Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca

Rīgas Vagonbūves Rūpnīca (RVR) is a machine-building plant in Latvia, formerly manufacturing and upgrading rail vehicles. It has been insolvent and non-operational since 2017.

Rigas Vagonbuves Repnica
IndustryRail transport
Founded1895; 127 years ago (1895)
HeadquartersRiga, Latvia
Area served
ProductsRailway Transport
RVR logo
Refurbished ER2T in the Riga Central Station
AR2-002 railbus at Vilnius passenger station, Lithuania
ER9M-390-1 in Vilnius passenger station, Lithuania
DR1A-283M near Paneriai, Lithuania
Electric Multiple Unit ŽCG 412-050 in Podgorica station, Montenegro


The original works were founded in 1895 by the businessman Oscar Freywirth under the name Fēnikss. In 1936, Fenikss was reorganised into Joint Stock Company Vairogs, which later manufactured Ford-Vairogs automobiles under licence.[1] Expropriated by the state following the takeover of Latvia by the Soviet Union and renamed RVR, it became for many years the largest producer of electric and diesel trains in the USSR and also produced tramcars. Its best known products are the ER1, ER2, ER7, ER9 and ER31 electric trains, DR1, DR1A and DR1P diesel trains, many of which are still in service today. Between 1973 and 1988 it built the high-speed ER200 train. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Comecon, the factory ceased operations in 1996 and was declared bankrupt in 1998. Part of the property was bought by Severstal, a company controlled by Russian oligarch Alexey Mordashov. In 2001 the factory was bought by a holding company and continued sales were primarily orders for the refurbishment of units it had previously manufactured. After its ownership structure changed several times it entered insolvency in 2017, following a dearth of orders for new vehicles for several years and several failed attempts at partnerships with other rail manufacturers.



  • AR-1 firt produced 1969
  • AR-2 first produced 1997
  • DR-1 / DR-1P / DR-1A / DR-1B beginning in 1963
  • ER-1 first produced 1957
  • ER-2 / ER-2R / ER-2T beginning in 1962
  • ER-3 produced 1963
  • ER-6 prototype only in 1965
  • ER-7 first produced 1957
  • ER-9 / ER-9P / ER-9M / ER-9E / ER-9ET / ER-9T first produced 1962
  • ER-10 first produced 1960
  • ER-11 produced 1965
  • ER-12 first produced 1976
  • Er-200 first produced 1974


RVZ-6M2 tram in Nizhny Novgorod, 2015

From 1923 to 1930 the factory produced some 40 tram cars for Riga. After World War II, in 1949 the factory started producing the MTV-82 tram. Between 1960 and 1989 more than 6000 RVR-6 tram cars were built.

Current operatorsEdit

Many RVR trains built during the Soviet period are still in active service across the former USSR. Current operators are shown below.[2] Very few, if any, RVR tramcars are still in operation, with most cities of the former USSR favouring tramcars built by ČKD Tatra.

Company name Country Types in service (number)
Armenian Railways   Armenia ER2 (66)
Azerbaijan State Railway   Azerbaijan ER2 (74)
Bulgarski Durzhavni Zheleznitsi   Bulgaria Class 32 (79), Class 33 (6)
Belaruskaya Chyhunka   Belarus ER9 (57), DR1 (~100), DR1A (~70) DR1B (15) DRB1 (12), DRB1m (7), DR1Pt (5)
Georgian Railway   Georgia ER2 (?)
Kazakhstan Temir Zholy   Kazakhstan ER9 (77), DR1 (14) DR1A (14)
Lietuvos Geležinkeliai   Lithuania ER9 (16), DR1 (12), AR2 (1)
Pasažieru vilciens   Latvia ER2 (108), ER2T (23), DR1A (46), DR1AM (10), DR1AC (6)
Željeznički prevoz Crne Gore   Montenegro Class 412 (5)
Makedonski Železnici   North Macedonia Class 412 (4)
Rossiyskye Zheleznye Dorogi   Russia ER1 (260), ER2 (1106), ER22 (66), ER200 (2), ER9 (617)
Železnice Srbije   Serbia Class 412 (38)
Ukrzaliznytsia   Ukraine ER1 (?), ER2 (?), ER9 (?), DR1A (57), DR1P (21)

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Severstallat[permanent dead link]
  2. ^ "current operations". railfaneurope. Retrieved 2007-05-12.

External linksEdit