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- a manufacturing company,
- a railway undertaking providing services through operating rolling stock,
- a railway infrastructure manager.
In Europe, the EU requires its members to separate the national railway infrastructure managers from railway undertakings which are public and private companies providing services by operating rolling stock. This ensures conditions enabling the latter companies to compete fairly among each other, with multiple companies bidding for the privilege to operate the line for a limited time period under public service obligation aided by railway subsidies or under franchising. In addition, other companies offer trackside and rolling stock maintenance.
Some countries have in turn a national railway company that owns all track and operates all trains in the country, for instance the Russian Railways (the world's largest rail company by network size). Other countries have many different, sometimes competing, railway companies that operate each their own lines, particularly in the United States and Canada. Countries may have both public and private railway companies, for instance the United States, where the publicly-owned Amtrak exists alongside numerous private operators.
See also edit
- "A Primer On The Railroad Sector". Investopedia. Retrieved 4 February 2022.
- "Russian railway monopoly plans to sell railcars, equipment to India". tass.com. 5 October 2018. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
- "Freight Rail Map of Class I Carriers in North America - ACW Railway Company". www.acwr.com. Retrieved 2022-06-01.
- "Understanding Amtrak and the Importance of Passenger Rail in the United States". Center for American Progress. 2015-06-04. Retrieved 2022-06-01.