In mathematics, and more specifically in abstract algebra, a pseudo-ring is one of the following variants of a ring:

No two of these definitions are equivalent, so it is best to avoid the term "pseudo-ring" or to clarify which meaning is intended.

See alsoEdit

  • Semiring – an algebraic structure similar to a ring, but without the requirement that each element must have an additive inverse


  1. ^ Bourbaki, N. (1998). Algebra I, Chapters 1-3. Springer. p. 98.
  2. ^ Natarajan, N. S. (1964). "Rings with generalised distributive laws". J. Indian. Math. Soc. New Series. 28: 1–6.
  3. ^ Patterson, Edward M. (1965). "The Jacobson radical of a pseudo-ring". Math. Z. 89 (4): 348–364. doi:10.1007/bf01112167. S2CID 120796340.