Quibdó

Quibdó (Spanish pronunciation: [kiβˈðo]) is the capital city of Chocó Department, in Western Colombia, and is located on the Atrato River. The municipality of Quibdó has an area of 3,337.5 km² and a population of 129,237,[2] predominantly Afro Colombian and Zambo Colombians. [3]

Quibdó
Municipality and town
Aerial views
Aerial views
Flag of Quibdó
Flag
Official seal of Quibdó
Seal
Location of Quibdó
Coordinates: 5°41′32″N 76°39′29″W / 5.69222°N 76.65806°W / 5.69222; -76.65806Coordinates: 5°41′32″N 76°39′29″W / 5.69222°N 76.65806°W / 5.69222; -76.65806
Country Colombia
RegionPacific Region
DepartmentChocó Department
Founded1648
Government
 • MayorZulia María Mena García (Radical Change)
Area
 • Total3,337.5 km2 (1,288.6 sq mi)
Elevation
43 m (141 ft)
Population
 (2018 Census[1])
 • Total129,237
 • Density39/km2 (100/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-05 (Colombia Standard Time)
Area code(s)57 + 4
WebsiteOfficial website (in Spanish)

HistoryEdit

In prehistoric times the Chocó rainforest and mountains constituted a major barrier dividing the Mesoamerican and Andean civilisations. The high rainfall and the extremely humid climate did not attract the Spanish colonists. The Emberá Indians ceded much of their territory to the Spanish Franciscan order in 1648. Subsequent attacks on colonial outposts by hostile tribes discouraged attempts at settlement.[4] Six years later, the Spanish began again to colonize the region, eventually establishing some lumber camps and plantations where they used enslaved Africans as workers.

It was not until the nineteenth century when there was interest in finding a shipping route between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans to avoid traveling via the Straits of Magellan that the Chocó region again became of significant interest to European colonial powers, as the Atrato River Valley was thought the best possibility for this purpose by the explorer Alexander von Humboldt;[5] however it was eventually shelved in favour of the Panama Canal. At the same time research on using the Chocó to connect the Pacific and Atlantic was being carried out, gold and platinum were discovered in the Atrato Valley[5] and this ensured Quibdó’s growth and status as the chief town in the region.

Another crucial development at this time was the migration of freed black slaves into the Chocó; they were primarily working in shifting cultivation to cope with the extreme leaching from the super-humid climate. They also fished and harvested forest products.[6]

The 1853 watercolors by Manuel María Paz document two mestizo or European men with an Afro-Colombian street vendor, and depict the dress of Afro-Colombian and European women in the town square.[7][8]

The Afro-Colombian communities established trade with highland cities such as Medellín via rough mule trails that were used until the 1950s.[9] A combination of population growth and declining values for the region’s natural resources gradually resulted in an economic downturn for the region and especially Quibdó.

ClimateEdit

Quibdó has an extremely wet and cloudy tropical rainforest climate (Köppen Af) without noticeable seasons. It has the highest amount of rainfall in South America and of any city of its size or greater. The wettest city of larger size, Monrovia in Liberia, receives 3,050 millimetres (120 in) less rain annually than Quibdó. The extreme rainfall occurs because the Andes, to the east of the city, block the westerly winds driven by the Intertropical Convergence Zone. Throughout the year, owing to the Humboldt Current off the West coast of South America, these winds remain centred in the north of the continent at Quibdó’s longitudes. The result is that the extremely unstable, ascending air from the Intertropical Convergence Zone is consistently forced to rise over the Chocó plain; as it cools, enormous quantities of moisture precipitate as rainfall. What is more, due to the exuberant nature and biodiversity in the region, a biotic pump phenomena causes the Chocó low-level-jet, another important factor in driving atmospheric moisture from the Pacific into the Colombian Andes.[10]

Rain falls almost every day from clouds in intense thunderstorms; the region has a wet season year round. Some 309 days (84%) of the year are rainy. Sunny periods seldom last more than a few hours after sunrise. Quibdó has only 1,276 hours of sunshine annually, and it ranks as one of the cloudiest cities in the world. Its sunniest month is July, with typically a total of 135 hours of sunshine for the entire month.

Climate data for Quibdó (Aeropuerto El Caraño)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 36.6
(97.9)
35.0
(95.0)
35.4
(95.7)
37.0
(98.6)
35.0
(95.0)
38.0
(100.4)
36.8
(98.2)
35.4
(95.7)
35.0
(95.0)
34.8
(94.6)
35.4
(95.7)
35.6
(96.1)
38.0
(100.4)
Average high °C (°F) 30.1
(86.2)
30.2
(86.4)
30.4
(86.7)
30.8
(87.4)
31.0
(87.8)
31.2
(88.2)
31.1
(88.0)
31.0
(87.8)
30.7
(87.3)
30.4
(86.7)
30.2
(86.4)
29.6
(85.3)
30.6
(87.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 26.2
(79.2)
26.4
(79.5)
26.6
(79.9)
26.6
(79.9)
26.7
(80.1)
26.6
(79.9)
26.6
(79.9)
26.4
(79.5)
26.2
(79.2)
26.0
(78.8)
26.0
(78.8)
26.0
(78.8)
26.4
(79.5)
Average low °C (°F) 23.0
(73.4)
23.1
(73.6)
23.2
(73.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.2
(73.8)
23.0
(73.4)
22.8
(73.0)
22.9
(73.2)
22.8
(73.0)
22.7
(72.9)
22.8
(73.0)
23.0
(73.4)
23.0
(73.4)
Record low °C (°F) 19.0
(66.2)
21.0
(69.8)
20.8
(69.4)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
19.0
(66.2)
19.8
(67.6)
19.6
(67.3)
20.0
(68.0)
18.0
(64.4)
20.0
(68.0)
20.0
(68.0)
18.0
(64.4)
Average rainfall mm (inches) 579.3
(22.81)
505.4
(19.90)
526.1
(20.71)
654.6
(25.77)
776.2
(30.56)
761.6
(29.98)
802.6
(31.60)
851.7
(33.53)
702.4
(27.65)
654.0
(25.75)
728.1
(28.67)
588.5
(23.17)
8,130.5
(320.1)
Average rainy days 24 21 22 25 27 26 26 27 27 27 26 26 304
Average relative humidity (%) 88 86 86 88 87 87 86 87 87 88 88 89 87
Mean monthly sunshine hours 90.5 83.4 85.6 92.9 112.5 114 135.1 132.7 112.7 116.7 112.2 88.1 1,276.4
Source: INSTITUTO DE HIDROLOGIA METEOROLOGIA Y ESTUDIOS AMBIENTALES[11]

TransportationEdit

Quibdo is served by El Caraño Airport with flights by three commercial airlines.

Notable residentsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ https://www.dane.gov.co/files/varios/informacion-capital-DANE-2019.pdf
  2. ^ "Colombia: Departments, Municipalities, Cities, Localities & Metropolitan Areas - Statistics & Maps on City Population". citypopulation.de. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  3. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-10-06. Retrieved 2014-12-20.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  4. ^ "V!VA Travel Guides History - The History of Quibdó from V!VA's up-to-date book and ebook". www.vivatravelguides.com.
  5. ^ a b Kelley, Frederick M.; Kennish, William; and Serrell, Edward Wellman; The Practicability and Importance of a Ship Canal to Connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with a History of the Enterprise; published 1855 By George F. Nisbett
  6. ^ Asher, Kiran; Black and Green: Afro-Colombians, Development and Nature in the Pacific Lowlands; p. 36. ISBN 978-0-8223-4483-4
  7. ^ Paz, Manuel María. "View of a Street in Quibdó, Chocó Province". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  8. ^ Paz, Manuel María. "The Square of Quibdó, Chocó". World Digital Library. Retrieved 2014-05-22.
  9. ^ Zarsky, Lyuba; Human Rights and the Environment: Conflicts and Norms in a Globalizing World; pp. 177-178. ISBN 1-85383-815-2
  10. ^ https://usclivar.org/sites/default/files/meetings/2015/presentations/Sierra-J-IASCLIP.pdf
  11. ^ "QUIBDÓ". bart.ideam.gov.co.

External linksEdit