Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa; /ˈkn.wɑː, kiˈn.ə/,[2][3][4] from Quechua kinwa or kinuwa)[5] is a flowering plant in the amaranth family. It is a herbaceous annual plant grown as a crop primarily for its edible seeds; the seeds are rich in protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins, and dietary minerals in amounts greater than in many grains.[6] Quinoa is not a grass, but rather a pseudocereal botanically related to spinach and amaranth (Amaranthus spp.), and originated in the Andean region of northwestern South America.[7] It was first used to feed livestock 5,200–7,000 years ago, and for human consumption 3,000–4,000 years ago in the Lake Titicaca basin of Peru and Bolivia.[8]

Quinoa
Reismelde.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Tracheophytes
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Order: Caryophyllales
Family: Amaranthaceae
Genus: Chenopodium
Species:
C. quinoa
Binomial name
Chenopodium quinoa
Quinoa Distribution.png
Natural distribution in red, Cultivation in green
Synonyms[1]
Chenopodium quinoa near Cachilaya, Lake Titicaca, Bolivia

The plant thrives at high altitudes and produce seeds that are rich in protein.[9] Almost all production in the Andean region is done by small farms and associations. Its cultivation has spread to more than 70 countries, including Kenya, India, the United States, and in European countries.[10] As a result of increased popularity and consumption in North America, Europe, and Australasia, quinoa crop prices tripled between 2006 and 2014.[11][12]

Etymology and nomenclatureEdit

The species Chenopodium quinoa was first described by Carl Ludwig Willdenow (1765 – 1812),[13] a German botanist who studied plants from South America, brought back by explorers Alexander von Humboldt and Aimé Bonpland.

The genus name chenopodium is composed of two words coming from the Greek χήν,-νός, goose and πόδῖον, podion "little foot", or "goose foot", because of the resemblance of the leaves with the trace of a crow's feet.[14]

The Binomial nomenclature quinoa is a borrowing from the Spanish quinua or quinoa, itself derived from Quechua kinwa.

Appeared in French in 1816,[note 1] the term quinoa has the same origin as the specific epithet of botany and follows the rules of phonological and grammatical adaptations of lexical borrowings: kinwa (quechua) → quinua (esp.) → quinoa (fr). The word spread in French, through dietetics, in the second half of the 20th century.[15] The use of the masculine imposed itself from the beginning of the 19th century,[note 2] although the word is feminine in Spanish.[16] Which is normal in Spanish since nouns ending in a are feminine. But this rule, which is not valid in French, has no reason to apply to a word that has entered the French masculine lexicon for two centuries (see lexical borrowings).[note 3]

Quechua has no grammatical gender, it is an agglutinative language, in which the noun consists of a base to which can be added a series of possessive suffixes, the plural mark -kuna, and finally the case marks. There is no article.[17] The Incas nicknamed quinoa chisiya mama, which in Quechua means "mother of all grains."[18]

BotanyEdit

 
Quinoa seeds
 
Red quinoa, cooked

DescriptionEdit

Chenopodium quinoa is a dicotyledonous annual plant, usually about 1–2 m (3–7 ft) high. It has broad, generally powdery, hairy, lobed leaves, normally arranged alternately. The woody central stem is branched or unbranched depending on the variety and may be green, red or purple. The flowering panicles arise from the top of the plant or from leaf axils along the stem. Each panicle has a central axis from which a secondary axis emerges either with flowers (amaranthiform) or bearing a tertiary axis carrying the flowers (glomeruliform).[19] These are small, incomplete, sessile flowers of the same colour as the sepals, and both pistillate and perfect forms occur. Pistillate flowers are generally located at the proximal end of the glomeruli and the perfect ones at the distal end of it. A perfect flower has five sepals, five anthers and a superior ovary, from which two to three stigmatic branches emerge.[20]

The green hypogynous flowers have a simple perianth and are generally self-fertilizing,[19][21] though cross-pollination occurs.[22] In the natural environment, betalains serve to attract animals to generate a greater rate of pollination and ensure, or improve, seed dissemination.[23] The fruits (seeds) are about 2 mm (116 in) in diameter and of various colors — from white to red or black, depending on the cultivar.[24]

In regards to the "newly" developed salinity resistance of C. quinoa, some studies have concluded that accumulation of organic osmolytes plays a dual role for the species. They provide osmotic adjustment, in addition to protection against oxidative stress of the photosynthetic structures in developing leaves. Studies also suggested that reduction in stomatal density in reaction to salinity levels represents an essential instrument of defence to optimize water use efficiency under the given conditions to which it may be exposed.[25]

Natural distributionEdit

Chenopodium quinoa is believed to have been domesticated in the Peruvian Andes from wild or weed populations of the same species.[26] There are non-cultivated quinoa plants (Chenopodium quinoa var. melanospermum) that grow in the area it is cultivated; these may either be related to wild predecessors, or they could be descendants of cultivated plants.[27]

NutritionEdit

Quinoa, uncooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,539 kJ (368 kcal)
64.2 g
Dietary fibre7.0 g
6.1 g
Monounsaturated1.6 g
Polyunsaturated3.3 g
14.1 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
1 μg
Thiamine (B1)
31%
0.36 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
27%
0.32 mg
Niacin (B3)
10%
1.52 mg
Vitamin B6
38%
0.49 mg
Folate (B9)
46%
184 μg
Choline
14%
70 mg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin E
16%
2.4 mg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
5%
47 mg
Copper
30%
0.590 mg
Iron
35%
4.6 mg
Magnesium
55%
197 mg
Manganese
95%
2.0 mg
Phosphorus
65%
457 mg
Potassium
12%
563 mg
Sodium
0%
5 mg
Zinc
33%
3.1 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water13.3 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Quinoa, cooked
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy503 kJ (120 kcal)
21.3 g
Dietary fibre2.8 g
1.92 g
Monounsaturated0.529 g
Polyunsaturated1.078 g
4.4 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
0 μg
Thiamine (B1)
9%
0.107 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
9%
0.11 mg
Niacin (B3)
3%
0.412 mg
Vitamin B6
9%
0.123 mg
Folate (B9)
11%
42 μg
Choline
5%
23 mg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin E
4%
0.63 mg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
2%
17 mg
Copper
10%
0.192 mg
Iron
11%
1.49 mg
Magnesium
18%
64 mg
Manganese
30%
0.631 mg
Phosphorus
22%
152 mg
Potassium
4%
172 mg
Sodium
0%
7 mg
Zinc
11%
1.09 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water72 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central

Raw, uncooked quinoa is 13% water, 64% carbohydrates, 14% protein, and 6% fat. Nutritional evaluations indicate that a 100-gram (3+12-ounce) serving of raw quinoa seeds is a rich source (20% or higher of the Daily Value, DV) of protein, dietary fiber, several B vitamins, including 46% DV for folate, and the dietary minerals magnesium, phosphorus, and manganese (table).

After boiling, which is the typical preparation for eating the seeds, quinoa is 72% water, 21% carbohydrates, 4% protein, and 2% fat.[28] In a 100 g (3+12 oz) serving, cooked quinoa provides 503 kilojoules (120 kilocalories) of food energy and is a rich source of manganese and phosphorus (30% and 22% DV, respectively), and a moderate source (10–19% DV) of dietary fiber, folate, and the dietary minerals iron, zinc, and magnesium (table).

Quinoa is gluten-free.[6] Because of the high concentration of protein, ease of use, versatility in preparation, and potential for increased yields in controlled environments,[29] it has been selected as an experimental crop in NASA's Controlled Ecological Life Support System for long-duration human occupied space flights.[30]

Saponins and oxalic acidEdit

In their natural state, the seeds have a coating that contains bitter-tasting saponins, making them unpalatable.[19][31] Most of the grain sold commercially has been processed to remove this coating. This bitterness has beneficial effects during cultivation, as it deters birds and therefore, the plant requires minimal protection.[32] The genetic control of bitterness involves quantitative inheritance.[31] Although lowering the saponin content through selective breeding to produce sweeter, more palatable varieties is complicated by ≈10% cross-pollination,[33] it is a major goal of quinoa breeding programs, which may include genetic engineering.[31]

The toxicity category rating of the saponins in quinoa treats them as mild eye and respiratory irritants and as a low gastrointestinal irritant.[28][34] In South America, these saponins have many uses, including as a detergent for clothing and washing, and as a folk medicine antiseptic for skin injuries.[28]

Additionally, the leaves and stems of all species of the genus Chenopodium and related genera of the family Amaranthaceae, including quinoa, contain high levels of oxalic acid.[35]

CultivationEdit

Climate requirementsEdit

The plant's growth is highly variable due to the number of different subspecies, varieties and landraces (domesticated plants or animals adapted to the environment in which they originated). However, it is generally undemanding and altitude-hardy; it is grown from coastal regions to over 4,000 m (13,000 ft) in the Andes near the equator, with most of the cultivars being grown between 2,500 m (8,200 ft) and 4,000 m (13,000 ft). Depending on the variety, optimal growing conditions are in cool climates with temperatures that vary between −4 °C (25 °F) during the night to near 35 °C (95 °F) during the day. Some cultivars can withstand lower temperatures without damage. Light frosts normally do not affect the plants at any stage of development, except during flowering. Midsummer frosts during flowering, a frequent occurrence in the Andes, lead to sterilization of the pollen. Rainfall requirements are highly variable between the different cultivars, ranging from 300 to 1,000 mm (12 to 39 in) during the growing season. Growth is optimal with well-distributed rainfall during early growth and no rain during seed maturation and harvesting.[19]

United StatesEdit

Quinoa has been cultivated in the United States, primarily in the high elevation San Luis Valley of Colorado where it was introduced in 1983.[36] In this high-altitude desert valley, maximum summer temperatures rarely exceed 30 °C (86 °F) and night temperatures are about 7 °C (45 °F). In the 2010s, experimental production was attempted in the Palouse region of Eastern Washington,[37] and farmers in Western Washington began producing the crop. The Washington State University Skagit River Valley research facility near Mount Vernon grew thousands of its own experimental varieties.[38] According to a research agronomist, the Puget Sound region's climate is similar to that of coastal Chile where the crop has been grown for centuries.[39] Due to the short growing season, North American cultivation requires short-maturity varieties, typically of Bolivian origin. Quinoa is planted in Idaho where a variety developed and bred specifically for the high-altitude Snake River Plain is the largest planted variety in North America.[40]

EuropeEdit

Several countries within Europe have successfully grown quinoa on a commercial scale.[41]

SowingEdit

Quinoa plants do best in sandy, well-drained soils with a low nutrient content, moderate salinity, and a soil pH of 6 to 8.5. The seedbed must be well prepared and drained to avoid waterlogging.[32]

SoilEdit

Quinoa has gained attention for its adaptability to contrasting environments such as saline soils, nutrient-poor soils and drought stressed marginal agroecosystems.[42] Yields are maximised when 170–200 kg/ha (150–180 lb/acre) of nitrogen is available.[citation needed] The addition of phosphorus does not improve yield.

PestsEdit

In eastern North America, it is susceptible to a leaf miner that may reduce crop success. (The miner also affects the common weed and close relative Chenopodium album, but C. album is much more resistant.)[citation needed]

Rotation is used in its Andean native range. Rotation is common with potato, cereals and legumes including Lupinus mutabilis.[43][44]

GeneticsEdit

The genome of quinoa was sequenced in 2017 by researchers at King Abdullah University of Science and Technology in Saudi Arabia.[31][45] Through traditional selective breeding and, potentially, genetic engineering, the plant is being modified to have higher crop yield, improved tolerance to heat and biotic stress, and greater sweetness through saponin inhibition.[31]

HarvestingEdit

Traditionally, quinoa grain is harvested by hand, and only rarely by machine, because the extreme variability of the maturity period of most quinoa cultivars complicates mechanization. Harvest needs to be precisely timed to avoid high seed losses from shattering, and different panicles on the same plant mature at different times.[46][47] The crop yield in the Andean region (often around 3 t/ha up to 5 t/ha) is comparable to wheat yields. In the United States, varieties have been selected for uniformity of maturity and are mechanically harvested using conventional small grain combines.[citation needed]

ProcessingEdit

The plants are allowed to stand until the stalks and seeds have dried out and the grain has reached a moisture content below 10%. Handling involves threshing the seedheads from the chaff and winnowing the seed to remove the husk. Before storage, the seeds need to be dried in order to avoid germination.[19] Dry seeds can be stored raw,[citation needed] until being washed or mechanically processed to remove the pericarp to eliminate the bitter layer containing saponins. This was traditionally done manually, which is labour-intensive.[48] The seeds must be dried again before being stored and sold in stores.[citation needed]

ProductionEdit

Quinoa production – 2020
Country (Tonnes)
  Peru 100,115
  Bolivia 70,170
  Ecuador 4,903
World 175,188
Source: FAOSTAT of the United Nations[49]

In 2020, world production of quinoa was 175,188 tonnes, led by Peru and Bolivia with 97% of the total when combined (table).[49]

PriceEdit

Since the early 21st century when quinoa became more commonly consumed in North America, Europe, and Australasia where it was not typically grown, the crop value increased.[50] Between 2006 and 2013, quinoa crop prices tripled.[11][12] In 2011, the average price was US $3,115 per tonne with some varieties selling as high as $8,000 per tonne.[50] This compares with wheat prices of about US $340 per tonne, making wheat about 10% of the value of quinoa. The resulting effect on traditional production regions in Peru and Bolivia also influenced new commercial quinoa production elsewhere in the world, such as the United States.[51]: 176 [52] By 2013, quinoa was being cultivated in some 70 countries.[10] As a result of expanding production outside the Andean highlands native for quinoa, the price plummeted starting in early 2015 and remained low for years.[53] From 2018 to 2019, quinoa production in Peru declined by 22%.[49] Some refer to this as the "quinoa bust" because of the devastation the price fall caused for farmers and industry.[53]

Effects of rising demand on growersEdit

 
Farmer field school on crop husbandry and quinoa production, near Puno, Peru

Rising quinoa prices over the period of 2006 to 2017 may have reduced the affordability of quinoa to traditional consumers.[12][54][51]: 176–77  However, a 2016 study using Peru's Encuesta Nacional de Hogares found that rising quinoa prices during 2004–2013 led to net economic benefits for producers,[55] and other commentary indicated similar conclusions,[56] including for women specifically.[57] Impacts of the price surge on quinoa consumption in the Andes mainly affected urban poor rather than farmers themselves, and these impacts were reduced when the price fell in 2015.[citation needed] It has also been suggested that as quinoa producers rise above subsistence-level income, they switch their own consumption to Western processed foods which are often less healthy than a traditional, quinoa-based diet, whether because quinoa is held to be worth too much to keep for oneself and one's family, or because processed foods have higher status despite their poorer nutritional value.[12][54][51]: 176–77  Efforts are being made in some areas to distribute quinoa more widely and ensure that farming and poorer populations have access to it and have an understanding of its nutritional importance, including use in free school breakfasts and government provisions distributed to pregnant and nursing women in need.[54]

In terms of wider social consequences, research on traditional producers in Bolivia has emphasised a complex picture. The degree to which individual producers benefit from the global quinoa boom depends on its mode of production, for example through producer associations and co-operatives such as the Asociación Nacional de Productores de Quinua (founded in the 1970s), contracting through vertically-integrated private firms, or wage labor.[58] State regulation and enforcement may promote a shift to cash-cropping among some farmers and a shift toward subsistence production among others, while enabling many urban refugees to return to working the land, outcomes with complex and varied social effects.[59][60]

The growth of quinoa consumption outside of its indigenous region has raised concerns over food security of the original consumers, unsustainably intensive farming of the crop, expansion of farming into otherwise marginal agricultural lands with concurrent loss of the natural environment, threatening both the sustainability of producer agriculture and the biodiversity of quinoa.[51][61][57]

World demand for quinoa is sometimes presented in the media particularly as being caused by rising veganism,[12][62] but one academic has commented that despite the drawbacks of quinoa, meat production in most cases is still less sustainable than quinoa.[51]: 177 

CultureEdit

United Nations recognitionEdit

The United Nations General Assembly declared 2013 as the "International Year of Quinoa",[63][64][65] in recognition of the ancestral practices of the Andean people, who have preserved it as a food for present and future generations, through knowledge and practices of living in harmony with nature. The objective was to draw the world’s attention to the role that quinoa could play in providing food security, nutrition and poverty eradication in support of achieving Millennium Development Goals. Some academic commentary emphasized that quinoa production could have ecological and social drawbacks in its native regions, and that these problems needed to be tackled.[51]

Kosher certificationEdit

Quinoa is used in the Jewish community as a substitute for the leavened grains that are forbidden during the Passover holiday. Several kosher certification organizations refuse to certify it as being kosher for Passover, citing reasons including its resemblance to prohibited grains or fear of cross-contamination of the product from nearby fields of prohibited grain or during packaging.[66] However, in December 2013 the Orthodox Union, the world's largest kosher certification agency, announced it would begin certifying quinoa as kosher for Passover.[67]

HistoryEdit

 
Quinoa seller at market in Calca, Peru

Quinoa is an allotetraploid plant, containing two full sets of chromosomes from two different species which hybridised with each other at one time. According to a study done in 1979, it has as its presumed ancestor either Chenopodium berlandieri, from North America, or the Andean species Ch. hircinum, although more recent studies, in 2011, even suggest Old World relatives. On the other hand, morphological features relate Ch. quinoa of the Andes and Ch. nuttalliae of Mexico. Some studies have suggested that both species may have been derived from the same wild type. A weedy quinoa, Ch. quinoa var. melanospermum, is known from South America, but no equivalent closely related to Ch. nutalliae has been reported from Mexico so far.[48]

In any case, over the last 5,000 years the biogeography of Ch. quinoa has changed greatly, mainly by human influence, convenience and preference. It has changed not only in the area of distribution, but also in regards to the climate this plant was originally adapted to, in contrast to the climates on which it is able to do successfully grow in now. In a process started by a number of pre-Inca South American indigenous cultures, people in Chile have been adapting quinoa to salinity and other forms of stress over the last 3,000 years. Particularly for the high variety of Chilean landraces, in addition to how the plant has adapted to different latitudes, this crop is now potentially cultivable almost anywhere in the world, including Europe, Asia and Africa.[48]

In Chile it had almost disappeared by the early 1940s; as of 2015 the crop is mostly grown in three areas by only some 300 smallholder farmers. Each of these areas is different: indigenous small-scale growers near the border with Bolivia who grow many types of Bolivian forms using the Inca ayllu clan system, a few farmers in the central region who exclusively grow a white-seeded variety and generally market their crops through a well-known cooperative, and in the south by women in home gardens in Mapuche reserves.[48]

When Amaranthaceae became abundant in Lake Pacucha, Peru, the lake was fresh, and the lack of Amaranthaceae taxa strongly indicates droughts which turned the lake into a saltmarsh. Based on the pollen associated with soil manipulation, this is an area of the Andes where domestication of C. quinoa became popular, although it was not the only one. It was domesticated in various geographical zones. With this, morphological adaptations began to happen until having five ecotypes today. Quinoa's genetic diversity illustrates that it was and is a vital crop.[68]

Nevertheless, studies regarding genetic diversity suggest that it may have passed through at least three bottleneck genetic events, with a possible fourth expected:

  • The first occurred when the crop was created, as its two diploid ancestors underwent a hybridization followed by chromosome doubling incident; this created a new species in effect, which was genetically isolated from its parent species, and thus lost all their genetic diversity.
  • A second bottleneck may have occurred when quinoa was domesticated from its unknown but possible wild tetraploid form. It might have been domesticated twice: once in the high Andes and a second time in the Chilean and Argentinean lowlands.
  • A third bottleneck can be considered "political", and has lasted more than 400 years, from the Spanish conquest of the new continent until the present time. During this phase quinoa has been replaced with maize, marginalized from production processes possibly due to its important medicinal, social and religious roles for the indigenous populations of South America, but also because it is very difficult to process (dehusk) compared with maize.
  • In the 21st century, a fourth bottleneck event may occur, as traditional farmers migrate from rural zones to urban centers, which exposes quinoa to the risk of further genetic erosion. Better breeding may also result in loss of genetic diversity, as breeders would be expected to reduce unwanted alleles to produce uniform cultivars, but cross-breeding between local landraces has and will likely produce high-diversity cultivars.[48]

Andean agronomists and nutrition scientists began researching quinoa in the early twentieth century, and it became the subject of much interest among researchers involved in neglected and underutilized crop studies in the 1970s.[69] The grain, however, has received much less attention than crops like maize or wheat.[citation needed]

GalleryEdit

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Anserine quinoa, or Quinoa (Dictionnaire d'histoire naturelle, Vol. 2, p. 135)
  2. ^ Found in the Bon Jardinier, almanac for the year 1839 or the Journal d'agriculture pratique et de jardinage de 1839 then at the end of the century, in the first edition, dated 1873, of the Dictionnaire de la langue française volume 4 by Émile Littré, quinoa is recorded as masculine.
  3. ^ Only non-linguist specialists, who go to investigate in the field in the Andes believing they are doing the right thing, use the feminine.

ReferencesEdit

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