Amateur radio operator

  (Redirected from Radio amateurs)

An amateur radio operator is someone who uses equipment at an amateur radio station to engage in two-way personal communications with other amateur operators on radio frequencies assigned to the amateur radio service. Amateur radio operators have been granted an amateur radio license by a governmental regulatory authority after passing an examination on applicable regulations, electronics, radio theory, and radio operation. As a component of their license, amateur radio operators are assigned a call sign that they use to identify themselves during communication. There are about three million amateur radio operators worldwide.[1]

An amateur radio operator

Amateur radio operators are also known as radio amateurs or hams. The term "ham" as a nickname for amateur radio operators originated in a pejorative usage (like "ham actor") by operators in commercial and professional radio communities, and dates to wired telegraphy.[2][3] The word was subsequently adopted by amateur radio operators.

DemographicsEdit

Country Number of amateur
radio operators
% population Year of
Report
Source
  United States 761,317 0.233 2019 [4]
  Japan 435,581 0.343 2015 [5]
  Thailand 101,763 0.147 2018 [6]
  China 150,000 0.010 2019 [7]
  Germany 63,070 0.073 2019 [8]
  Canada 70,198 0.187 2018 [9]
  Republic of China 68,692 0.296 1999 [6]
  Spain 58,700 0.127 1999 [6]
  United Kingdom 75,660 0.114 2018 [10]
  South Korea 42,632 0.082 2012 [11]
  Russia 38,000 0.026 1993 [6]
  Brazil 32,053 0.016 1997 [6]
  Italy 30,000 0.049 1993 [6]
  Indonesia 27,815 0.011 1997 [6]
  France 14,160 0.02 2013 [6]
  Ukraine 17,265 0.037 2000 [6]
  Argentina 16,889 0.042 1999 [6]
  Poland 13,600 0.035 2020 [12]
  Australia 15,068 0.059 2020 [13]
  India 15,679 0.001 2000 [6]
  Sweden 12,881 0.114 2020 [14]
  Netherlands 12,582 0.07 2018 [15]
  Malaysia 10,509 0.04 2016 [6]
  Denmark 8,668 0.156 2012 [16]
  Slovenia 6,500 0.317 2000 [6]
  Austria 6,228 0.070 2019 [17]
  New Zealand 6,000 0.12 1994 [6]
  South Africa 6,000 0.012 1994 [6]
  Norway 5,302 0.106 2000 [6]
  Finland 5,000 0.090 2016 [18]
  Serbia 3,962 0.056 2020 [19]
  Romania 3,527 0.018 2017 [20]
  Ireland 1,945 0.039 2020 [21][22]
  Estonia 700 0.052 2020

Few governments maintain detailed demographic statistics of their amateur radio operator populations, aside from recording the total number of licensed operators. The majority of amateur radio operators worldwide reside in the United States, Japan, and the nations of East Asia, North America, and Europe. The top five countries by percentage of the population are Japan, Slovenia, Taiwan, South Korea and Thailand. Only the governments of Yemen and North Korea currently prohibit their citizens from becoming amateur radio operators. In some countries, acquiring an amateur radio license is difficult because of the bureaucratic processes or fees that place access to a license out of reach for most citizens. Most nations permit foreign nationals to earn an amateur radio license, but very few amateur radio operators are licensed in multiple countries.

GenderEdit

In the vast majority of countries, the population of amateur radio operators is predominantly male. In China, 12% of amateur radio operators are women,[23] while approximately 15% of amateur radio operators in the United States are women.[24] The Young Ladies Radio League is an international organization of female amateur radio operators.

A male amateur radio operator can be referred to as an OM, an abbreviation used in Morse code telegraphy for "old man", regardless of the operator's age. A female amateur radio operator can be referred to as a YL, from the abbreviation used for "young lady", regardless of the operator's age. XYL was once used by amateur radio operators to refer to an unlicensed woman, usually the wife of a male amateur radio operator; today, the term has come to mean any female spouse of an amateur radio operator, licensed or not. Sometimes the wife of a ham operator is called a YF (wife). Although these codes are derived from English language abbreviations, their use is common among amateur radio operators worldwide.

AgeEdit

In most countries there is no minimum age requirement to earn an amateur radio license and become an amateur radio operator. Although the number of amateur radio operators in many countries increases from year to year[citation needed], the average age of amateur radio operators is quite high. In some countries, the average age is over 80 years old[citation needed], with most amateur radio operators earning their license in their 40s or 50s.[citation needed]

Some national radio societies have responded to this by developing programs specifically to encourage youth participation in amateur radio, such as the American Radio Relay League's Amateur Radio Education and Technology Program.[25] The World Wide Young Contesters organization promotes youth involvement, particularly amongst Europeans, in competitive radio contesting. A strong tie also exists between the amateur radio community and the Scouting movement to introduce radio technology to youth. WOSM's annual Jamboree On The Air is Scouting's largest activity, with a half million Scouts and Guides speaking with each other using amateur radio each October.[26]

US Amateurs by StateEdit

State Total % Rank Club
AA 4 0.00 59 0
AE 157 0.02 56 0
AK 3847 0.46 45 80
AL 13228 1.59 22 244
AP 144 0.02 57 1
AR 8914 1.07 31 129
AS 25 0.00 58 3
AZ 23130 2.78 9 249
CA 115787 13.93 1 1528
CO 20369 2.45 16 222
CT 8178 0.98 32 188
DC 587 0.07 52 54
DE 1930 0.23 50 38
FL 46856 5.64 3 610
GA 20650 2.48 14 390
GU 334 0.04 54 13
HI 4386 0.53 43 117
IA 6993 0.84 35 119
ID 10404 1.25 28 85
IL 21467 2.58 13 367
IN 16798 2.02 18 303
KS 7953 0.96 33 143
KY 10376 1.25 29 147
LA 6823 0.82 37 166
MA 14641 1.76 21 272
MD 12139 1.46 25 184
ME 4980 0.60 41 81
MI 22834 2.75 10 375
MN 12520 1.51 23 185
MO 16699 2.01 19 262
MP 353 0.04 53 18
MS 5849 0.70 39 131
MT 4450 0.54 42 63
NC 23549 2.83 8 337
ND 1729 0.21 51 53
NE 4083 0.49 44 81
NH 6035 0.73 38 112
NJ 14834 1.78 20 295
NM 7237 0.87 34 131
NV 8918 1.07 30 112
NY 29588 3.56 6 531
OH 30148 3.63 5 511
OK 10701 1.29 27 152
OR 22242 2.68 11 354
PA 26132 3.14 7 437
PR 5117 0.62 40 108
RI 2143 0.26 48 71
SC 10844 1.30 26 147
SD 2122 0.26 49 33
TN 20416 2.46 15 261
TX 58415 7.03 2 737
UT 19513 2.35 17 116
VA 22217 2.67 12 298
VI 298 0.04 55 27
VT 2307 0.28 46 59
WA 37494 4.51 4 515
WI 12178 1.47 24 215
WV 6854 0.82 36 78
WY 2281 0.27 47 37

NOTE:[27]
AA..US Armed Forces Americas
AE..US Armed Forces Africa/Canada/Europe/Middle East
AP..US Armed Forces Pacific
AS..American Samoa
GU..Guam
MP..Mariana Islands
PR..Puerto Rico
VI..US Virgin Islands

Canadian Amateurs by ProvinceEdit

Province Total Rank
AB 7700 4
NL 1473 10
ON 23270 1
YT 214 12
BC 18827 3
NS 2647 5
PE 311 11
ZZ 1774 7
MB 2161 6
NT 95 13
QC 19039 2
NB 1688 8
NU 28 14
SK 1624 9

NOTE:[27]
ZZ..Canadian amateurs outside of Canada

Silent KeyEdit

When referring to a person, the phrase Silent Key, and its abbreviation SK, is a euphemism for an amateur radio operator who is deceased.[28] The procedural signal "SK" (or "VA") has historically been used in Morse code as the last signal sent from a station before ending operation,[29] usually just before shutting off the transmitter. Since this was the last signal received by other operators, the code was adopted to refer to any amateur radio operator who is deceased, regardless of whether they were known to have used telegraphy in their communications.

GalleryEdit

Notable amateur radio operatorsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Silver, H Ward (23 April 2004). Ham Radio for Dummies. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7645-5987-7. OCLC 55092631.
  2. ^ Hall, L. C. (January 1902). "Telegraph Talk and Talkers". McClure's Magazine. Vol. 18 no. 3. pp. 230–231.
  3. ^ "Word Origins - Ham". United States Early Radio History. Archived from the original on 15 November 2019.
  4. ^ "FCC License Counts". arrl.com. Archived from the original on 24 October 2019. Retrieved 30 November 2019.
  5. ^ "JARL News. Amateur radio stations. 2015". Retrieved 18 December 2016.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p "Thailand Reported to Have the Third Largest Ham Radio Population". American Radio Relay League (ARRL.org). Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  7. ^ "业余电台操作证书核发信息公告(ABC类及香港B类)" [Amateur Radio Operation Certificate Issue Information Announcement (ABC Class and Hong Kong Class B)]. Chinese Radio Amateurs Club. June 2019. Retrieved 28 March 2019.
  8. ^ "Amateurfunk". Bundesnetzagentur. 2019.
  9. ^ "Southgate Amateur Radio News". southgatearc.org. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
  10. ^ "How many UK radio amateurs are there?".
  11. ^ "Triennial Report from KARL". iaru-r3.org. Archived from the original on 2 February 2016. Retrieved 4 November 2012.
  12. ^ "UKE Radioamator". amator.uke.gov.pl. Retrieved 21 January 2020.
  13. ^ "ACMA Radiocomms license data". acma.gov.au. Retrieved 29 December 2020.
  14. ^ SSA callsign statistics published in QTC 12/2020
  15. ^ Agentschap Telecom - Ministerie van Economische Zaken en Klimaat "Staat van de Ether 2018". Retrieved 23 October 2019.
  16. ^ IT & Telestyrelsen Frekvensregister "IT & Telestyrelsen - Frekvensregister". Retrieved 11 January 2012.[permanent dead link]
  17. ^ "Rufzeichenliste österreichischer Amateurfunkstellen". Retrieved 19 December 2019.
  18. ^ "Mitä radioamatööritoiminta on?". SRAL.fi. Archived from the original on 1 June 2004. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  19. ^ "YU Amateur Radio Call Book". yu1srs.org.rs. Archived from the original on 17 September 2019. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  20. ^ "ANCOM Callbook Radioamatori". ancom.org.ro. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
  21. ^ "COMREG Licensing Database". www.comreg.ie. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  22. ^ "Population and Migration Estimates April 2020 - CSO - Central Statistics Office". www.cso.ie. Retrieved 18 April 2021.
  23. ^ Chinese Radio Sports Association (2004). "The Current Status of Amateur Radio in the Mainland of China". Proceedings of the International Amateur Radio Union's Region 3 Twelfth Regional Conference. Document No. 04/XII/057. Archived from the original on 6 March 2006. Retrieved 2 June 2006.
  24. ^ Harker, Kenneth E (15 March 2005). "A Study of Amateur Radio Gender Demographics". ARRL.org. Archived from the original on 23 February 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  25. ^ "The ARRL Amateur Radio Education & Technology Program". ARRL.org. Archived from the original on 25 June 2007. Retrieved 13 July 2007.
  26. ^ "All about JOTA". Scout.org. September 2006. Archived from the original on 9 May 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2008.
  27. ^ a b Amateurs by State
  28. ^ "Reporting a Silent Key". Amateur Radio Relay League. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  29. ^ "CW Operating Aids". AC6V. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017. Retrieved 6 January 2017.
  30. ^ https://w6yx.stanford.edu/images/Talks/David_Packard_and_Amateur_Radio_sm.pdf
  31. ^ https://www.ariss.org/uploads/1/1/1/6/111680627/2021-04-16_hams_in_space.pdf