The Vympel R-37 (NATO reporting name: AA-X-13/AA-13 Arrow) is a Russian hypersonic air-to-air missile with very long range. The missile and its variants also had the names K-37, izdeliye 610 and R-VD (Ракета Высокой Дальности (Raketa-Vysokoy Dalnosty), "Very Long Range Missile"), and the NATO codenames 'Arrow' and 'Andi'. It was developed from the R-33.
R-37M at 2013 MAKS Airshow
|Place of origin||Russia|
|Mass||600 kilograms (1,320 lb)|
|Length||4.20 metres (13 ft 9 in)|
|Diameter||38 centimetres (15 in)|
|Warhead weight||60 kg (135 lb)|
|Wingspan||0.7 m (2 ft 4 in)|
|150-398 km |
|Speed||Mach 6 (7,350 km/h; 4,567 mph)|
|Inertial with mid-course update, semi-active and active radar homing|
The R-37 was developed from the R-33. For compatibility with aircraft that did not have the MiG-31's sophisticated radar, the semi-active seeker was replaced with a variant of the Agat 9B-1388 active seeker; mid-body strakes enhance lift and hence range, and folding tail controls allow semi-conformal carriage on planes that are not as big as the MiG-31. According to Defence Today the range depends on the flight profile, from 80 nautical miles (150 km) for a direct shot to 215 nautical miles (398 km) for a cruise glide profile. According to Jane's there are two variants, the R-37 and the R-37M; the latter has a jettisonable rocket booster that increases the range to "300-400km" (160–220 nm).
The R-37M designation has since been used for a modernized variant of the missile, also known as RVV-BD (Raketa Vozduh-Vozduh Bolyshoy Dalnosty or English for Long-Range Air-to-Air Missile).. This will be carried by the modernized MiG-31BM and Su-35S fighters. It is not known if the long range air-to-air missile for the Sukhoi Su-57, designated the izdeliye 810, is a derivative of the R-37M.
The missile can attack targets ranging in altitude between 15–25,000 metres. Missiles can be guided semi-actively or actively through Agat 9B-1388 system.
The missile was designed in the early 1980s and first flown in 1989. Testing of the R-37 continued through the 1990s in 1994 a trial round scored a kill at a range of 162 nautical miles (300 km). However, the program appears to have been dropped around 1998 on grounds of cost.
In 2018, the R-37M had finished its operational validation tests.
The R-37 is now in production to equip upgraded Russian MiG-31BM Foxhound interceptors. Despite the early intent to integrate the weapon on the Flanker, this has yet to be reported.
- "Missiles in the Asia Pacific" (PDF), Defence Today, Amberley, Queensland: Strike Publications: 67, May 2005, archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-01-26
- "R-37, R-37M (AA-X-13) (Russian Federation), Air-to-air missiles - Beyond visual range", Jane's Air-Launched Weapons, Jane’s Information Group, 2009-01-12, archived from the original on September 14, 2008
- "Russia's New R-37M Air-to-Air Missile: Unique and Unmatched". www.strategic-culture.org. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- Евгений Ерохин (October 2011). "missiles.ru :: МАКС-2011 - РВВ-БД ракета воздух-воздух большой дальности" [Long-range air-to-air guided missile RVV-BD]. www.missiles.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 26 February 2019.
- "New Russian long-range AAM integration to expand to four fighter models - Jane's 360". www.janes.com. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
- Sputnik. "Russian Air Force Tests New Air-to-Air Missile". sputniknews.com. Retrieved 4 January 2019.