Pyatigorsk (Russian: Пятиго́рск; Circassian: Псыхуабэ, Psıxwabæ) is a city in Stavropol Krai, Russia located on the Podkumok River, about 20 kilometers (12 mi) from the town of Mineralnye Vody where there is an international airport and about 45 kilometers (28 mi) from Kislovodsk. Since January 19, 2010, it has been the administrative center of the North Caucasian Federal District of Russia. Population: 142,511 (2010 Census);[4] 140,559 (2002 Census);[9] 129,499 (1989 Census).[10]

View of Pyatigorsk
Flag of Pyatigorsk
Coat of arms of Pyatigorsk
Location of Pyatigorsk
Pyatigorsk is located in Stavropol Krai
Location of Pyatigorsk
Pyatigorsk is located in European Russia
Pyatigorsk (European Russia)
Pyatigorsk is located in Europe
Pyatigorsk (Europe)
Coordinates: 44°03′N 43°04′E / 44.050°N 43.067°E / 44.050; 43.067
Federal subjectStavropol Krai[1]
City status since1830
 • BodyCouncil of Deputies
 • HeadLev Travnev
 • Total97 km2 (37 sq mi)
500 m (1,600 ft)
 • Total142,511
 • Estimate 
145,885 (+2.4%)
 • Rank121st in 2010
 • Density1,500/km2 (3,800/sq mi)
 • Subordinated tocity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
 • Capital ofcity of krai significance of Pyatigorsk[1]
 • Urban okrugPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[6]
 • Capital ofPyatigorsk Urban Okrug[6]
Time zoneUTC+3 (MSK Edit this on Wikidata[7])
Postal code(s)[8]
357500–357504, 357506, 357519, 357522, 357524, 357528, 357532, 357534, 357535, 357538
Dialing code(s)+7 8793
OKTMO ID07727000001

Overview edit

The name is derived from the fused Russian words "пять гор" (five mountains) and the city is so called because of the five peaks of the Beshtau (which also means five mountains in Turkic) of the Caucasian mountain range overlooking the city. It was founded in 1780,[2] and has been a health spa with mineral springs since 1803.

Russian poet Mikhail Lermontov was shot by Nikolai Martynov in a duel at Pyatigorsk on July 27, 1841. There is a museum in the city devoted to his memory. The Zionist activist Joseph Trumpeldor was born in Pyatigorsk.

History edit

View of Pyatigorsk between 1890 and 1900.

The writings of the 14th-century Arabian traveler Ibn Battuta included the earliest known mention of the mineral springs. Peter the Great (reigned 1682-1725) fostered the earliest scientific study of them, but the information collected on his expedition has not survived. Interest revived at the end of the 18th century with the foundation of the first Russian settlement (Konstantinogorskaya fortress), erected at Mt. Mashuk in 1780.[2][11]

The value of the Caucasian mineral waters led to the construction of a resort in 1803, and studies of their medical properties began thereafter: on April 24, Alexander I signed a decree which made the mineral waters state property. Many settlements developed near the springs: first Goryachevodsk (now part of Pyatigorsk) at the bottom of Mt. Mashuk, then Kislovodsk, Yessentuki, and Zheleznovodsk.[12] During the Russian Empire, the settlement was the administrative capital of the Pyatigorsky Otdel of the Terek Oblast.

During World War II the German Wehrmacht temporarily occupied Pyatigorsk. The Einsatzkommando 12 of Einsatzgruppe D had its headquarters in Pyatigorsk in 1942.[13] The German occupation resulted in the killing of many Jewish inhabitants of the region.[14]

Geography edit

The city is situated on a small plateau, 512 meters (1,680 ft) above sea level, at the foot of Beshtau, Mashuk, and three other outliers of the Caucasus Mountains, which protect it on the north. The snow-covered summits of Mount Elbrus are visible to the south.

Climate edit

The climate of Pyatigorsk falls within humid continental (Dfb) classification under the Köppen-Geiger climate classification system and is characterized by absence of sharp fluctuations of annual and daily temperatures. Summers are warm with the average July temperature of +21 °C (70 °F) while winters, lasting two to three months, are cold, with the average January temperature of −4 °C (25 °F). Spring is cool, with a sharp transition by the summer, and a warm, dry, and long fall. There are an average of ninety-eight sunny days in a year.

Climate data for Pyatigorsk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.2
Average high °C (°F) 0.8
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.8
Average low °C (°F) −7.7
Record low °C (°F) −32.5
Average precipitation mm (inches) 18.3
Average precipitation days 16.8 16.1 16.2 13.7 11.7 9.7 7.1 6.5 10.7 15.4 13.7 16.4 154

Administrative and municipal status edit

Within the framework of administrative divisions, it is, together with two urban-type settlements (Goryachevodsky and Svobody) and five rural localities, incorporated as the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts.[1] As a municipal division, the city of krai significance of Pyatigorsk is incorporated as Pyatigorsk Urban Okrug.[6]

Economy edit

The industry of Pyatigorsk is primarily oriented towards service of the health resort. There is also food industry (a meat-processing plant, a winery, a dairy, a brewery, a confectionery), textiles (clothing, shoe plant, carpet factories), machine industry and metal working (PО Pyatigorskselmash specializes in machines and equipment for aviculture; a special automobile equipment works, an electromechanical plant, etc.); mining, a chemical factory and a ceramics factory who specialize in porcelain and ceramic gifts such as samovars, figurines, vases, and decorative ceramic wall hanging panels. In 1991, the Pyatigorsk health resort had ten sanatoria, four boarding houses and five sanatoria-preventoria.

Points of interest edit

This monument marks the place of Lermontov's duel

The state memorial estate of Mikhail Lermontov was founded in 1973. It unites all of the Lermontov memorial places in the region: the place where he fought his duel and was killed, a necropolis, Lermontov's small house, Verzilin's houses, the house of Alexander Alyabyev, the Lermontov square, and monument.

The Aeolian harp is a small stone pavilion in the classical style, constructed by the brothers Bernardacci in 1828.

Diana's grotto was built in 1830, in honor of the first ascent of Mount Elbrus.

Pyatigorsk features in Jonathan Littell's 2009 novel, The Kindly Ones.

Honors edit

Asteroid 2192 Pyatigoriya discovered in 1972 by Soviet astronomer Tamara Smirnova is named after the city.[16]

Twin towns – sister cities edit

Pyatigorsk is twinned with:[17]

References edit

Notes edit

  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #63-p
  2. ^ a b c "Пятигорск". Retrieved July 27, 2014.
  3. ^ Управление Росреестра по Ставропольскому краю. Доклад о состоянии и использовании земель Ставропольского края в 2010 году[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ a b Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
  5. ^ "26. Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2018 года". Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved January 23, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c Law #88-kz
  7. ^ "Об исчислении времени". Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации (in Russian). June 3, 2011. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  8. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (in Russian)
  9. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
  10. ^ Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
  11. ^ Battutah, Ibn (2002). The Travels of Ibn Battutah. London: Picador. p. 124. ISBN 9780330418799.
  12. ^ "Pyatigorsk". January 30, 2007. Archived from the original on December 25, 2012. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
  13. ^ (in German) Jonathan Littell: Die Wohlgesinnten - Materialienband. Berlin 2006. P. 66
  14. ^ "Russia // Kira Belkova". The Jewish Foundation for the Righteous. Archived from the original on July 28, 2011.
  15. ^ "Climatebase". Retrieved June 26, 2012.
  16. ^ Schmadel, Lutz D. (2003). Dictionary of Minor Planet Names (5th ed.). New York: Springer Verlag. p. 178. ISBN 3-540-00238-3.
  17. ^ "Города-побратимы". Pyatigorsk. Retrieved February 6, 2020.

Sources edit

  • Правительство Ставропольского края. Постановление №63-п от 4 мая 2006 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Ставропольского края», в ред. Постановления №75-п от 5 марта 2015 г. «О внесении изменения в пункт 47 Раздела II Реестра административно-территориальных единиц Ставропольского края, утверждённый Постановлением Правительства Ставропольского края от 04 мая 2006 г. №63-п». Вступил в силу с 4 мая 2006 г.. Опубликован: "Сборник законов и других правовых актов Ставропольского края", №17, ст. 5609, 10 июля 2006 г. (Government of Stavropol Krai. Resolution #63-p of May 4, 2006 On the Adoption of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Stavropol Krai, as amended by the Resolution #75-p of March 5, 2015 On Amending Item 47 of Section II of the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Stavropol Krai Adopted by Resolution #63-p of the Government of Stavropol Krai of May 4, 2006. Effective as of May 4, 2006.).
  • Государственная Дума Ставропольского края. Закон №88-кз от 4 октября 2004 г. «О наделении муниципальных образований Ставропольского края статусом городского, сельского поселения, городского округа, муниципального района», в ред. Закона №51-кз от 28 мая 2015 г. «О преобразовании муниципальных образований, входящих в состав Минераловодского муниципального района Ставропольского края (Минераловодского территориального муниципального образования Ставропольского края), и об организации местного самоуправления на территории Минераловодского района Ставропольского края». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ставропольская правда", №216, 6 октября 2004 г. (State Duma of Stavropol Krai. Law #88-kz of October 4, 2004 On Granting the Status of Urban, Rural Settlement, Urban Okrug, Municipal District to the Municipal Formations of Stavropol Krai, as amended by the Law #51-kz of May 28, 2015 On the Transformation of the Municipal Formations Within Mineralovodsky Municipal District of Stavropol Krai (Mineralovodskoye Territorial Municipal Formation of Stavropol Krai), and on the Organization of the Local Self-Government on the Territory of Mineralovodsky District of Stavropol Krai. Effective as of the day of the official publication.).

External links edit