Quranism

Quranism (Arabic: القرآنية‎; al-Qur'āniyya, also known as or Quranic Islam)[1] is an Islamic movement which comprises views that Islamic law and guidance should only be based on the Quran, thus opposing the religious authority, reliability, and/or authenticity of hadith literature.[2] Quranists believe that God's message in the Quran is clear and complete as it is, because it defines itself as such, and that it can therefore be fully understood without referencing outside scriptures. Quranists suggest that vast majority of hadith literature are forged and that the Quran criticizes the hadith both in technical sense and general sense.[3][2][4][5][6][7] The Quranists consider themselves followers of the original Islam, considering Sunni theology developed from the 10th century and Shia theology developed after 680.

In contrast to Quranists, Sunnis and Shias do not believe that the Quran is fully detailed the traditional belief is that "the Quran needs the Sunnah more than the Sunnah needs the Quran".[8] This methodological difference has led to considerable divergence between Quranists and Sunnis and Shia in matters of theology and law as well as understanding of the Quran.[7] Quranists claim that the Sunni and Shias have distorted the meaning of the verses to support their agenda,[9] especially in verses about women and war.[10][11]

In matters of faith, jurisprudence, and legislation, Quranists differ from Sunnis and Shias who consider Hadith, scholarly opinion, opinions of the sahaba, ijma and qiyas in addition to the Quran as being Islam’s legislative authority in matters of law and creed.[12] Each hadith-espousing sect of Islam has its own distinct collection of hadith upon which their Muslims rely, but which are rejected by the other hadithist sects, while the Quranists reject all the differing collections of hadith and have none of their own.[7]

Quranism is similar to movements in other Abrahamic religions such as the Karaite in Judaism and the Sola scriptura view of Protestant Christianity.[13]

TerminologyEdit

The Quranists define themselves as "Quranic Muslims", "Submitters [to God]"[14][15] or simply as "Muslims",[16] while other sects refer to them as "Quranists" (Arabic: قرآنيّون‎, romanizedQurāniyyūn),[17][18] and also sometimes as "reformists" or "progressive Muslims", although they mostly deny these names.[19]

DoctrineEdit

Quranists believe that God's message in the Quran is clear and complete as it is, because it defines itself as such, and that it can therefore be fully understood without referencing outside scriptures. To support their beliefs, they cite Quranic verses like 6:38, 45:6 and 6:114:[20]

وَمَا مِن دَآبَّةٍ فِى ٱلْأَرْضِ وَلَا طَآٰئِرٍ يَطِيرُ بِجَنَاحَيْهِ إِلَّآ أُمَمٌ أَمْثَالُكُم مَّا فَرَّطْنَا فِى ٱلْكِتَاٰبِ مِن شَىْءٍ ثُمَّ إِلَىاٰ رَبِّهِمْ يُحْشَرُونَ

All the creatures on earth, and all the birds that fly with wings, are communities like you. We did not leave anything out of this book. To their Lord, all these creatures will be summoned.

—6:38

تِلْكَ ءَايَاٰتُ ٱللَّهِ نَتْلُوهَا عَلَيْكَ بِٱلْحَقِّ فَبِأَىِّ حَدِيثٍۭ بَعْدَ ٱللَّهِ وَءَايَاٰتِهِ يُؤْمِنُونَ

These are God's revelations that we recite to you truthfully. In which Hadith other than God and his revelations do they believe?

—45:6

أَفَغَيرَ اللَّهِ أَبتَغى حَكَمًا وَهُوَ الَّذى أَنزَلَ إِلَيكُمُ الكِتٰبَ مُفَصَّلًا وَالَّذينَ ءاتَينٰهُمُ الكِتٰبَ يَعلَمونَ أَنَّهُ مُنَزَّلٌ مِن رَبِّكَ بِالحَقِّ فَلا تَكونَنَّ مِنَ المُمتَرينَ

Shall I seek other than GOD as a source of law, when He has revealed to you this book fully detailed? Those who received the scripture recognize that it has been revealed from your Lord, truthfully. You shall not harbor any doubt.

—6:114

They believe that the Quran is clear, complete, and that it can be fully understood without recourse to the hadith and sunnah.[2] Therefore, they use the Quran itself to interpret the Quran:[21]

". . . .a literal and holistic analysis of the text from a contemporary perspective and applying the exegetical principle of tafsir al-qur'an bi al-qur'an (explaining the Qur'an with the Qur'an) and the jurisprudential principle al-asl fi al-kalam al-haqiqah (the fundamental rule of speech is literalness), without refracting that Qur'anic usage through the lens of history and tradition."[22]

This method of interpreting the Quran is different from the method favored by most Sunni and Shia exegetes, known as tafsir bi-al-ma'thur (interpreting the Quran with narrations, i.e., hadiths).

In the centuries following Muhammad's death, Quranists did not believe in Naskh.[23] The Kufan scholar Dirar ibn Amr's Quranist belief led him to deny in Al-Masih ad-Dajjal, Punishment of the Grave, and Shafa'ah in the 8th century.[24] The Egyptian scholar Muhammad Abu Zayd's Quranist commentaries led him to reject the belief in the Isra and Mi'raj in the early 20th century. In his rationalist Quran commentary published in 1930, which uses the Quran itself to interpret the Quran, he claimed that verse 17:1 was an allusion to the Hegira and not Isra and Mi'raj.[25][26]

Syed Ahmad Khan argued that, while the Quran remained socially relevant, reliance on hadith limits the vast potential of the Quran to a particular cultural and historical situation.[27]

The extent to which Quranists reject the authority of the Hadith and Sunnah varies,[4] but the more established groups have thoroughly criticised the authority of the Hadith and reject it for many reasons. The most common view being the Quranists who say that Hadith is not mentioned in the Quran as a source of Islamic theology and practice, was not recorded in written form until a century after the death of Muhammad,[28] and contain internal errors and contradictions as well as contradictions with the Quran.[2][4]

For Sunni Muslims, "the sunnah", i.e the sunnah (the way) of the prophet, is one of the two primary sources of Islamic law, and while the Quran has verses enjoining Muslims to obey the Prophet, the Quran never talks about "sunnah" in connection with Muhammad or other prophets. The term sunnah appears several times, including in the phrase "sunnat Allah" (way of God),[29] but not "sunnat al-nabi" (way of the prophet) – the phrase customarily used by proponents of hadith.[30]

Differences from traditional IslamEdit

Quranists believe that the Quran is the sole source of religious law and guidance in Islam and reject the authority of sources outside of the Quran like Hadith and Sunnah. Quranists suggest that vast majority of hadith literature are forged and that the Quran criticizes the hadith both in technical sense and general sense.[3][2][4][5][6][7] Quranists claim that the Sunni and Shias have distorted the meaning of the verses to support their agenda,[9] especially in verses about women and war.[10][11] Due to these differences in theology, there are massive differences between traditional Islamic and Quranist practices:

Shahada (creed)Edit

The Shahada accepted by Quranists is la ilaha illa'llah: "There is no god but God". The traditional second part, which refers to Muhammad, is deliberately left out, as this does not appear in the Quran.[31][32]

Salah (prayer)Edit

Among Quranists, different views can be found in ritual prayer (salah). Majority of Quranists, just like in traditional Islam, pray five times a day,[33][34] but there are also those who perform three daily prayers.[35] A minority of Quranists, on the other hand, see the Arabic word ṣalāt as a spiritual contact or a spiritual devotion to God through the observance of the Quran and worship to God, and therefore not as a standart ritual to be performed.

The blessings for Muhammad and Abraham, which are part of the traditional ritual, are not practiced by most Quranists in the call to prayer and in the prayer itself, arguing that the Quran mentions prayers are only for God, and the Quran tells believers to make no distinction between any messenger.[36]

There are other minor differences, Quranists argue that the woman's menstruation does not constitute an obstacle to prayer,[37] men and women are allowed to pray together in a mosque and that there is no catching up later once a prayer is missed. [38]

Wudu (ablution)Edit

The ablution in prayer (Wudu) only includes washing the face, hands up to the elbows and stroking the head and feet, since only these steps are mentioned in the Quran.[32]

Zakat (alms tax)Edit

In traditional Islam, giving Zakat is a religious duty and amounts to 2.5 percent of the annual income. In the opinion of many Quranists, Zakat must be paid, but the Quran does not specify a percentage because it does not appear explicitly in the Quran.[39] Other Quranists are in agreement with the 2.5 percent, but do not give the Zakat annually, but from every money they earn.[40]

Sawm (fasting)Edit

The majority of Quranists fast for all of Ramadan, but do not see the last day of Ramadan as a holy day.[41]

Hajj (pilgrimage)Edit

Extra-Quranic traditions in the Hajj, such as kissing or hugging the black stone and the symbolic stoning of the devil by throwing stones are rejected and seen as possible shirk by Quranists.[42][43]

Ridda (apostasy)Edit

According to Sunni hadith, a Muslim who leaves his religion is worse than a wild poisonous animal and should be killed.[44] However, since Quranists do not accept hadith and no command to kill apostates can be found in the Quran, they reject this procedure. In addition, 2:256,[45] which states that "there shall be no compulsion/preassure in religion" is taken into account and everyone is allowed to freely decide on their religion.[46][47]

Polygamy (having multiple wives)Edit

Quranists, unlike Sunnis, allow polygamy only on condition of adoption of orphans who have mothers and do not want to lose their mothers.

Military JihadEdit

The Quranists interpret the "holy war" as a solely defensive war, because according to them that is the only type of war allowed in the Quran. A war is only "holy" when Muslims are threatened on their own lands. Therefore, unlike the Sunnis and Salaf-Jihadis, for the Quranists "holy war" does not refer to an offensive war against non-Muslim countries or communities.

SlaveryEdit

Some Quranists believe that slavery is not allowed and never was. They also claim that Sunnis and Shiites misinterpret Quranic phrases to justify slavery and concubinage.

OtherEdit

The following aspects can be cited as further examples which, compared to traditional Islam, are rejected by Quranists or regarded as irrelevant:

  • Quranists see circumcision as irrelevant
  • Quranists see Eid al-Fitr (festival of breaking the fast) and Eid ul-Adha (Islamic festival of sacrifice) as merely cultural holidays, not holy
  • Quranists do not wear Headscarves (Hijab)
  • Quranists are strictly against the torture and stoning to death of adulterers or homosexuals
  • Quranists are against prohibition of music, singing, drawing
  • Quranists are against prohibition for the man to wear gold or silk, to shave his beard, etc.
  • Quranists do not consider dogs unclean or to be avoided

HistoryEdit

Early IslamEdit

 
Sura al-Baqarah, verses 282-286, from an early Quranic manuscript written on vellum (mid-late 7th century CE)

Quranists date their beliefs back to the time of Muhammad, who prohibited the writing of hadiths in order to prevent the hadiths from being confused with the Quran.[48][49][50] One of Muhammad's companions and successor Umar, also prohibited the writing of hadith and destroyed existing collections during his rule as Caliph.[50] When Umar appointed a governor to Kufa, he told him: "You will be coming to the people of a town for whom the buzzing of the Qur'an is as the buzzing of bees. Therefore, do not distract them with the Hadiths, and thus engage them. Bare the Qur'an and spare the narration from God's messenger!".[50]

The centrality of the Quran in the religious life of the Kufans that Umar described was quickly changing, however. A few decades later, a letter was sent to the Ummayad caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan regarding the Kufans: "They abandoned the judgement of their Lord and took hadiths for their religion; and they claim that they have obtained knowledge other than from the Koran . . . They believed in a book which was not from God, written by the hands of men; they then attributed it to the Messenger of God."[51]

In the following years, the taboo against the writing and following of hadiths had receded to such an extent that the Ummayad leader Umar II ordered the first official collection of Hadith. Abu Bakr ibn Muhammad ibn Hazm and Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, were among those who wrote Hadiths at Umar II's behest.[28]

Despite the trend towards hadiths, the questioning of their authority continued during the Abbasid dynasty and existed during the time of Al-Shafi'i, when a group known as "Ahl al-Kalam" argued that the prophetic example of Muhammad "is found in following the Quran alone", rather than Hadith.[52][53] The majority of Hadith, according to them, was mere guesswork, conjecture, and bidah, while the book of God was complete and perfect, and did not require the Hadith to supplement or complement it.[54]

There were prominent scholars who rejected hadith like Dirar ibn Amr. He wrote a book titled The Contradiction Within Hadith. However, the tide had changed from the earlier centuries to such an extent that Dirar was beaten up and had to remain in hiding until his death.[55] Like Dirar ibn Amr, the scholar Abu Bakr al-Asamm also had no use for hadiths.[56]

19th centuryEdit

In South Asia during the 19th century, the Ahle Quran movement formed partially in reaction to the Ahle Hadith whom they considered to be placing too much emphasis on Hadith.[57] Many Ahle Quran adherents from South Asia were formerly adherents of Ahle Hadith but found themselves incapable of accepting certain hadiths.[57] Abdullah Chakralawi, Khwaja Ahmad Din Amritsari, Chiragh Ali, and Aslam Jairajpuri were among the people who promulgated Quranist beliefs in India at the time.[57]

20th centuryEdit

In Egypt during the early 20th century, the ideas of Quranists like Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi grew out of the reformist ideas of Muhammad Abduh, specifically a rejection of taqlid and an emphasis on the Quran.[58][57] Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi of Egypt "held that nothing of the Hadith was recorded until after enough time had elapsed to allow the infiltration of numerous absurd or corrupt traditions."[59] Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi wrote an article titled Al-Islam Huwa ul-Qur'an Wahdahu ('Islam is the Qur'an Alone) that appeared in the Egyptian journal Al-Manar, which argues that the Quran is sufficient as guidance:[60]

What is obligatory for man does not go beyond God's Book. If anything other than the Qur'an had been necessary for religion, the Prophet would have commanded its registration in writing, and God would have guaranteed its preservation.

— Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi

Like some of their counterparts in Egypt such as Muhammad Abu Zayd and Ahmed Subhy Mansour, some reformist scholars in Iran who adopted Quranist beliefs came from traditional institutions of higher learning. Shaykh Hadi Najmabadi, Mirza Rida Quli Shari'at-Sanglaji, Mohammad Sadeqi Tehrani, and Ayatollah Borqei were educated in traditional Shia universities in Najaf and Qom. However, they believed that some beliefs and practices that were taught in these universities, such as the veneration of Imamzadeh and a belief in Raj'a, were irrational and superstitious and had no basis in the Quran.[61] And rather than interpreting the Quran through the lens of hadith, they interpreted the Quran with the Quran (tafsir al-qur'an bi al-qur'an). These reformist beliefs provoked criticism from traditional Shia scholars like Ayatollah Khomeini, who attempted to refute the criticisms made by Sanglaji and other reformists in his book Kashf al-Asrar.[61][62][63] Quran-centered beliefs have also spread among lay Muslims like Iranian American, Ali Behzadnia, who became Deputy Minister of Health and Welfare and acting Minister of Education shortly after the Iranian Revolution. He has criticized the government in Iran for being undemocratic and totally alien to the "Islam of the Quran".[64]

Persecution in contemporary timesEdit

 
Diagram showing the branches of Sunnism, Shiaism, Ibadism, Quranism, Non-denominational Muslims, Ahmadiyya and Sufism.

In the 21st century, Quranist beliefs have spread in various countries. However, adherents have faced opposition. Fatwas were even issued against Quranists, declaring them "disbelievers", "animals", "apostates" and "hypocrites".

Even today, followers of the Quranists are persecuted and expect sanctions. For this reason, some Quranist authors write anonymously or under a pseudonym.[65]

In some countries scholars and individuals who represent Quranist ideas are even persecuted by the state. Some cases of Quranists being persecuted include:

EgyptEdit

In Egypt, Quranists face persecution, imprisonment, torture and exile.[66][67]

SudanEdit

In Sudan, Quranist men between the ages of 15 and 51 are imprisoned, their sexual organs are cut off and they are sentenced to death for only recognizing the Quran and rejecting the Sunnah.[68][69]

TurkeyEdit

In Turkey, Quranist ideas became particularly noticeable, with large portions of the youth either leaving Islam or converting to Quranism.[70]  

The Turkish Diyanet İşleri Başkanlığı criticizes Quranists by Friday sermons and calls them "hypocrite animals".[71] Quranists responded with Quranic arguments and challenged them to a debate.[72]

Saudi ArabiaEdit

In Saudi Arabia, the rights of the Quranists are equal to those of wild animals, so their killing, or even torture, are by law perfectly normal. The punishment for advocating Quranism is death no questions asked. A very popular Saudi Quranist scholar, Hassan Farhan al-Maliki, was arrested and charged with death penalty for promoting ideas that have been described as "Quranist", "moderate", "tolerant", and one of opposition to the more violent and strict Saudi wahhabi ideology.[73][74][75] Other Saudi intellectuals, like Abdul Rahman al-Ahdal, continue to advocate for the abandonment of hadith and a return to the Quran.[76]

RussiaEdit

The spread of Quranist beliefs in Russia has provoked the anger of the Sunni establishment. The Russian Council of Muftis issued a fatwa against Quranism and threathened the Quranists.[77]

South AfricaEdit

In South Africa, an Oxford educated Islamic scholar, Taj Hargey, established the Open Mosque. As the name implies, Hargey intended the mosque to be more open to demographics traditionally shunned by Sunni and Shia mosques, like women. Hargey describes the principles of the mosque as, "Quran-centric, gender equality, non-sectarian, inter-cultural and independent".[78]

KazakhstanEdit

The Quranists have repeatedly become a target for criticism from the Supreme Clergy of Kazakhstan.[79]

Notable organizationsEdit

United Submitters InternationalEdit

In the United States, at the end of the 20th century, the Egyptian Quranist biochemist Rashad Khalifa, who is known as the discoverer of the Quran code (Code 19), which is a hypothetical mathematical code in the Quran, developed a theological doctrine that influenced Quranists in many other countries. With the help of computers, he carried out a numerical analysis of the Quran, which according to him clearly proved that it is of divine origin.[80] The number 19, which is mentioned in chapter 74 of the Quran as being "one of the greatest miracles" played the fundamental role,[81] which according to Khalifa can be found everywhere in the structure of the Quran, and the fact that a Quranist discovered such a big miracle proved the Quranist approach.[82] Thousands of Americans, including mathematicians, converted to Islam after being presented the code-19. Some objected to these beliefs and, in 1990, Khalifa was assassinated by someone associated with the Sunni group Jamaat ul-Fuqra.[83]

The organization "United Submitters International" (USI) founded by Khalifa has its center in Tucson and has published a monthly newsletter with the title "Submitter's Respective" since 1985.[16] The movement popularized the phrase: "The Quran, the whole Quran, and nothing but the Quran."[2]

A Kurdish-Turkish activist, Edip Yüksel, initially campaigned for a Quranist-Islamic revolution in Turkey, which is why he was imprisoned.[84] Later he met Khalifa and joined the organisation after witnessing the "19 miracle".[85] In 1989 he had to leave the country because of this and joined the headquarters in Tucson.[86] Yüksel and two other authors created their own translation of the Quran.[87] In some points, however, his views differ from those of Khalifa.[88]

In Malaysia, a Submitter Kassim Ahmad wrote a book in which he called for a scientific evaluation of the Hadith and the entire Islamic tradition, as these are responsible for the backwardness of Muslims.[89] He saw the Quran as the only sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad and criticized the classic Sunni view of the sunnah.[90] His book was banned in Malaysia and Ahmad was declared a heretic.[91]

Among those influenced by Khalifa's ideas include Edip Yuksel,[83] Ahmad Rashad,[92] and Nigerian High Court Judge, Isa Othman.[93]

Ahle QuranEdit

Ahle Quran is an organisation formed by Abdullah Chakralawi, who described the Quran as "ahsan Hadith", meaning most perfect hadith and consequently claimed it does not need any addition.[94] His movement relies entirely on the chapters and verses of the Quran. Chakralawi's position was that the Quran itself was the most perfect source of tradition and could be exclusively followed. According to Chakralawi, Muhammad could receive only one form of revelation (wahy), and that was the Quran. He argues that the Quran was the only record of divine wisdom, the only source of Muhammad's teachings, and that it superseded the entire corpus of hadith, which came later.[94]

Izgi AmalEdit

This is a Quranist organization in Kazakhstan whose Cyrillic name, "Ізгі амал", may be transliterated into the Latin script as İzgi amal. It has an estimated 70 to 80 thousand members. Its leader, Aslbek Musin, is the son of the former Speaker of the Majlis, Aslan Musin.[95][96]

The first true Quranist was the Prophet Muhammad, who did not follow anything except the Qur'an. We are not a new direction in this respect.

— Aslbek Musin

Kala KatoEdit

Kala Kato is a Quranist movement whose adherents reside mostly northern Nigeria,[97] with some adherents residing in Niger.[98] Kala Kato means a "man says" in the Hausa language, in reference to the sayings, or hadiths, posthumously attributed to Muhammad. Kala Kato accept only the Quran as authoritative and believe that anything that is not Kala Allah, which means what "God says" in the Hausa language, is Kala Kato.[99]

Malaysian Quranic SocietyEdit

The Malaysian Quranic Society was founded by Kassim Ahmad. The movement holds several positions distinguishing it from Sunnis and Shias such as a rejection of the status of hair as being part of the awrah; therefore exhibiting a relaxation on the observance of the hijab, which according to Quranists is not in the Quran.[100]

Quran Sunnat SocietyEdit

The Quran Sunnat Society is a Quranist movement in India. The movement was behind the first ever woman to lead mixed-gender congregational prayers in India.[101] It maintains an office and headquarters within Kerala.[102] There is a large community of Quranists in Kerala.[103] One of its leaders, Jamida Beevi, has also spoken out against India's triple talaq law which is mostly based on the Sunni inspired Muslim Personal Law (Shariat) Application Act, 1937.[104] The most prominent predecessor to the Quran Sunnat Society in India was from the views put forth by Ahmed Khan in the 19th century. [105]

Tolu-e-IslamEdit

The movement was initiated by Ghulam Ahmed Pervez.[106][107][108][109] Ghulam Ahmed Pervez did not reject all hadiths; however, he only accepted hadiths which "are in accordance with the Quran or do not stain the character of the Prophet or his companions".[110] The organization publishes and distributes books, pamphlets, and recordings of Pervez's teachings.[110] Tolu-e-Islam does not belong to any political party, nor does it belong to any religious group or sect.

Süleymaniye VakfıEdit

The movement was started by Abdülaziz Bayındır, a Turkish professor of theology.[111][112] The organisation openly challenged Turkish Directorate of Religious Affairs (Diyanet). They hold different positions from Turkish Sunnis, as they reject almost all hadiths, claiming they are not authentic, and they do not have religious authority.[113][112] The organisation's manifesto reads "Against the lies of tradition, we will continue to give fatwa using only the Quran".

Notable QuranistsEdit

  • Muhammad Tawfiq Sidqi (1881-1920),[114] Egyptian scholar and physician who focused on criticising hadith as a whole religiously from the Quran as well as based on hadithic pseudo-scientific claims on medicine.[115][116]
  • Caner Taslaman (born 1968), Turkish academician, Quran expert and writer known for his works on The Big Bang theory and the scientific structure of the Quran.[117]
  • Kassim Ahmad (1933–2017), Malaysian intellectual, writer, poet and an educator known for his rejection of the authority of hadiths.[118][119] He was the founder of the Quranic Society of Malaysia.[120] He was arrested in 1976 and released in 1981. At the time of his death, he was working on a Malay translation of the Quran.[121]
  • Gamal al-Banna (1920–2013), Egyptian author and trade unionist.[122]
  • Mustafa İslamoğlu (born 1960), Turkish theologian, poet and writer. He was criticised in Turkey and received threats for his ideas that promoted logic above tradition and denying the authority of hadith,[123] who he saw to be fabricated.[124]
  • Rashad Khalifa (1935–1990), Egyptian-American biochemist, professor doctor, theologian, computer expert and Islamic reformer. In his book Quran, Hadith and Islam and his English translation of the Quran, Khalifa argued that the Quran alone is the sole source of Islamic belief and practice.[2] He claimed that the Quran had a code-system based on the number 19 which proved it's divinity. He was assassinated by Sunni traditionalists on January 31, 1990.
  • Sam Khalifa (born 1963), American former professional baseball player.
  • Hassan al-Maliki (born 1970), a Saudi Arabian writer, Islamic historian and Islamic scholar who has been put on trial by the Saudi establishment for his views. Al-Maliki's views have been described as "Quranist", "moderate", "tolerant", and one of opposition to the more violent and strict wahhabi ideology.[73][74]
  • Irshad Manji (born 1968), Ugandan-Canadian educator and author.
  • Ahmed Subhy Mansour (born 1949), Egyptian-American Islamic scholar.[125] He was exiled from Egypt for his views and is now living in the United States as a political refugee.[126]
  • Chekannur Maulavi (born 1936; disappeared 29 July 1993), Islamic cleric who lived in Edappal in Malappuram district of Kerala, India. He was noted for his controversial and unconventional interpretation of Islam based on the Quran alone. He disappeared on 29 July 1993 under mysterious circumstances and is now widely believed to be dead.[127]
  • Yaşar Nuri Öztürk (1951-2016), Turkish university professor of Islamic theology, lawyer, columnist and a former member of Turkish parliament.[128][129][130] He has given many conferences on Islamic thought, humanity and human rights in Turkey, the USA, Europe, the Middle East and the Balkans. In 1999 members of a violent Sunni extremist group called Great Eastern Islamic Raiders' Front (İBDA-C) confessed that they had planned an assassination attempt that never took place.[131] Öztürk passed away in 2016, due to stomach cancer.[132]
  • Ahmad Rashad (born 1949), American sportscaster (mostly with NBC Sports) and former professional football player. Ahmad Rashad studied the Arabic language and the Quran with his mentor, the late Rashad Khalifa.[92][133][134]
  • Mohamed Talbi (1921–2017), Tunisian historian and professor. He was the founder of the Association Internationale des Musulmans Coraniques (AIMC), or International Association of Quranic Muslims.[135][136]
  • Edip Yüksel (born 1957), Turkish-Kurdish-American philosopher, lawyer, Quranist advocate, author of Nineteen: God's Signature in Nature and Scripture, Manifesto for Islamic Reform and a co-author of Quran: A Reformist Translation. He taught philosophy and logic at Pima Community College and medical ethics and criminal law courses at Brown Mackie College.[49][137]
  • [Note 1]


See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ In addition to these names, Quranists claim Muhammad was also a Quranist.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.38-42
  2. ^ a b c d e f g >Musa, Aisha Y. (2010). "The Qur'anists". Religion Compass. John Wiley & Sons. 4 (1): 12–21. doi:10.1111/j.1749-8171.2009.00189.x.
  3. ^ a b al-Manar 12(1911): 693-99; cited in Juynboll, Authenticity, 30; cited in D.W. Brown, Rethinking tradition in modern Islamic thought, 1996: p.120
  4. ^ a b c d Voss, Richard Stephen (April 1996). "Identifying Assumptions in the Hadith/Sunnah Debate". Monthly Bulletin of the International Community of Submitters. 12 (4). Archived from the original on 29 July 2016. Retrieved 5 December 2013.
  5. ^ a b admin. "19.org". 19.org. Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  6. ^ a b "KUR'ANİ-BİLİMSEL-TEOLOJİ, BİLİMSEL-KUR'ANİ-TEOLOJİ VE KUR'ANİ-AHENKSEL-TEOLOJİ – Caner Taslaman" (in Turkish). Retrieved 2021-02-06.
  7. ^ a b c d "Hadis & Sünnet: Şeytani Bidatler". Teslimolanlar. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  8. ^ Graham, William A. (2006). "Scripture and the Qurʾān". In McAuliffe, Jane Dammen (ed.). Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān. 5. Leiden: Brill Publishers. p. 165. doi:10.1163/1875-3922_q3_EQCOM_00180. ISBN 90-04-14743-8.
  9. ^ a b Muhammad, A. "True Islam - Misinterpreted Verses". Quran-Islam. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  10. ^ a b Yüksel, Edip. "Sectarian Translations". 19.org. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  11. ^ a b Muhammad, A. "True Islam - Manipulation of 4:34". Quran-Islam. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
  12. ^ John L. Esposito, ed. (2014). "Ahl al-Hadith". The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Archived from the original on 2019-04-27. Retrieved 2020-07-18.
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Further readingEdit

  • Aisha Y. Musa, Hadith as Scripture: Discussions on the Authority of Prophetic Traditions in Islam, New York: Palgrave, 2008. ISBN 0-230-60535-4.
  • Ali Usman Qasmi, Questioning the Authority of the Past: The Ahl al-Qur'an Movements in the Punjab, Oxford University Press, 2012. ISBN 0-195-47348-5.
  • Daniel Brown, Rethinking Tradition in Modern Islamic Thought, Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0-521-65394-0.