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RPG Maker, known in Japan as RPG Tsukūru (RPGツクール, sometimes romanized as RPG Tkool), is the name of a series of programs for the development of role-playing video games (RPGs), created by the Japanese group ASCII, succeeded by Enterbrain. The Japanese name, Tsukūru, is a pun mixing the Japanese word tsukuru (作る), which means "make" or "create", with tsūru (ツール), the Japanese transcription of the English word "tool".
|Developer(s)||ASCII, Enterbrain, Agetec, Degica|
|Initial release||17 December 1992as RPG Tsukūru Dante 98|
RPG Maker MV / October 23, 2015
|Platform||PC-8801, MSX2, PC-9801, Super Famicom, Microsoft Windows, Sega Saturn, PlayStation, Game Boy Color, PlayStation 2, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, Nintendo 3DS, Linux, Nintendo Switch, PlayStation 4, MacOS|
|Available in||Japanese, Chinese, Korean, English|
|Type||Game creation software|
The RPG Maker series was originally released primarily in Japan, before later versions also released in East Asia, North America, Europe, and Australia. It is a popular game development engine, with hundreds of games created using RPG Maker released on Steam every year, including hundreds of commercial games.
RPG Maker is a program that allows users to create their own role-playing video games. Most versions include a tile set based map editor (tilesets are called chipsets in pre-XP versions), a simple scripting language for scripting events, and a battle editor. All versions include initial premade tilesets, characters, and events which can be used in creating new games. One feature of the PC Versions of RPG Maker programs is that a user can create new tilesets and characters, and add any new graphics the user wants.
Despite being geared towards creating role-playing video games, the engine also has the capability to create games of other genres, such as adventure games (see Yume Nikki) or visual novels with minimal tweaking.
RPG Tsukūru Dante 98Edit
According to Enterbrain, RPG Tsukūru Dante 98, released on December 17, 1992, was the first software of the RPG Maker series, although there were a few versions of RPG making software by ASCII preceding it, dating back to 1988. This, along with its follow-up RPG Tsukūru Dante 98 II, was made for NEC PC-9801, and games created with these programs can be played on a Windows computer with emulators called Dante for Windows and D2win, respectively.
RPG Maker 95Edit
RPG Maker 95 was the first Microsoft Windows-based RPG Maker software. Despite being an early version, RPG Maker 95 has both a higher screen resolution, and higher sprite and tile resolution than the several following versions.
RPG Maker 2000Edit
RPG Maker 2000, also referred to as RM2k, was the second release of RPG Maker for Microsoft Windows and is the most popular and used RPG Maker so far. While it is possible to do more with RM2k, it uses lower resolution sprites and tiles than RPG Maker 95. However, it does not have a noticeable limit of 'sprites'. Unlike RM95, which can only use one 'set', RM2k can use an unlimited number of sprite sheets with specific sizes for each type. The tilesets also have a similar non-limitation. However, because tiles must be entered into a database, there is a limit on tiles. This limit however is rarely a problem (normally 5000), and even when it is, an unofficial patch exists which can bump most limits much higher at the risk of potential game corruption. It doesn't support text output and can program only 2 buttons, Z and X. There is text in dialog boxes, by manner of overlaying sprites, or maps lain with text. But not plainly on the screen.
RPG Maker 2003Edit
RPG Maker 2003, also referred to as RM2k3, and sometimes RM2k/3, is largely an improvement of RM2k. RM2k games can be ported to RM2k3 (but not back to RM2k, the conversion is permanent), and most resources are interchangeable. The main difference is the introduction of a side-view battle system similar to that found in the Final Fantasy games on the Super NES and the Sony PlayStation. This was the first version made by Enterbrain, which had previously been a part of ASCII.
RPG Maker XPEdit
RPG Maker XP, also referred to as RMXP, is the first RPG Maker which can use Ruby, making it far more powerful than previous versions programming-wise. However, many normal, simplified features present in RM2k(3) have been removed. Most of these features, however, have been programmed with Ruby, and distributed online. RMXP runs at 1024x768 resolution (though games made in it run at 640x480), while offering four times the playable area of its predecessors. By default, games ran at 40 frames per second, though the game's scripts can be modified to set the framerate to any value. Additionally, it allows greater user control over sprite size (there is no specific image size regulation for sprite sheets) and other aspects of game design. This more open-ended arrangement, coupled with the inclusion of the Ruby Game Scripting System (RGSS), makes RPG Maker XP more versatile than older versions in the series, at the cost of a steeper learning curve. Upon the release of Windows Vista, many users experienced compatibility problems, although the fix was relatively simple.. XP used a front-view non-sprite battle system that allowed for the use of Battle backgrounds (Battlebacks). Both characters and enemies had static battle sprites, and the interface was quite simple.
RPG Maker VXEdit
RPG Maker VX, also referred to as RMVX, its Japanese release date was Dec. 27 2007, and official release date in America was February 29, 2008. In this new maker, the interface is more user-friendly, allowing new users to create games with ease. The framerate was increased to 60 frames per second, providing much smoother animation in comparison to RMXP's often-choppy 40fps. The programming language Ruby is still implemented, and the game's default programming has been overhauled to allow more freedom to those scripting in new features. New editor and a new RTP are included, this time in a much simpler "blocky" style. The default battle system is comparable to that of the Dragon Quest series or its predecessor RM2k, with a frontal view of the battlefield and detailed text descriptions of each action taken. One notable disadvantage from the previous version, however, is the lack of support for multiple tilesets when mapping, leaving the player with only a finite number of unique tiles with which to depict all the game's environments. Multiple player-made workarounds exist, but this remains a sore point among many RMVX users.
RPG Maker VX AceEdit
RPG Maker VX Ace, also known as VXAce or simply "Ace", was released by Enterbrain in Japan on December 15, 2011. It was released in the United States on March 15, 2012 as a digital download. It was later made available through Steam, and is also now available as a physical CD. RPG Maker VX Ace is essentially an overhauled version of RPG Maker VX, and removes the issue with multiple tilesets. Battle backgrounds were re-introduced, and are separated into top and bottom halves. Spells, skills, and items can all now have their own damage and recovery formulas, although a quick calculation method reminiscent of the older RPG Makers is available. The VX RTP was redesigned for VX Ace, and a new soundtrack featuring higher quality techno-pop tracks was included. With VX Ace came a large quantity of DLC Resource Packages offered by Enterbrain, and also available through Steam.
RPG Maker MVEdit
RPG Tsukūru Super DanteEdit
Victor Reetz created the first console RPG Maker, RPG Tsukūru Super Dante, which debuted in 1995 for the Super Famicom, as a port of RPG Tsukūru Dante 98. RPG Tsukūru Super Dante was later broadcast via the Super Famicom's Satellaview accessory.
RPG Maker GB is the first console portable version of RPG Maker.
In 2000, RPG Maker was released for the Sony PlayStation, however, only a limited number of copies were made for releases outside of Japan. The software allowed user-made characters, and monsters through Anime Maker which was separate from the RPG Maker, which required saving to an external memory card. However, there was a limit to how many user-made sprites and monsters could be used in RPG Maker. Also, in Anime Maker, the user could create larger sprites for a theater-type visual novel in which the player could animate and control characters, but these sprites were much larger and unusable in RPG Maker.
The RPG Maker interface was somewhat user-friendly, and battles were front-view style only. Item, Monster, Skill/Magic, and Dungeons had a small limit cap, as did the effects of any given Item, Magic or Skill (9,999). Items were all inclusive; Weapons and Armors were created in the Items interface. The types of items were as follows: None (mainly used for Key Items), Weapon, Armor, Key (up to eight sub types), Magic (for binding Magic created in the Magic interface to an item), Healing, and Food (which raises stats and EXP, or experience points in which this particular software is the only one of the series to do so natively).
Events were a separate save file from the System file, and are referred to as Scenario files. This is how the user could make multiple parts to one game, provided the user had enough memory cards and card space to create the files.
RPG Maker FesEdit
A version for the Nintendo 3DS was released by NIS America on June 27, 2017. While it remains portable on a small screen, users can create games on-the-go and also download games to play as well. The game received some criticism, with NintendoWorldReport writing that "Ultimately, it’s hard for me to recommend RPG Maker Fes to anyone but the most hardcore of RPG fans that have always dreamed of creating their own game." Games completed can be uploaded to the RPG Maker Fes Player app for those to download and play on their own systems. It is the second RPG Maker to receive a limited edition (the previous one being RPG Tsukūru DS) which includes a CD soundtrack in a jewel case containing all the soundtracks in the game, and a full-color paperback artbook. It is the first RPG Maker on consoles/handhelds to receive a digital release.
Historically, few early RPG Maker versions had official English releases. Each Windows version has, however, been subject to unlicensed distribution through the internet in some form or other. RPG Maker 95, as well as translation patches for the Super Famicom titles RPG Maker Super Dante and RPG Maker 2, were translated and distributed by a group called KanjiHack. In 1999, KanjiHack closed upon receiving a cease-and-desist e-mail from ASCII's lawyers. RPG Maker 95 was re-released with a more complete translation under the name RPG Maker 95+ by a Russian programmer, under the alias of Don Miguel, who later translated and released RPG Maker 2000. Later versions, RPG Maker 2003, and RPG Maker XP, were similarly translated and distributed by a programmer under the alias of RPG Advocate.
The first official English release of the PC series was of RPG Maker XP on September 16, 2005. The next two versions of the software, RPG Maker VX and RPG Maker VX Ace both received official English releases. Since 2010 English versions of RPG Maker have been published by Degica, who have also officially released English versions of the older titles RPG Maker 2000 and RPG Maker 2003.
Reception and legacyEdit
Since its first release, the series has been used to create numerous titles, both free and commercial. According to PC Gamer, it has become "the go-to tool for aspiring developers who want to make a game and sell it", due to being "the most accessible game engine around". A number of developers who have created notable games via an entry in the series include:
- Aldorlea Games - Millennium, Laxius Force
- Blossomsoft - Eternal Eden
- Kikiyama - Yume Nikki
- Freebird Games - To the Moon
- Danny Ledonne - Super Columbine Massacre RPG!
- Sherman3D - Alpha Kimori
- Laura Shigihara - Rakuen
- Team GrisGris - Corpse Party
- Dingaling Productions - Lisa: The Painful
- Ethan Fox - Nina Aquila: Legal Eagle
- Kouri - Ib (video game)
- Frostbite Studios - War of Worlds (video game)
RPG Maker series timelineEdit
|Japanese title||English title||Developer||Platform(s)||Japanese release date||English release date||Publisher(s)|
|RPG Construction Tool: Dante||MSX2||February 8, 1990||ASCII|
|Dante 2||MSX2||February 8, 1992||ASCII|
|RPG Tsukūru Dante 98||PC-9801||December 19, 1992||ASCII|
|Dungeon RPG Tsukūru Dan-Dan Dungeon||PC-9801||April 28, 1994||ASCII|
|RPG Tsukūru: Super Dante||Kuusou Kagaku||Super Famicom, Satellaview||March 31, 1995 (Super Famicom)
April 4, 1996 (Satellaview)
|RPG Tsukūru Dante 98 II||PC-9801||July 14, 1996||ASCII|
|RPG Tsukūru 2||Kuusou Kagaku||Super Famicom, Satellaview||January 31, 1996 (Super Famicom)
April 22, 1996 (Satellaview)
|RPG Tsukūru 95||Microsoft Windows||March 28, 1997||ASCII|
|RPG Tsukūru 95 Value!||Microsoft Windows||November 21, 2001||Enterbrain|
|Simulation RPG Tsukūru||Pegasus Japan||Sega Saturn, PlayStation||September 17, 1998||ASCII|
|Enterbrain Collection: Simulation RPG Tsukūru||Pegasus Japan||PlayStation||November 29, 2001||Enterbrain|
|Simulation RPG Tsukūru 95||Microsoft Windows||May 29, 1998||ASCII|
|Simulation RPG Tsukūru 95 Value!||Microsoft Windows||November 21, 2001||Enterbrain|
|RPG Tsukūru 3||RPG Maker||Kuusou Kagaku||PlayStation||November 27, 1997||October 2, 2000||ASCII (Japan)|
Agetec (North America)
|PlayStation the Best: RPG Tsukūru 3||Kuusou Kagaku||PlayStation||November 19, 1998||ASCII|
|RPG Tsukūru GB||Kuusou Kagaku||Game Boy Color||March 17, 2000||ASCII|
|RPG Tsukūru 2000||RPG Maker 2000||Microsoft Windows||April 5, 2000||ASCII|
|RPG Tsukūru 2000 Value!||Microsoft Windows||May 14, 2003||July 7, 2015||Enterbrain (Japan)|
|RPG Tsukūru 4||Agenda||PlayStation||December 7, 2000||Enterbrain|
|Uchūjin Tanaka Tarou de RPG Tsukūru GB 2||Game Boy Color||July 20, 2001||Enterbrain|
|RPG Tsukūru 5||RPG Maker 2||Kuusou Kagaku||PlayStation 2||August 8, 2002||October 28, 2003||Enterbrain (Japan)|
Agetec (North America)
|RPG Tsukūru 2003||RPG Maker 2003||Microsoft Windows||December 18, 2002||April 24, 2015||Enterbrain (Japan)|
|RPG Tsukūru α||Microsoft Windows, Mobile phone||December 18, 2002||Enterbrain|
|RPG Tsukūru Advance||Game Boy Advance||April 25, 2003||Enterbrain|
|RPG Tsukūru XP||RPG Maker XP||Microsoft Windows||July 22, 2004||September 16, 2005||Enterbrain (Worldwide)|
|RPG Tsukūru||RPG Maker 3||Run Time||PlayStation 2||December 16, 2004||September 20, 2005||Enterbrain (Japan)|
Agetec (North America)
|RPG Tsukūru for Mobile||Mobile phone||April 17, 2006||Enterbrain|
|RPG Tsukūru VX||RPG Maker VX||Microsoft Windows||December 27, 2007||February 29, 2008||Enterbrain (Worldwide)|
|RPG Tsukūru DS||Nintendo DS||March 11, 2010||Enterbrain|
|RPG Tsukūru VX Ace||RPG Maker VX Ace||Microsoft Windows||December 15, 2011||March 15, 2012||Enterbrain (Worldwide)|
|RPG Tsukūru DS Plus||Nintendo DS||December 15, 2011||Enterbrain|
|RPG Tsukūru MV||RPG Maker MV||Microsoft Windows, OS X, Linux||December 17, 2015||October 23, 2015||Kadokawa Games|
|RPG Tsukūru Fes||RPG Maker Fes||Nintendo 3DS||November 24, 2016||June 23, 2017||Kadokawa Games|
NIS America (Worldwide)
|RPG Tsukūru MV Trinity||RPG Maker MV||PlayStation 4, Nintendo Switch||November 15, 2018||September 3, 2019||Kadokawa Games|
NIS America (Worldwide)
- Outline of Tsukūru at the official Tsukūru website (in Japanese) (Retrieved on 2010-3-6)
- "International Licensing Business" Archived 2007-09-23 at the Wayback Machine at Enterbrain's website
- "The surprising explosion of RPG Maker on Steam". PC Gamer. April 12, 2017.
- Enterbrain (2005-8-16) 『RPGツクールXP』英語版 海外サイトにてダウンロード販売を開始 Archived 2006-12-08 at the Wayback Machine(in Japanese)
- "RPGツクールの歴史" (History of the RPG Tsukūru) Archived 2007-08-25 at the Wayback Machine at the official Tsukūru website (in Japanese)
- (in Japanese) at Digital Famitsu Homepage
-  Archived January 22, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- "RPG Maker VX Ace Release | The Official RPG Maker Blog". Retrieved 2012-08-10.
- RPG Maker MV Announced
- "RPG Maker MV | RPG Maker | Make Your Own Video Games!". www.rpgmakerweb.com. Retrieved 2016-05-21.
- Romano, Sal. "RPG Maker MV for PS4, Xbox One, and Switch launches November 15 in Japan". Gematsu. Retrieved 25 July 2018.
- Romano, Sal. "RPG Maker MV for consoles delayed to general 2019 in the west". Gematsu. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- "RPG Maker FES Review - Review. (2017, June 20). Retrieved December 05, 2017,".
- "Sad Fact" at Enterbrain's website
- A look at RPGmaker 2000, translated by Don Miguel at gfxartist.com (archived copy)
- "KADOKAWA - Company Stats". Steam Spy. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
- Degica (2012-08-05). "Degica RPG Maker Web Store". Degica, Co., Ltd. Retrieved 2012-08-21.
- "NALE is now part of the British Library's interactive fiction archive!". 2019-05-29.
- Marcus Vinicius Maltempi and Maurício Rosa. "Learning Vortex, Games and Technologies: A New Approach to the Teaching of Mathematics" (PDF). Universidade Estadual Paulista. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
- Tiffany Ralph and Tiffany Barnes. "The Catacombs: A study on the usability of games to teach" (PDF). Colorado State University, University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-27. Retrieved 2007-06-09.
One of the versions was developed using RPG Maker XP and provides students with a more exploratory gaming experience than the other, which was created using the BioWare Aurora Neverwinter Nights Toolset and has the user follow linear stages of game play.
- Dungeon Manjiro at Generation MSX
- Dante at Generation MSX
- Dante II at Generation MSX
- "RPGツクールでつくーる"(in Japanese)
- "yananayika" (The Tsukūru Museum) Archived 2007-08-23 at the Wayback Machine at the official Tsukūru website (in Japanese)
- Agenda-Game: Products Archived 2010-07-25 at the Wayback Machine (in Japanese). Retrieved on 2010-11-10.
- RPGツクール2003製品情報 at Enterbrain's website (in Japanese)
- RPGツクールDS(in Japanese) Retrieved on 2010-1-12.