Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca (RVR) is a machine-building plant in Latvia, formerly manufacturing and upgrading rail vehicles. It has been insolvent and non-operational since 2017.
The original works were founded in 1895 by the businessman Oscar Freywirth under the name Fēnikss. In 1936, Fenikss was reorganised into Joint Stock Company Vairogs, which later manufactured Ford-Vairogs automobiles under licence. Expropriated by the state following the takeover of Latvia by the Soviet Union and renamed RVR, it became for many years the largest producer of electric and diesel trains in the USSR and also produced tramcars. Its best known products are the ER1, ER2, ER7, ER9 and ER31 electric trains, DR1, DR1A and DR1P diesel trains, many of which are still in service today. Between 1973 and 1988 it built the high-speed ER200 train. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Comecon, the factory ceased operations in 1996 and was declared bankrupt in 1998. Part of the property was bought by Severstal, a company controlled by Russian oligarch Alexey Mordashov. In 2001 the factory was bought by a holding company and continued sales were primarily orders for the refurbishment of units it had previously manufactured. After its ownership structure changed several times it entered insolvency in 2017, following a dearth of orders for new vehicles for several years and several failed attempts at partnerships with other rail manufacturers.
- AR-1 firt produced 1969
- AR-2 first produced 1997
- DR-1 / DR-1P / DR-1A / DR-1B beginning in 1963
- ER-1 first produced 1957
- ER-2 / ER-2R / ER-2T beginning in 1962
- ER-3 produced 1963
- ER-6 prototype only in 1965
- ER-7 first produced 1957
- ER-9 / ER-9P / ER-9M / ER-9E / ER-9ET / ER-9T first produced 1962
- ER-10 first produced 1960
- ER-11 produced 1965
- ER-12 first produced 1976
- Er-200 first produced 1974
From 1923 to 1930 the factory produced some 40 tram cars for Riga. After World War II, in 1949 the factory started producing the MTV-82 tram. Between 1960 and 1989 more than 6000 RVR-6 tram cars were built.
Many RVR trains built during the Soviet period are still in active service across the former USSR. Current operators are shown below. Very few, if any, RVR tramcars are still in operation, with most cities of the former USSR favouring tramcars built by ČKD Tatra.
|Company name||Country||Types in service (number)|
|Armenian Railways||Armenia||ER2 (66)|
|Azerbaijan State Railway||Azerbaijan||ER2 (74)|
|Bulgarski Durzhavni Zheleznitsi||Bulgaria||Class 32 (79), Class 33 (6)|
|Belaruskaya Chyhunka||Belarus||ER9 (57), DR1 (~100), DR1A (~70) DR1B (15) DRB1 (12), DRB1m (7), DR1Pt (5)|
|Georgian Railway||Georgia||ER2 (?)|
|Kazakhstan Temir Zholy||Kazakhstan||ER9 (77), DR1 (14) DR1A (14)|
|Lietuvos Geležinkeliai||Lithuania||ER9 (16), DR1 (12), AR2 (1)|
|Pasažieru vilciens||Latvia||ER2 (108), ER2T (23), DR1A (46), DR1AM (10), DR1AC (6)|
|Željeznički prevoz Crne Gore||Montenegro||Class 412 (5)|
|Makedonski Železnici||North Macedonia||Class 412 (4)|
|Rossiyskye Zheleznye Dorogi||Russia||ER1 (260), ER2 (1106), ER22 (66), ER200 (2), ER9 (617)|
|Železnice Srbije||Serbia||Class 412 (38)|
|Ukrzaliznytsia||Ukraine||ER1 (?), ER2 (?), ER9 (?), DR1A (57), DR1P (21)|
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