Queen Inhyeon

Queen Inhyeon (Hangul: 인현왕후 민씨, Hanja: 仁顯王后 閔氏; 15 May 1667 – 16 September 1701), of the Yeoheung Min clan, was a posthumous name bestowed to the wife and second queen consort of Yi Sun, King Sukjong, the 19th Joseon monarch. She was Queen consort of Joseon from 1681 until her deposition in 1688 and from her reinstatement in 1694 until her death in 1701. She is one of the best known Joseon queens and her life has been portrayed in many Korean historical dramas.

Queen Inhyeon
인현왕후
Queen consort of Joseon
Tenure2 May 1681 – 5 March 1688
1 June 1694 – 16 September 1701
Predecessor
Successor
Born15 May 1667
Bansong-dong, Yeoju, Gyeonggi Province, Kingdom of Joseon
Died16 September 1701 (1701-09-17) (aged 34)
Gyeongchun Hall, Changdeok Palace, Kingdom of Joseon
Burial
Myeongreung, Gyeonggi Province
SpouseYi Sun, King Sukjong (m. 1681–div.1688, m. 1694–1701)
Posthumous name
효경숙성장순원화의열정목인현왕후 孝敬淑聖莊純元化懿烈貞穆仁顯王后
HouseYeoheung Min
FatherMin Yu-jung
MotherInternal Princess Consort Eunseong of the Eunjin Song clan
Queen Inhyeon
Hangul
인현왕후
Hanja
仁顯王后
Revised RomanizationInhyeon Wanghu
McCune–ReischauerInhyŏn Wanghu

BiographyEdit

Born into the Yeoheung Min clan, the future queen was the second daughter of Min Yu-jung (민유중 閔維重) (1630–1687), entitled as Internal Prince Yeoyang (여양부원군, Yeoyang Buwongun), and his second wife, Princess Consort Eunseong of the Eunjin Song clan (은성부부인, Eunseong Bubuin).

She married to King Sukjong in 1681 at the age of 14 and became his second queen consort. When Sukjong's concubine who belonged to the Southerners (Nam-in) faction, So-ui[1] Jang Ok-jeong, give birth to a son, Yi Yun in 1688, it created a bloody dispute called Gisa Hwanguk (기사환국). During this time, Sukjong wanted to give this eldest son (entitled the wonja, literally the "First Son") the title of "Crown Prince" and wanted to promote Jang Ok-jeong from So-ui to Hui-bin.[2]

This action was opposed by the Westerners (Seoin) faction, who supported the Queen led by Song Si-yeol,[3] and this was supported by the Nam-in faction, who supported Jang Ok-jeong.

The King pushed for a compromise in which the Queen would adopt Yi Yun as her son. However, the Queen refused to do so. Sukjong became angry at the opposition, and many were killed, including Song Si-yeol. Many, including the Queen's family, were forced into exile. The Queen herself was deposed in 1688, while Jang Ok-jeong was elevated from so-ui to hui-bin, and then appointed as queen consort.

The Seoin faction split into the Noron (Old Learning) faction and the Soron (New Learning) faction. In the meantime, Kim Chun-taek who was member of the Noron faction and Han Jung-hyuk from the Soron faction, staged a campaign to reinstate the Deposed Queen. In 1693, Sukjong's new favorite, a palace maid from Haeju Choi clan, was officially elevated as a royal concubine with the rank Suk-won.[4] Choi Suk-won (later Choi Suk-bin), was an open supporter of the Deposed Queen Min and encouraged the King to reinstate her to her original position as queen.

Later, Sukjong felt remorse at his temperamental actions during Gisa Hwanguk. He also grew disgusted by the greed of the Nam-in faction and the ever-powerful Jang family. In the government, the Nam-in attempt to purge Seoin on charge of plotting to reinstate the Deposed Queen backfired.

The King banished Jang Hui-jae, Jang Ok-jeong's older brother, and the leaders of the Nam-in party. In 1694, he officially demoted Jang Ok-jeong to her former position, Hui-bin, and he reinstated the Deposed Queen as queen consort and brought her back into the palace. This incident is called Gapsul Hwanguk (갑술환국). The Nam-in faction would never recover from this purge politically.

In 1701, aged 34, the Queen became ill and died of an unknown disease. Some sources say that she was poisoned. She was posthumously honoured as Queen Inhyeon.

It has been said that Sukjong, while mourning for Inhyeon, dreamed of her in a sobok dress drenched with blood. Sukjong asked Inhyeon of how she died, but Inhyeon didn't say anything, but pointed in to the direction of Jang Hui-bin's chambers.[5] Sukjong awoke, then went into Hui-bin's chambers. While approaching, he heard music and sounds of laughter. Eavesdropping, he saw Jang Hui-bin with Shamanist priestesses in her chambers, praying for the Queen's death, while striking a figurine with arrows. When this was discovered by Sukjong, Jang Hui-bin was executed for her actions by poison.[6]

One of Queen Inhyeon's ladies in waiting wrote a book called Inhyeon wanghu jeon (Hangul: 인현왕후전, Hanja: 仁顯王后傳, Queen Inhyeon's Story), which still exists today. She was buried in Myeongreung (명릉,明陵) in Gyeonggi Province, and Sukjong was later buried near her in the same area. She has no issue to Sukjong.

TitlesEdit

  • 15 May 1667 - 2 May 1681: Lady Min, daughter of Min Yu-jung of the Yeoheung Min clan
  • 2 May 1681 - 5 March 1688: Her Royal Highness, the Queen Consort of Joseon (왕비; 王妃)
  • 5 March 1688 - 1 June 1694: Deposed Queen Min (폐비 민씨; 廢妃 閔氏)
  • 1 June 1694 - 16 September 1701: Her Royal Highness, the Queen Consort of Joseon (왕비; 王妃)
  • Posthumous title: Queen Inhyeon (인현왕후; 仁顯王后)

FamilyEdit

  • Great-Great-Great-Grandfather
    • Min Hyo-son (Hangul: 민효손, Hanja: 閔孝孫)[7][8]
  • Great-Great-Great-Grandmother
    • Lady Yun of the Papyeong Yun clan (본관: 파평 윤씨); daughter of Yun Ji-kang (윤지강의 딸)
  • Great-Great-Grandfather
    • Min Se-ryu (Hangul: 민세류, Hanja: 閔世瑠)[9]
  • Great-Great-Grandmother
    • Lady Yi of the Jeonui Yi clan (본관: 전의 이씨); (이인석의 딸) daughter of Yi In-seok (이인석, 李仁錫)
  • Great-Grandfather
    • Min Gi (Hangul: 민기, Hanja: 閔機) (1504 - 18 January 1568)
  • Great-Grandmother
    • Lady Kim of the (old) Andong Kim clan (김씨, 金氏) (본관: 구 안동 김씨, 舊 安東 金氏); (김택의 딸) daughter of Kim Taek (김택, 金澤)
  • Grandfather
    • Min Gwang-hun (민광훈, 閔光勳) (1595 – 1659)
  • Grandmother
    • Lady Yi of the Yeonan Yi clan (연안 이씨);[10] daughter of Yi Gwang-jeong (이광정, 李光庭) (1552 - 1629)
  • Father - Min Yu-jung (1630 – 29 June 1687) (민유중), Internal Prince Yeoyang (여양부원군)
    • Uncle - Min Si-jong (민시중, 閔蓍重) (1625 - 1677)
      • Aunt - Lady Hong of the Pungsan Hong clan (풍산 홍씨)[11]
        • Cousin - Min Jin-ha (민진하, 閔鎭夏)
        • Cousin - Min Jin-ju (민진주, 閔鎭周) (1646 - 1700)
        • Cousin - Min Jin-ro (민진로, 閔鎭魯) (1662 - 1684)[12]
    • Uncle - Min Jeong-jung (민정중, 閔鼎重) (1628 - 25 June 1692)[13]
      • Aunt - Lady Shin of the Pyeongsan Shin clan (평산 신씨)[14]
      • Aunt - Lady Hong of the Namyang Hong clan (남양 홍씨)
        • Cousin - Min Jin-jang (민진장, 閔鎭長) (1649 - 1700)[15]
        • Cousin - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan
      • Aunt - Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (전주 이씨); daughter of Yi Gyeong-jeong, Prince Jinpyeong (전평군 이경정, 李慶禎)
      • Aunt - Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (전주 이씨);[16] daughter of Yi Suk (이숙) (? - 1680)
        • Cousin - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (11 August 1663 - 17 September 1680)
    • Aunt - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨)
      • Uncle - Hong Man-hyeong (홍만형, 洪萬衡) (1633 - 1679)[17][18]
        • Cousin - Hong Jong-mo (홍중모, 洪重模)
        • Cousin - Hong Jong-hae (홍중해, 洪重楷)[19]
  • Stepmother - Internal Princess Consort Haepung of the Deoksu Yi clan (해풍부부인 덕수 이씨, 海豊府夫人 德水 李氏) (1628 - 1652)[20]
    • Step grandfather - Yi Gyeong-jeung (이경증, 李景曾) (1595 - 1648)
    • Step grandmother - Yi Gye-yeo (이계여, 李桂餘), Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (정부인 전주 이씨 계여, 貞夫人 全州 李氏 桂餘) (1598 - ?)[21]
  • Mother - Internal Princess Consort Eunseong of the Eunjin Song clan (1637 – 1672) (은성부부인 은진 송씨, 恩城府夫人 恩津 宋氏); Min Yu-jung’s second wife
    • Grandfather − Song Jun-gil (28 December 1606 – 2 December 1672) (송준길)
    • Grandmother − Lady Jeong of the Jinju Jeong clan (증 정경부인 진주 정씨, 贈 貞敬夫人 晉州 鄭氏)
  • Stepmother - Internal Princess Consort Pungchang of the Pungyang Jo clan (풍창부부인 풍양 조씨, 豊昌府夫人 豐壤 趙氏) (1659 - 1741)

Siblings

  • Older half-brother - Min Jin-oh (민진오, 閔鎭五)
    • Sister-in-law - Lady Hwang of the Pyeonghae Hwang clan (평해 황씨, 平海 黃氏)
      • Half-nephew - Min Chi-su (민치수, 閔致洙)
        • Half-grandnephew - Min Baek-yong (민백용, 閔百用)[22]
  • Older sister − Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (1656 – 1728) (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)
    • Brother-in-law - Yi Man-chang (이만창)[23]
      • Nephew − Yi Jae (이재, 李縡) (1680 - 1746)
  • Older brother − Min Jin-hu (1659 – 1720) (민진후)[24]
    • Sister-in-law - Lady Yi of the Yeonan Yi clan (연안 이씨, 延安 李氏); daughter of Yi Dan-sang (이단상, 李端相)
      • Niece - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)[25]
        • Nephew-in-law - Jo Gyu-bin (조규빈, 趙奎彬)
          • Grandnephew - Jo Yeong-jin (조영진, 趙榮進)[26]
    • Sister-in-law - Lady Yi of the Yeonan Yi clan (연안 이씨, 延安 李氏); daughter of Yi Deok-ro (이덕로, 李德老)
      • Nephew - Min Ik-su (민익수, 閔翼洙) (1690 - 1742)[27]
        • Grandnephew - Min Baek-bun (민백분, 閔百奮) (1723 - ?)[28][29]
        • Grandniece - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)
        • Grandniece - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)
      • Nephew - Min Woo-su (민우수, 閔遇洙) (1694 - 1756)
        • Niece-in-law - Lady Yun of Chilwon Yun clan (칠원 윤씨)
          • Grandnephew - Min Baek-cheom (민백첨, 閔百瞻)
          • Grandnephew - Min Baek-gyeom (민백겸, 閔百兼)
      • Niece - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)
        • Nephew-in-law - Kim Gwang-taek (김광택, 金光澤)[30]
  • Older brother − Min Jin-won (1664 – 1736) (민진원)[31][32]
    • Sister-in-law - Lady Yun of the Papyeong Yun clan (파평 윤씨)
      • Nephew - Min Chang-su (민창수, 閔昌洙)
        • Niece-in-law - Lady Kim of the (new) Andong Kim clan (신 안동 김씨, 新 安東 金氏)[33]
          • Grandnephew - Min Baek-sun (민백순, 閔百順)
      • Nephew - Min Hyeong-su (민형수, 閔亨洙)[34]
        • Niece-in-law - Lady Yi of the Jeonju Yi clan (전주 이씨)
          • Grandniece - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)
            • Grandnephew-in-law - Hong Nak-in (홍낙인, 洪樂仁) (1729 - 19 June 1777)[35]
          • Grandnephew - Min Baek-sang (민백상, 閔百祥) (1711 - 1761)[36]
          • Grandnephew - Min Baek-heung (민백흥, 閔百興)
          • Grandnephew - Min Baek-jeung (민백증, 閔百增)
          • Grandnephew - Min Baek-gab (민백갑, 閔百甲)
      • Nephew - Min Tong-su (민통수, 閔通洙)
        • Niece-in-law - Lady Song of the Eunjin Song clan (은진 송씨, 恩津 宋氏)
          • Grandnephew - Min Baek-seon (민백선, 閔百善)
      • Niece - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)
        • Nephew-in-law - Yi Ju-jin (이주진)
  • Younger sister - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)
  • Younger sister - Min Jeong-seong (민정성), Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (1672 - 1672)[37]
  • Younger sister − Min Jeong-je (민정제), Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏) (1672 - ?)
    • Brother-in-law - Shin Seok-hwa (신석화, 申錫華) (1672 - 1714)[38]
  • Younger half-brother − Min Jin-yeong (민진영, 閔鎭永) (1682 - 1724)[39]
    • Half-nephew - Min Ak-Su (민악수, 閔樂洙)[40]
      • Half-grandnephew - Min Baek-Sul (민백술, 閔百述)[41]
    • Half-nephew - Min Gak-su (민각수, 閔覺洙)
  • Younger half-sister − Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)
    • Brother-in-law - Yi Jang-hee (이장휘, 李長輝)
  • Younger half-sister − Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (여흥 민씨, 驪興 閔氏)
    • Brother-in-law - Hong Woo-jo (홍우조, 洪禹肇)
  • Younger half-brother - Min Jin-chang (민진창, 閔鎭昌)
  • Younger half-sister - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (민씨, 閔氏) (1671 - ?)
  • Younger half-sister - Lady Min of the Yeoheung Min clan (민씨, 閔氏)

Consort

Full posthumous nameEdit

  • Hyogyeong Sukseong Jangsun Wonhwa Uiyeol Jeongmok Inhyeon Wanghu
  • 효경숙성장순원화의열정목인현왕후
  • 孝敬淑聖莊純元化懿烈貞穆仁顯王后

TriviaEdit

Inhyeon's eldest brother Min Jin-hu's great-great-great-granddaughter would eventually marry Inhyeon's step-great-great-great-great-adoptive-grandson, the future Emperor Gojong of the Korean Empire, becoming the famous Empress Myeongseong.

Emperor Gojong's mother, Grand Internal Princess Consort Sunmok, is a great-great-great-great-great-granddaughter of Queen Inhyeon's younger half-brother, Min Jin-yeong (through her father and his third wife, Lady Pungchang of the Pungyang Jo clan). Empress Sunmyeong is also a great-great-great-great-granddaughter through Queen Inhyeon's second eldest brother, Min Jin-won.

In popular cultureEdit

DramaEdit

NovelsEdit

  • Queen Inhyeon’s story
  • Femme Fatale, Jang Hee-bin by Lee Jun-beom and Min Ye-sa, 1994, ISBN 2-00-236900076-7
  • Dong Yi by Lee Jun-hyeok, 2010, Literary Chunchusa, ISBN 978-89-7604-055-8

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ So-ui (소의) was 3rd rank concubine of the King. See Styles and titles in the Joseon dynasty
  2. ^ Bin (빈) was the highest rank concubine of the King. See Styles and titles in the Joseon dynasty
  3. ^ "네이버 학술정보".
  4. ^ Suk-won (숙원) was 8th or the lowest rank concubine of the King. See Styles and titles in the Joseon dynasty
  5. ^ "The history of Korea". Seoul, Methodist Pub. House. 1905.
  6. ^ "The history of Korea". Seoul, Methodist Pub. House. 1905.
  7. ^ His daughter became a concubine for King Yeonsangun
  8. ^ He’s an ascendant of Queen Wongyeong’s grandfather’s older brother, Min Yu
  9. ^ His sister, Royal Consort Suk-ui of the Yeoheung Min clan, became a concubine for King Yeonsangun
  10. ^ She is a maternal cousin of Heo Jeok; their grandmother, Lady Min, was the aunt of Royal Noble Consort Jeong of the Yeoheung Min clan (a concubine of King Seonjo) and the granddaughter of Princess Gyeongsuk (a daughter of King Seongjeong)
  11. ^ She is a sister-in-law of Princess Jeongmyeong; the daughter of Queen Inmok and King Seonjo
  12. ^ Married Lady Yi of the Hampyeong Yi clan (함평이씨, 咸平李氏) (1660 - 1717) and through their son, Min Hong-su (민흥수, 閔興洙) (1685 - 1751), they eventually became the 5th great-grandparents of Min Yeong-hwi (민영휘, 閔泳徽); who was a 15th degree nephew of Empress Myeongseong
  13. ^ Became the 4th great-grandfather of Princess Consort Min (the mother of Heungseon Daewongun and the grandmother of King Gojong) through his grandson Min Deok-su (민덕수, 閔德洙)
  14. ^ She is a daughter of Shin Seung (신승, 申昇) (a son of Princess Jeongsuk (a daughter of King Seonjo). Shin Seung is also a brother-in-law to Queen Myeongseong’s uncle, Kim Jwa-myeong (김좌명, 金佐明) (1616 - 1671), and Crown Princess Minhoe’s brother, Kang Mun-du. His parents are also father and mother in-laws to Crown Princess Minhoe’s brother, Kang Mun-seong
  15. ^ The 3rd great-grandfather of Princess Consort Min
  16. ^ She is a half-sister of Yi Man-chang (이만창)
  17. ^ His the son of Princess Jeongmyeong (정명공주) and the maternal grandson of Queen Inmok and King Seonjo
  18. ^ He is the maternal great-great-granduncle of Lady Hyegyeong through his older brother, Hong Man-yong (홍만용, 洪萬容) (1631 - 1692)
  19. ^ Became the great-great-grandfather of Royal Noble Consort Won of the Pungsan Hong clan (a concubine of King Jeongjo)
  20. ^ Lady Yi is a great-granddaughter of King Seonjo
  21. ^ Lady Yi is the daughter of Yi Bo, Prince Sunhwa (이보 순화군; 1580 - 1607) and Lady Hwang of the Jangsu Hwang clan (장수 황씨, 長水 黃氏; 1577 - 1645). Prince Sunhwa was the son of King Seonjo and Royal Noble Consort Sun of the Gimhae Kim clan (순빈 김씨) (? - 1647)
  22. ^ His great-grandson, Min Pil-ho (민필호, 閔弼鎬), is an in-law to Yun Po-sun (through Yun’s first wife, Lady Min)
  23. ^ His younger brother, Yi Man-seong (이만성), married Lady Kim of the Andong Kim clan (a niece of Kim Su-hang (the 4th great-grandfather of Queen Sunwon and Kim Jwa-geun)
  24. ^ Great-great-great-grandfather of Empress Myeongseong
  25. ^ In Queen Inhyeon’s Story (《소설 인현왕후전》), it states that Queen Inhyeon had raised her niece while in her deposition and confinement. But some say that the information is written incorrectly
  26. ^ King Yeongjo attended his (step)mother, Queen Inhyeon's funeral, and by dedicating an essay that her mother or Queen Inhyeon wrote, he (Jo Yeong-jin) obtained considerable wealth and government posts. He guided Yeongjo to the detached house of Min Yu-jung, where Queen Inhyeon stayed when she was abolished (at the time, owned by Min Baek-bun), and named the building that Yeongjo used as a bedroom by Queen Inhyeon, 'Gamgodang,' writes a handwritten script, He was given special promotion to the second class Hanseong Buu-yun, but later, according to what the officers of the Annals of Yeongjo heard from the people of the family, it was said that the direction was wrong. Annals of Yeongjo, Volume 97, 37th year (1761 Shrine / 26th year of Qianlong) June 13th (Gyeongjin) 4th article
  27. ^ Great-great-grandfather of Empress Myeongseong
  28. ^ Great-grandfather of Empress Myeongseong
  29. ^ Grandfather of Min Chi-rok
  30. ^ He is the grandson of Kim Man-jung who is also the uncle of Queen Ingyeong. Kim Man-jung is also a maternal great-great-great-grandson of Princess Jeonghye (the daughter of King Seonjo and Royal Noble Consort In of the Suwon Kim clan) and Yun Shin-ji
  31. ^ Great-Great-Great-Great-Grandfather of Empress Sunmyeong
  32. ^ His eldest granddaughter eventually became the great-great aunt to Empress Sunmyeong, and was married to Lady Hyegyeong’s older brother
  33. ^ She is a granddaughter of Kim Su-hang (the 4th great-grandfather of Queen Sunwon and Kim Jwa-geun)
  34. ^ Great-great-great-grandfather of Empress Sunmyeong
  35. ^ The older brother of Lady Hyegyeong and maternal uncle of King Jeongjo
  36. ^ Great-great-grandfather of Empress Sunmyeong
  37. ^ Queen Inhyeon’s grandfather, Song Jun-gil, recorded that Min Yu-jung had 2 sons and 5 daughters. It did not match the registry as Min had 2 sons and 3 daughters recorded. The family didn’t record premature deaths before the coming-of-age ceremony or the 100th day ceremony. It was later found out that the 4th and 5th daughters were twins, but one died prematurely in 1672.
  38. ^ He was a grandnephew of Queen Jangryeol
  39. ^ The 5th great-grandfather of Grand Internal Princess Consort Sunmok - Gojong's mother
  40. ^ The 4th great-grandfather of Grand Internal Princess Consort Sunmok
  41. ^ The 3rd grandfather of Grand Internal Princess Consort Sunmok
  42. ^ "Femme Fatale, Jang Hee-bin (Yohwa, Jang Hee-bin) (1968)". Korean Movie Database. Retrieved 2013-01-26.
Queen Inhyeon
Yeoheung Min clan
Royal titles
Preceded by
Queen Ingyeong
of the Kim clan
Queen consort of Joseon
1681 – 5 March 1688
Succeeded by
Jang Ok-jeong, Queen
of the Indong Jang clan
Preceded by
Jang Ok-jeong, Queen
of the Indong Jang clan
Queen consort of Joseon
1694 – 16 September 1701
Succeeded by
Queen Inwon
of the Gyeongju Kim clan