Qazvin Province (Persian: استان قزوین, Ostān-e Qazvīn) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran. It is in the north-west of the country, and its center is the city of Qazvin. The province was created in 1993 out of part of Tehran Province. The counties of Qazvin Province are Qazvin County, Takestan County, Abyek County, Buin Zahra County, Mobarakeh County, Alborz County & Avaj County. The largest cities are Qazvin, Takestan, Abyek, Alvand, Iran, Bidestan, Mobarakeh, Mohammadiyeh & Eqbaliyeh.
|• Governor-general||Mohammad-Mahdi Aalaee|
|• Total||15,567 km2 (6,010 sq mi)|
|• Density||82/km2 (210/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+03:30 (IRST)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+04:30 (IRST)|
high · 14th
The province had a population of 1.2 million people by the 2011 census, of which 68.05% lived in cities and 31.95% in villages. The ratio of men to women is 50.7 to 49.3%. 99.61% of the province population were Muslims and 0.39% of the rest came from other religions. The literacy rate is over 82%, ranking 7th in Iran.
Qazvin is home to a wide range of ethnic groups. The city of Qazvin is mostly inhabited by ethnic Persians who speak the Persian language with a Qazvini accent. The south-eastern part of the province is inhabited by Azeris who speak Azerbaijani. The Tats live in the central part of the province, around Takestan and speak Tati. Finally, the majority of people in the northern part of the province, in Alamut, are Gilaks who speak a dialect of the Gilaki language.
Geography and climateEdit
The province covers 15821 km2 between 48–45 to 50–50 east of Greenwich Meridian of longitude and 35–37 to 36–45 north latitude of the equator. The province is bounded on the north by Mazandaran and Gilan, on the west by Hamedan and Zanjan, on the south by Markazi and on the east by Tehran Provinces. The famous mountains of the province are those of Siälän, Shäh Alborz, Khashchäl, Sephidkouh, Shojä e din, Alehtareh, Rämand, Ägh dägh, Kharaghän, Saridagh, Soltan pïr, and Siähkouh, in which Siälän with a height of 4175m and Shäh Alborz which is 4056m are the highest. All are part of the central chain of Alborz. The lowest point of the province is in Tärom e Soflä.
The climate of the province in the northern parts is cold and snowy in winters and temperate in summers. In the southern parts the climate is mild with comparatively cold winters and warm summers.
Qazvin was the location of a former capital of the Persian Empire and contains over 2000 architectural and archeological sites. It is a provincial capital today that has been a cultural center of mass throughout history.
Archeological findings in the Qazvin plain reveal the existence of urban agricultural settlements as far back as 7000 BC. The name “Qazvin” or “Kasbin” is derived from Cas, an ancient tribe that lived south of the Caspian Sea millennia ago. The Caspian Sea itself in fact derives its name from the same origin. Qazvin geographically connects Tehran, Isfahan, and the Persian Gulf to the Caspian seacoast and Asia Minor, hence its strategic location throughout the ages.
Qazvin has been a hotbed of historical developments in Iranian history. In the early years of the Islamic era Qazvin served as a base for the Arab forces. Destroyed by Genghis Khan (13th century), the Safavid monarchs made Qazvin the capital of the Safavid empire in 1548 only to have it moved to Isfahan in 1598. During the Qajar Dynasty and contemporary period, Qazvin has always been one of the most important governmental centers due to its proximity to Tehran. Abbas Mirza, a Crown Prince and Minister of Commerce, was also the governor of Qazvin.
1962 Buin Zahra earthquake killed 12.225 people.
Qazvin contains several archeological excavations dating back 9000 years ago. There are also 23 castles from the Ismaili Assassins nearby as well. And in the middle of the city, there lies the ruins of Meimoon Ghal'eh, one of several Sassanid edifices in the area.
Qazvin contains few buildings from the Safavi era when it was capital of Persia. Perhaps the most famous of the surviving edifices is the Ali Qapu mansion, today a museum in central Qazvin.
After Islam, the abundant attendance of mystics (ascetics), as well as the prevalence of tradition (Hadith), religious jurisprudence (Fegh´h), and philosophy in Qazvin, led to the emergence of many mosques and religious schools among which the most magnificent ones are:
- Jame e Atigh Mosque: One of the oldest mosques in Iran constructed by the orders of Harun al-Rashid in 807AD. In spite of the devastating Mongol invasion, this mosque still stands today in its full glory.
- Heidarieh Mosque: Renovated by Amir Khomär-täsh after the earthquake of 1119 AD, the history of construction of this mosque goes back to pre-Islam, where it was a fire temple.
- Masjed Al-nabi (Soltani Mosque): With an area of 14000 m2, this mosque is one of the most glorious mosques of antiquity, built in the Safavid period.
- Sanjideh Mosque: Another mosque of Qazvin dating back to pre-Islamic Iran; a former fire temple. Its present-day form is attributed to the Seljukian era.
- Panjeh Ali Mosque: A former place of worship for royal harem members in the Safavid period.
- Peighambarieh School-Mosque: Founded 1644 according to inscription.
- Peighambarieh Shrine: Where four Jewish saints who foretold the coming of Christ, are buried.
- Molla Verdikhani School-Mosque: founded in 1648.
- Salehieh School-Mosque: founded in 1845.
- Sheikhol Islam School-Mosque: renovated in 1903.
- Eltefatieh School: Dating back to the Il-Khanid period.
- Sardar School- Mosque: Made by two brothers Hossein Khan and Hassan Khan Sardar in 1815, as a fulfillment of their promise if they came back victorious from a battle against the Russians.
Churches and Russian architectureEdit
Qazvin contains three buildings built by the Russians in the late 19th/early 20th century. Among these is the current Mayor's office (former Ballet Hall), a water reservoir, and the Cantor church where a Russian pilot is buried.
According to explorers Pietro Della Valle, Jean Baptist Tavenier, Johannes Chardin, and others, there have been many Christians of various sects living in Qazvin for centuries. Qazvin is the location of the Saint Hripsime church, and it is also where four Jewish prophets gave tidings of the arrival of Jesus Christ. Their tomb is now a popular shrine called Peighambariyeh.
Castles and fortsEdit
These are castles and fortifications left over mostly from the Isma'ili movement of the Middle Ages:
- Alamout Castle
- Lambesar Castle
- Shirkouh Castle
- Qez Qaleh Castle
- Shemiran Castle
- Meimoon Ghal'eh
- Barajin Qaleh
Tombs, shrines and mausoleumsEdit
Another grand attraction in Qazvin Province, is the tombs of two Saljuki era princes, Aboo Saeed Bijar son of Sad and Aboo Mansoor Iltai son of Takin, that are located in two separate towers known as the Kharaghan twin towers. Constructed in 1067, these are the first monuments in Islamic Architecture which include a non-conic two-layered dome.
Both towers were severely damaged by a devastating earthquake in March 2003.
Some popular shrines and Mausoleums in Qazvin province are:
- Imamzadeh Hossein
- Peighambarieh (where 4 Jewish prophets are buried)
- Imamzadeh Ismail
- Ameneh Khatoon
- Zobeideh Khatoon (that has also a unique traditional water reservoir)
- Imamzadeh Abazar
- Imamzadeh Abdollah and Imamzadeh Fazlollah in Farsajin
- Imamzadeh Vali in Ziaabad
- Imamzadeh Kamal in Heydarieh
- Imamzadeh Ali in Shekarnab
- Haft Sandoogh Pilgrimage Place
- Tombs of Hassan Abad and Shahkouh
- Soltan Veis
- Mausoleum of Pir e Takestan
- Kafar Gonbad
- Hamdollah Mostowfi's Tomb
- Imam Ahmad Ghazali's Tomb
- Molla Khalila's Tomb
- Shahid Sales' Tomb
- Raeesol Mojahedin's Tomb
In the old days, Qazvin was nicknamed the 'city of water reservoirs'. Of the 100 or so water reservoirs of Qazvin, only 10 remain today, all protected by the Provincial Cultural Heritage Organization. See: List of famous ab anbars of Qazvin
Bazaars and caravanseraisEdit
- Sa'd-ol-Saltaneh Complex
- Saray e Vazir
- Saray e Razavi (Shah)
- Saray e Hadj Reza
- Sadieh Bazaar
- Shah Abbasi Caravanserai of Avaj
- Shah Abbasi Caravanserai of Mohammad Abad
- Hajib Shah Abbasi Caravanserai (Keikhosro)
The traditional gardens of qazvinEdit
Qazvin modern towersEdit
Residential towers like Ponak (536 units), Sky (Aseman, 300 units) 17 levels, Elahieh and Bademestan (440 units) with 17 levels.
Tejarat tower with 28 levels
Qazvin shopping complexesEdit
City Star in Khayam street
Ferdosi in Ferdosi street
Iranian in Adl street
City gates and other edificesEdit
During the 9th century AD seven gates made entrance to the city possible. In Qajar period there existed nine gates surrounding the city which were connected to each other through a wall around the city. These gates (darvāzeh in Persian) were:
- Panbeh Riseh
- Sheikh Abad
- Shahzadeh Hossein
- Räh e Koushk
Due to 20th century hasty urban expansion, only the last two gates remain standing. Other popular attractions of Qazvin province include:
- Chehel Sotun Museum-Palace
- Hosseinieh Aminiha, a fine example of Traditional Persian residential architecture indigenous to Qazvin.
- Shah Abbasi Bridge
- Safa Traditional Bath
- Qajar Traditional Bath
- Ali Akbar Dehkhoda: Prominent linguist and author of Iran's first modern Persian dictionary, was originally from Qazvin.
- Obeid Zakani
- Hamdollah Mostowfi: The great Il-Khanid historian and writer (1281–1349) and author of The Selected History (Tarikh Gozideh), Nezhatol Qoloub and Zafar Nameh. The turquoise conic dome and its inscription in Sols calligraphy in which Mostowfi's family tree and his works are introduced are the features that distinguish the tomb from other historical monuments of Qazvin.
13,000 km2 are under cultivation in the province, covering 12% of the cultivable lands of the country. These are fed by numerous subterranean canals, deep and semi-deep wells, and a large irrigating canal which originates from The Sangbän dam in Taleghän and Ziärän. The agricultural produce of the land is grape, hazelnut, pistachio, almond, walnut, olive, apple, wheat, barley, sugar beet, pomegranate, fig, and cereals. Animal husbandry, and aquatic and poultry breeding are developed throughout the province.
In recent decades, Qazvin has become a developing pole of the country, primarily due to its preferable location. Qazvin today is a center of textile trade, including cotton, silk and velvet, in addition to leather. It is on the railroad line and the highway between Tehran and Tabriz.
Qazvin has one of the largest power plants feeding electricity into Iran's national power grid, the Shahid Raja'i facility, which provides 7% of the country's electricity.
Colleges and universitiesEdit
- همشهری آنلاین-استانهای کشور به ۵ منطقه تقسیم شدند
- "National census 2016". amar.org.ir. Retrieved 2017-03-14.
- "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 2018-09-13.
- "روزنامه ولایت قزوین - استان قزوین؛ گنجینه زبانهای ایرانی".
- name="qazvin.irib.ir">The official Media from Qazvin- February 10-2010 Archived November 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine
- "روزنامه ولایت قزوین - استان قزوین؛ گنجینه زبانهای ایرانی".
- "Welcome to Encyclopaedia Iranica".
- "Arash Nooraghayee". Archived from the original on 2010-02-13. Retrieved 2010-02-02.
- iranian.com: Nima Kasraie, Qazvin water reservoirs
- Peighambarieh Mausoleum in Qazvin: Burial place of Israeli prophets