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Kaza

  (Redirected from Qadaa)

A kaza (Arabic: قضاء‎, qaḍāʾ, pronounced [qɑˈd̪ˤɑːʔ], plural: أقضية, aqḍiyah, pronounced [ˈɑqd̪ˤijɑ]; Ottoman Turkish: kazâ[1][note 1]) is an administrative division historically used in the Ottoman Empire and currently used in several of its successor states. The term is from Ottoman Turkish and means "jurisdiction"; it is often translated "district",[3] "sub-district"[4] (though this also applies to a nahiye), or "juridical district".[5]

Ottoman EmpireEdit

In the Ottoman Empire, a kaza was originally a "geographical area subject to the legal and administrative jurisdiction of a kadı.[1] With the first Tanzimat reforms of 1839, the administrative duties of the kadı were transferred to a governor (kaymakam), with the kadıs acting as judges of Islamic law.[6] In the Tanzimat era, the kaza became an administrative district with the 1864 Provincial Reform Law, which was implemented over the following decade.[5] A kaza unified the jurisdiction of a governor (kaymakam) appointed by the Ministry of the Interior,[7] a treasurer (chief finance officer), and a judge (kadı) in a single administrative unit.[5] It was part of efforts of the Porte to establish uniform, rational administration across the empire.[5]

The kaza was a subdivision of a sanjak[1] and corresponded roughly to a city with its surrounding villages. Kazas, in turn, were divided into nahiyes (governed by müdürs and mütesellims) and villages (karye, governed by muhtars).[7] The 1871 revisions to the administrative law established the nahiye (still governing a müdür), as an intermediate level between the kaza and the village.[7]

TurkeyEdit

The early Republic of Turkey continued to use the term kaza until it renamed them ilçe in the 1920s.

Arab countriesEdit

The kaza was also formerly a second-level administrative division in Syria, but it is now called a mintaqah.

The kaza or qadaa is used to refer to the following:

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Some translations in languages used by ethnic minorities:[2]
    • Armenian: աւան (awan; meaning "borough")[2]
    • Bulgarian: околия (okoliya; meaning "district");[2] also Кааза
    • Greek: υποδιοίκησις (hypodioikēsis) or δήμος (dēmos, which means "borough" or "municipality");[2] also Καζάς
    • Ladino: kaza[2]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c Selçuk Akşin Somel. "Kazâ". The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire. Volume 152 of A to Z Guides. Rowman & Littlefield, 2010. p. 151. ISBN 9780810875791
  2. ^ a b c d e Strauss, Johann (2010). "A Constitution for a Multilingual Empire: Translations of the Kanun-ı Esasi and Other Official Texts into Minority Languages". In Herzog, Christoph; Malek Sharif (eds.). The First Ottoman Experiment in Democracy. Wurzburg: Orient-Institut Istanbul. p. 21-51. (info page on book at Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 41-44 (PDF p. 43-46/338).
  3. ^ Suraiya Faroqhi. Approaching Ottoman History: An Introduction to the Sources. Cambridge University Press, 1999. p. 88. ISBN 9780521666480
  4. ^ Donald Quataert. The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922. 2nd Ed. Volume 34 of New Approaches to European History. Cambridge University Press, 2005. p. 108. ISBN 9781139445917
  5. ^ a b c d Eugene L. Rogan. Frontiers of the State in the Late Ottoman Empire: Transjordan, 1850-1921. Volume 12 of Cambridge Middle East Studies. Cambridge University Press, 2002. p. 12. ISBN 9780521892230
  6. ^ Selçuk Akşin Somel. "Kadı". The A to Z of the Ottoman Empire. Volume 152 of A to Z Guides. Rowman & Littlefield, 2010. p. 144-145. ISBN 9780810875791
  7. ^ a b c Gökhan Çetinsaya. The Ottoman Administration of Iraq, 1890-1908. SOAS/Routledge Studies on the Middle East. Routledge, 2006. p. 8-9. ISBN 9780203481325