Qualla Boundary

The Qualla Boundary or The Qualla is territory held as a land trust by the United States government for the federally recognized Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians, who reside in western North Carolina. The area is part of the large historic Cherokee territory in the Southeast, which extended into eastern Tennessee, western South Carolina, northern Georgia and Alabama.

Qualla Boundary
Cherokee Indian Reservation sign
Cherokee Indian Reservation sign
Country United States
State North Carolina
CountiesCherokee, Graham, Haywood, Jackson, Swain
Established1876[1]
Added to Trust1924[2]
Named forPolly
GovernmentEastern Band of Cherokee Indians
Time zoneUTC-5 (Eastern (EST))
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
Area code(s)828
GNIS feature ID1018039[3]

The tribe purchased this land in the 1870s, and it was subsequently placed under federal protective trust; it is not a reservation created by the government.[4][1] Individuals can buy, own, and sell the land, provided they are enrolled members of the Tribe of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee Indians. Their headquarters is located in Cherokee, North Carolina.

EtymologyEdit

Qualla comes from the Cherokee word kwalli (old woman), because an old Cherokee woman, Polly, lived in the area.[1][5][6]

LocationEdit

The Qualla Boundary is located at 35°30′N 83°16′W / 35.500°N 83.267°W / 35.500; -83.267Coordinates: 35°30′N 83°16′W / 35.500°N 83.267°W / 35.500; -83.267.

The main part of the Qualla Boundary lies in eastern Swain and northern Jackson counties (just south of Great Smoky Mountains National Park). A small portion of the main trust lands extends eastward into Haywood County. The trust lands include many smaller non-contiguous sections to the southwest in Marble, Hiwassee, and Hanging Dog areas of Cherokee County, North Carolina, and the Snowbird community in Graham County, North Carolina. The total land area of these regions is 213.934 km² (82.6 sq mi), with a 2000 census resident population of 8,092 people.

HistoryEdit

 
"Qualla Indian Reservation" sign in North Carolina; text of 1975 sign included in article

The Cherokee and their ancestors have long occupied this area, having migrated here centuries before Europeans arrived. During their colonial expansion west, European settlers sometimes came into conflict with the Cherokee, whose territory extended into present-day Tennessee and northern Georgia. After the late eighteenth century and warfare with American settlers during and after the Revolutionary War, many of the Cherokee moved further south along the Tennessee River, into Georgia and westward into Alabama, establishing at least eleven new towns[citation needed].

 
Map of the Qualla Indian Reserve (circa 1890)
 
Qualla Arts and Crafts Center in Cherokee, North Carolina

The Cherokee were forcibly removed in the late 1830s from much of this area, especially the Black Belt in Georgia and Alabama, under federal authority as authorized by Congress in the 1830 Indian Removal Act. They were relocated to Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River, in what is the present-day state of Oklahoma.

During the winter of 1838 and early the spring of 1839, the U.S. Federal Government relocated approximately 11,000 Cherokee from their homeland in North Carolina, in what is known as the Trail of Tears. Some of the Cherokee were able to evade the initial removal and hide in the Great Smoky Mountains, some were free to stay on their lands due to earlier treaties, but the majority of the Cherokee people were removed from the land. This was when the main struggle for land at what became the Qualla Boundary began.[7]

The Qualla Boundary was first surveyed in 1876 by M. S. Temple under the auspices of the United States Land Office. These pieces were embodied in a map published as the Map of the Qualla Indian reserve.[8]

The Qualla Boundary is a land trust supervised by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs. The land is a fragment of the extensive historical homeland of the Cherokee in the region, and was considered part of the Cherokee Nation during the nineteenth century, prior to certain treaties and Indian Removal in the 1830s. William Holland Thomas had lived and worked among the Cherokee people for a good portion of his life. He had a knowledge of their traditions and language, and was close friends with some members of the tribe. The Cherokee valued and respected Thomas; he had studied law and was adopted into the tribe and named as successor by its hereditary chief. He is the only European American to have served as chief in their history.[9]

Thomas purchased lands around the Oconaluftee River for the tribe, the total area adding up to around 50,000 acres; this land is still a large part of what makes up the Boundary today. The Cherokee organized and formed a corporation in 1870 to be able to purchase and hold additional lands.[4] The Cherokee who gained the ability to live in North Carolina were considered to be an independent band from the Cherokee Nation living in Oklahoma.[10]

A United States Department of Interior sign, entitled "Qualla Indian Reservation", reads:

The Cherokee domain once extended far beyond the distant mountains, but the white man, with broken treaties and fruitless promises, brought trouble to the Indians and caused their banishment to an Oklahoma reservation. A few escaped capture and fled into the Great Smokies, eventually forming the Eastern Band that now lives on the Qualla Reservation in the valley below.

Government and LawEdit

The tribal community functions like most municipalities, operating schools, law enforcement, and rescue services, in addition to their own hospital and gaming casino, known as Harrah's Cherokee. They have opened a second location of the casino on their land in Murphy, North Carolina. The Tribe has operated a court system since 1987.

Tribal police have exclusive police jurisdiction on Indian lands. The FBI and other federal agencies have jurisdiction to handle certain major federal criminal offenses. NC State Troopers, motor vehicle inspectors, wildlife officers, state alcohol agents, SBI agents, and other state peace officers assigned to counties that overlap with the Qualla Boundary can be called to assist tribal law enforcement officers, and can be commissioned as "special officers" of the Department of Interior to assist in federal investigations. Non-tribal members charged with a crime in Qualla Boundary are referred to local county courts.

Administrative divisionsEdit

The Qualla Boundary is divided into seven communities, which are similar to townships.[11]

 
US Census map of Qualla Boundary with subdivisions
Community Overlapping North Carolina counties
Big Cove[12] Swain County
Birdtown[13] Jackson County, Swain County
Cherokee County[14] Cherokee County
Painttown[15] Jackson County
Snowbird[16] Graham County
Wolftown[17] Haywood County, Jackson County, Swain County
Yellowhill[18] Swain County

There are no municipalities, instead each community elects two representatives to the EBCI tribal council; except for Cherokee County and Snowbird, which share two representatives to the EBCI tribal council.[19] Cherokee, a census-designated place (CDP), overlaps most of Painttown and Yellowhill, with a small portion also in Wolftown.[11]

EducationEdit

From 1890 to 1954, the U.S. Indian Service (later renamed the Bureau of Indian Affairs) operated the Cherokee Boarding Schools in Cherokee. It was replaced with elementary day schools in Big Cove, Soco, Birdtown, and Snowbird. In 1962, all elementary day schools were consolidated into Central Elementary School in Cherokee. In 1975, Cherokee High School was opened with grades seven through twelve. On August 1, 1990, Cherokee Central Schools became a tribally operated school district, with students assigned from Big Cove, Birdtown, Painttown, Wolftown, and Yellowhill communities.[20][21][22] In 1996, the school district established the Kituwah curriculum for kindergarten through sixth grade, which incorporates the Cherokee language; prior to this, the Cherokee language was not permitted when it was operated under the Bureau of Indian Affairs.[20][23]

In 2004, the ECBI established the New Kituwah Academy, a private bilingual Cherokee- and English-language immersion school for Cherokee students in kindergarten through sixth grade, located in the Yellowhill community.[24]

Western Carolina University Cherokee CenterEdit

Established in 1975, in cooperation with the ECBI, it is the headquarters for all outreach and involvement between Western Carolina University with residents in the Qualla Boundary and outside surrounding communities. Providing services including application process, transcript request, scholarships, internships placement, high school recruitment, as well as college level courses.[25] The Cherokee Center is led by a Director and supported by an advisory board composed of representatives from the ECBI and Western Carolina University.[26]

Representation in mediaEdit

In the mid-1950s, much of Disney's five-part television series, Davy Crockett (starring Fess Parker), was filmed here.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Hill, Michael (2006). "Qualla Boundary". State Library of North Carolina. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  2. ^ Anderson, William L.; Wetmore, Ruth Y. (2006). "Cherokee Indians - Part 6: Federal recognition and the fight for Cherokee Rights". State Library of North Carolina. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  3. ^ U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Eastern Cherokee Reservation
  4. ^ a b "History & Culture". Eastern Band of Cherokee. Archived from the original on April 15, 2015. Retrieved April 15, 2015.
  5. ^ "North Carolina Gazetteer - Qualla". State Library of North Carolina. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  6. ^ "Qualla Boundary of the Eastern Band of the Cherokee". Sherpa Guides. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  7. ^ "NCGenWeb Project | North Carolina Genealogy Resources". Retrieved May 1, 2020.
  8. ^ [http🖉"Map of the Qualla Indian Reserve (Boundary) N.C. :: North Carolina Maps]". dc.lib.unc.edu.
  9. ^ Mitchell, Anne (1997). "Culture, History, and Development on the Qualla Boundary". Appalachian Journal and Appalachian State University. 24.
  10. ^ Denning, Shea (July 10, 2019). "Criminal Jurisdiction on the Qualla Boundary". NC Criminal Law Blog | UNC Chapel Hill School of Government. Retrieved March 31, 2020.
  11. ^ a b US Census Bureau, Geography Division (June 14, 2021). Eastern Cherokee Reservation (0990) (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  12. ^ US Census Bureau, Geography Division (April 20, 2021). Big Cove Community (050) (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  13. ^ US Census Bureau, Geography Division (April 20, 2021). Birdtown Community (065) (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  14. ^ US Census Bureau, Geography Division (April 20, 2021). Cherokee County Community (120) (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  15. ^ US Census Bureau, Geography Division (April 20, 2021). Painttown Community (600) (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  16. ^ US Census Bureau, Geography Division (April 20, 2021). Snowbird Community (750) (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  17. ^ US Census Bureau, Geography Division (April 20, 2021). Wolftown Community (850) (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  18. ^ US Census Bureau, Geography Division (April 20, 2021). Yellowhill Community (880) (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  19. ^ "The Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians - Cherokee, NC". Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  20. ^ a b "History of Cherokee Central Schools". Cherokee Central Schools. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  21. ^ US Census Bureau, Geography Division (January 8, 2021). 2020 Census - School District Reference Map: Swain County, NC (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  22. ^ US Census Bureau, Geography Division (January 8, 2021). 2020 Census - School District Reference Map: Jackson County, NC (PDF) (Map) (2020 Census ed.). Suitland, MD: U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved July 18, 2021.
  23. ^ Parris, John (October 30, 1996). "Boys Club provides independence". Asheville Citizen-Times. Asheville, North Carolina. p. B1. - Clipping from Newspapers.com.
  24. ^ "KPEP and Kituwah". Eastern Band of Cherokee. Retrieved February 28, 2019.
  25. ^ "Cherokee Center". Western Carolina University. Retrieved August 1, 2021.
  26. ^ "Cherokee Center Advisory Board". Western Carolina University. Retrieved August 1, 2021.

Further readingEdit

External linksEdit