Indian railway officials believe that a large proportion of bodies found dead on Indian railways died elsewhere and were put on the railway in dishonest attempts to get compensation from the railway authorities and companies.
According to the Report of High Level Safety Review Committee of 2012, from 2007–08 to October 2011 casualties in train accidents accounted for 1,019 deaths and 2,118 injuries. In the same period, 1,600 railway staff were killed and 8,700 injured. The committee estimates as well that almost 15,000 persons get killed each year by what is called unlawful trespassing.
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