Radula marginata

Radula marginata (Wairuakohu) is a species of plant in genus Radula,[1] a genus of liverworts. It is endemic to New Zealand.[2][3] It has been found to contain cannabinoids.[4][5]

Radula marginata
Scientific classification
R. marginata
Binomial name
Radula marginata


Users smoking the plant have experienced different effects.[6][citation needed] The cannabinoid is not THC, the main psychoactive chemical in cannabis, but it is of similar molecular structure.[4] The liverwort contains perrottetinene and perrottetinenic acid.[4] The quantity of cannabinoid present is much less than in cannabis. Perrottetinene has been shown to be a moderately potent CB1 agonist leading to mild psychoactive effects in mice.[7]

Legal statusEdit

The liverwort grows as a common weed.[citation needed] Owning, growing and distributing the liverwort is legal.

Radula marginata may have been used in rongoā (Māori herbal medicine), but there is no firm evidence of this.


  1. ^ Hussain, Tajammul; Espley, Richard V.; Gertsch, Jürg; Whare, Tracey; Stehle, Felix; Kayser, Oliver (2019). "Demystifying the liverwort Radula marginata, a critical review on its taxonomy, genetics, cannabinoid phytochemistry and pharmacology". Phytochemistry Reviews. 18 (3): 953–965. doi:10.1007/s11101-019-09638-8. S2CID 199517648.
  2. ^ http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20l?id=GBIF2550163
  3. ^ http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20l?id=GBIF2550057
  4. ^ a b c Toyota, M.; et al. (2002). "New bibenzyl cannabinoid from the New Zealand liverwort Radula marginata" (PDF). Chem Pharm Bull. 50 (10): 1390. doi:10.1248/cpb.50.1390.
  5. ^ Hussain, Tajammul; Plunkett, Blue; Ejaz, Mahwish; Espley, Richard V.; Kayser, Oliver (2018). "Identification of Putative Precursor Genes for the Biosynthesis of Cannabinoid-Like Compound in Radula marginata". Frontiers in Plant Science. 9: 537. doi:10.3389/fpls.2018.00537. PMC 5954354. PMID 29868043.
  6. ^ http://www.tripme.co.nz/forums/showthread.php?t=1943
  7. ^ Chicca, A.; Schafroth, M. A.; Reynoso-Moreno, I.; Erni, R.; Petrucci, V.; Carreira, E. M.; Gertsch, J. (1 October 2018). "Uncovering the psychoactivity of a cannabinoid from liverworts associated with a legal high". Science Advances. 4 (10): eaat2166. Bibcode:2018SciA....4.2166C. doi:10.1126/sciadv.aat2166. ISSN 2375-2548. PMC 6200358. PMID 30397641.