The Quintuple Alliance came into being at the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle in 1818, when France joined the Quadruple Alliance created by Austria, Prussia, Russia, and Great Britain. The European peace settlement concluded at the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
After following the Congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (in Aachen), the Alliance powers met thrice: in 1820 at the Congress of Troppau (Opava), in 1821 at the Congress of Laibach (Ljubljana), and in 1822 at the Congress of Verona.
While Britain stood largely aloof from the Alliance's illiberal actions, the four continental monarchies were successful in authorising Austrian military action in Italy in 1821 and French intervention in Spain in 1823.
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- Irby C. Nichols Jr, "The Congress of Verona, 1822: A Reappraisal." Southwestern Social Science Quarterly (1966): 385-399 online
- Nichols, Irby Coghill. The European Pentarchy and the Congress of Verona, 1822 (Springer Science & Business Media, 2012).