Raghunandana

Raghunandana (c. 16th century CE) was an Indian Sanskrit scholar from the Bengal region. His writings include 28 Smriti digests on Hindu law and a commentary on Dayabhaga.[1]

Raghunandana
Bornc. 16th century CE
Other namesRaghunandan Bhattacharyya, Raghunandana Bhaṭṭācāryya
OccupationSanskrit writer

LifeEdit

Raghunandana was born at Nabadwip, to Harihara Bhattacharya. He was a pupil of Srinatha Acharya Chudamani.[1] His writings mention Rayamukuta (1431 CE), and are mentioned by Viramitrodaya of Mitramisra (early 17th century). Thus, it can be inferred that Raghunandana lived around 16th century CE.[2]

The various estimates of his lifespan include:[3]

  • Rajendra Chandra Hazra: 1520-1570
  • Monmohan Chakravarti: born 1490 or 1500, literary activity during 1520-1575
  • Pandurang Vaman Kane: 1510-1580

Bani Chakravarti wrote a book on him, titled Samaj-samskarak Raghunandan (1964), in Bengali language.[1]

WorksEdit

Astavimsati-tattvaEdit

Raghunandana authored 28 Smriti digests on civil law and rituals, collectively known as Astavimsati-tattva.[4] The English scholars compared Raghunandana's digests to the Comyns' Digest, and called him the "Comyns of India".[3]

The titles of these digests end in the word tattva (literally "essence"). 27 of these works are mentioned at the beginning of Malamasa-tattva.[2]

The 28 digests include:[4][2]

  1. Ahnika-tattva
  2. Chandoga-vrsotsarga-tattva
  3. Daya-tattva
  4. Deva-pratishtha-tattva
  5. Diksha-tattva
  6. Divya-tattva
  7. Durgotsava-tattva
  8. Ekadashi-tattva
  9. Janmashtami-tattva
  10. Jyotisha-tattva
  11. Krtya-tattva
  12. Malamasa-tattva (or Malimluca-tattva)
  13. Matha-pratishtha-tattva
  14. Prayashchitta-tattva
  15. Purushottama-kshetra-tattva
  16. Rg-vrsotsarga-tattva
  17. Sama-shraddha-tattva
  18. Samskara-tattva
  19. Shuddhi-tattva
  20. Sudra-krtya-tattva
  21. Taddga-bhavanotsarga-tattva
  22. Tithi-tattva
  23. Vastuydga-tattva
  24. Vivaha-tattva (or Udvaha-tattva)
  25. Vrata-tattva
  26. Vyavahara-tattva
  27. Yajuh-shraddha-tattva
  28. Yajur-vrsotsarga-tattva

Chandoga-vrsotsarga-tattva, Rgvrsotsarga-tattva and Yajur-vrsotsarga-tattva are collectively known as Vrsotsarga-tattva. Deva-pratishtha-tattva and Matha-pratishtha-tattva are collectively known as Pratishtha-tattva.[2]

Commentary on DayabhagaEdit

Raghunandana's Dayabhaga-tika, also known as Dayabhaga-vyakhya[na], is a commentary on Jimutavahana's Hindu law treatise Dayabhaga. During the British Raj, when Hindu law was used in the courts, the Calcutta High Court termed Raghunandana's Dayabhaga-tika as the best commentary on Dayabhaga.[4] William Jones, a puisne judge at the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William, mentioned that the local Hindu scholars often referred to Jimutavahana's treatise, but it was Raghunandana's work that was "more generally approved" in Bengal.[3]

The commentary quotes several other scholars and writings, including Medhatithi, Kulluka Bhatta, Mitakshara, Vivada-Ratnakara of Chandeshvara Thakura, Shulapani and Vivada-Chintamani of Vachaspati Mishra (often critically).[3]

There have been some doubts about the authorship of this commentary. Both Henry Thomas Colebrooke (1810) and Julius Eggeling (1891) suspected that it was not authored by the writer of Divya-tattva (that is, Raghunandana). However, Monmohan Chakravarti (1915) and Rajendra Chandra Hazra (1950) both attribute the work to Raghunandana. Pandurang Vaman Kane also ascribes the commentary to him, but not without hesitation.[3]

Other worksEdit

His other works include:[2]

  • Gaya-shraddha paddhati
  • Graha-yaga-tattva (or Graha-pramana-tattva)
  • Tirtha-yatra-tattva (or Tirtha-tattva)
  • Tripuskara-santi-tattva
  • Dvadasa-yatra-tattva (or Yatra-tattva)
  • Rasa-yatra tattva (or Rasa-yatra paddhati)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Sures Chandra Banerji (1989). A Companion to Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. pp. 76–77. ISBN 978-81-208-0063-2.
  2. ^ a b c d e Sures Chandra Banerji (1999). A Brief History of Dharmaśāstra. Abhinav Publications. p. 45. ISBN 978-81-7017-370-0.
  3. ^ a b c d e Ludo Rocher (2002). Jimutavahana's Dayabhaga : The Hindu Law of Inheritance in Bengal: The Hindu Law of Inheritance in Bengal. Oxford University Press. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-19-803160-4.
  4. ^ a b c Ganga Ram Garg, ed. (1992). Encyclopaedia of the Hindu World. Concept Publishing Company. p. 739. ISBN 978-81-7022-376-4.