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Psalm 119 is the 119th psalm of the Book of Psalms, generally known in English by its first verse, in the King James Version, "Blessed are the undefiled in the way, who walk in the law of the Lord." The Book of Psalms is in the third section of the Hebrew Bible, the Khetuvim, and a book of the Christian Old Testament. It is referred to in Hebrew by its opening words, "Ashrei temimei derech" ("happy are those whose way is perfect"). In the Greek Septuagint version of the Bible, and in its Latin translation Vulgate, this psalm is Psalm 118 in a slightly different numbering system. In Latin, it is known as "Beati inmaculati in via qui ambulant in lege Domini."[1] The psalm is a hymn psalm.

Psalm 119
"Blessed are the undefiled in the way"
Hymn psalm
Giovannino de' grassi, Psalm 118-81, Biblioteca Nazionale, Florence.jpg
Manuscript of verse 81 by Giovannino de' grassi, Biblioteca Nazionale, Florence
Other name
  • Psalm 118 (Vulgate)
  • "Beati inmaculati in via"
LanguageHebrew (original)

With 176 verses, the psalm is the longest psalm as well as the longest chapter in the Bible. It is a prayer of one who delights in and lives by the Torah, the sacred law. Unlike most other psalms the author did not include his name in the text. The psalm is a regular part of Jewish, Catholic, Anglican, and Protestant liturgies. It has been set to music often. British Politician William Wilberforce would recite the entire Psalm, while walking back from Parliament, through Hyde Park, to his home.[2]

TextEdit

Hebrew Bible versionEdit

Following is the Hebrew text of Psalm 119:

Verse Hebrew
1 אַשְׁרֵ֥י תְמִֽימֵי־דָ֑רֶךְ הַ֜הֹֽלְכִ֗ים בְּתוֹרַ֥ת יְהֹוָֽה
2 אַשְׁרֵי נֹֽצְרֵ֥י עֵ֜דֹתָ֗יו בְּכָל־לֵ֥ב יִדְרְשֽׁוּהוּ
3 אַף לֹא־פָֽעֲל֣וּ עַוְלָ֑ה בִּדְרָכָ֥יו הָלָֽכוּ
4 אַתָּה צִוִּ֥יתָה פִ֜קֻּדֶ֗יךָ לִשְׁמֹ֥ר מְאֹֽד
5 אַֽחֲלַי יִכֹּ֥נוּ דְּ֜רָכָ֗י לִשְׁמֹ֥ר חֻקֶּֽיךָ
6 אָ֥ז לֹֽא־אֵב֑וֹשׁ בְּ֜הַבִּיטִ֗י אֶל־כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתֶֽיךָ
7 אֽוֹדְךָ בְּיֹ֣שֶׁר לֵבָ֑ב בְּ֜לָמְדִ֗י מִשְׁפְּטֵ֥י צִדְקֶֽךָ
8 אֶת־חֻקֶּ֥יךָ אֶשְׁמֹ֑ר אַל־תַּעַזְבֵ֥נִי עַד־מְאֹֽד
9 בַּמֶּ֣ה יְזַכֶּה־נַּ֖עַר אֶת־אָרְח֑וֹ לִ֜שְׁמֹ֗ר כִּדְבָרֶֽךָ
10 בְּכָל־לִבִּ֥י דְרַשְׁתִּ֑יךָ אַל־תַּ֜שְׁגֵּ֗נִי מִמִּצְו‍ֹתֶֽיךָ
11 בְּלִבִּי צָפַ֣נְתִּי אִמְרָתֶ֑ךָ לְ֜מַ֗עַן לֹ֣א אֶֽחֱטָא־לָֽךְ
12 בָּר֖וּךְ אַתָּ֥ה יְהֹוָ֗ה לַמְּדֵ֥נִי חֻקֶּֽיךָ
13 בִּשְׂפָתַ֥י סִפַּ֑רְתִּי כֹּ֜֗ל מִשְׁפְּטֵי־פִֽיךָ
14 בְּדֶ֖רֶךְ עֵֽדְו‍ֹתֶ֥יךָ שַׂ֗שְׂתִּי כְּעַ֣ל כָּל־הֽוֹן
15 בְּפִקּוּדֶ֥יךָ אָשִׂ֑יחָה וְ֜אַבִּ֗יטָה אֹֽרְחֹתֶֽיךָ
16 בְּחֻקֹּתֶ֥יךָ אֶֽשְׁתַּֽעֲשָׁ֑ע לֹ֖א אֶשְׁכַּ֣ח דְּבָרֶֽךָ
17 גְּמֹ֖ל עַל־עַבְדְּךָ֥ אֶֽחְיֶ֗ה וְאֶשְׁמְרָ֥ה דְבָרֶֽךָ
18 גַּל־עֵינַ֥י וְאַבִּ֑יטָה נִ֜פְלָא֗וֹת מִתּֽוֹרָתֶֽךָ
19 גֵּ֣ר אָנֹכִ֣י בָאָ֑רֶץ אַל־תַּסְתֵּ֥ר מִ֜מֶּ֗נִּי מִצְו‍ֹתֶֽיךָ
20 גָּֽרְסָ֣ה נַפְשִׁ֣י לְתַֽאֲבָ֑ה אֶל־מִשְׁפָּטֶ֥יךָ בְכָל־עֵֽת
21 גָּעַרְתָּ זֵדִ֣ים אֲרוּרִ֑ים הַ֜שֹּׁגִ֗ים מִמִּצְו‍ֹתֶֽיךָ
22 גַּ֣ל מֵ֖עָלַי חֶרְפָּ֣ה וָב֑וּז כִּ֖י עֵֽדֹתֶ֣יךָ נָצָֽרְתִּי
23 גַּ֚ם יָֽשְׁב֣וּ שָׂ֖רִים בִּ֣י נִדְבָּ֑רוּ עַ֜בְדְּךָ֗ יָשִׂ֥יחַ בְּחֻקֶּֽיךָ
24 גַּם־עֵ֖דֹתֶיךָ שַֽׁעֲשֻׁעַ֗י אַנְשֵׁ֥י עֲצָתִֽי
25 דָּֽבְקָ֣ה לֶֽעָפָ֣ר נַפְשִׁ֑י חַ֜יֵּ֗נִי כִּדְבָרֶֽךָ
26 דְּרָכַ֣י סִ֖פַּרְתִּי וַֽ֜תַּֽעֲנֵ֗נִי לַמְּדֵ֥נִי חֻקֶּֽיךָ
27 דֶּֽרֶךְ־פִּקּוּדֶ֥יךָ הֲבִינֵ֑נִי וְ֜אָשִׂ֗יחָה בְּנִפְלְאוֹתֶֽיךָ
28 דָּֽלְפָ֣ה נַ֖פְשִׁי מִתּוּגָ֑ה קַ֜יְּמֵ֗נִי כִּדְבָרֶֽךָ
29 דֶּ֣רֶךְ שֶׁ֖קֶר הָסֵ֣ר מִמֶּ֑נִּי וְתוֹרָֽתְךָ֥ חָנֵּֽנִי
30 דֶּֽרֶךְ־אֱמוּנָ֥ה בָחָ֑רְתִּי מִשְׁפָּטֶ֥יךָ שִׁוִּֽיתִי
31 דָּבַ֥קְתִּי בְעֵֽדְו‍ֹתֶ֑יךָ יְ֜הֹוָ֗ה אַל־תְּבִישֵֽׁנִי
32 דֶּֽרֶךְ־מִצְו‍ֹתֶ֥יךָ אָר֑וּץ כִּ֖י תַרְחִ֣יב לִבִּֽי
33 הוֹרֵ֣נִי יְ֖הֹוָה דֶּ֥רֶךְ חֻקֶּ֗יךָ וְאֶצְּרֶ֥נָּה עֵֽקֶב
34 הֲבִינֵנִי וְאֶצְּרָ֥ה תֽ֜וֹרָתֶ֗ךָ וְאֶשְׁמְרֶ֥נָּה בְכָל־לֵֽב
35 הַדְרִיכֵנִי בִּנְתִ֣יב מִצְו‍ֹתֶ֑יךָ כִּ֖י ב֥וֹ חָפָֽצְתִּי
36 הַט־ לִ֖בִּי אֶל־עֵֽדְו‍ֹתֶ֗יךָ וְאַ֣ל אֶל־בָּֽצַע
37 הַֽעֲבֵ֣ר עֵינַי מֵֽרְא֣וֹת שָׁ֑וְא בִּדְרָכֶ֥ךָ חַיֵּֽנִי
38 הָקֵ֣ם לְ֖עַבְדְּךָ אִמְרָתֶ֑ךָ אֲ֜שֶׁ֗ר לְיִרְאָתֶֽךָ
39 הַֽעֲבֵ֣ר חֶרְפָּתִי אֲשֶׁ֣ר יָגֹ֑רְתִּי כִּ֖י מִשְׁפָּטֶ֣יךָ טוֹבִֽים
40 הִנֵּה תָּאַ֣בְתִּי לְפִקֻּדֶ֑יךָ בְּצִדְקָֽתְךָ֥ חַיֵּֽנִי
41 וִֽיבֹאֻ֣נִי חֲסָדֶ֣ךָ יְהֹוָ֑ה תְּ֜שׁוּעָֽתְךָ֗ כְּאִמְרָתֶֽךָ
42 וְאֶֽעֱנֶ֣ה חֹֽרְפִ֣י דָבָ֑ר כִּֽי־בָ֜טַחְתִּי בִּדְבָרֶֽךָ
43 וְֽאַל־תַּצֵּ֬ל מִפִּ֣י דְבַר־אֱמֶ֣ת עַד־מְאֹ֑ד כִּ֖י לְמִשְׁפָּטֶ֣ךָ יִחָֽלְתִּי
44 וְאֶשְׁמְרָ֖ה תוֹרָֽתְךָ֥ תָמִ֗יד לְע֘וֹלָ֥ם וָעֶֽד
45 וְאֶתְהַלְּכָ֥ה בָֽרְחָבָ֑ה כִּ֖י פִקֻּדֶ֣יךָ דָרָֽשְׁתִּי
46 וַֽאֲדַבְּרָ֣ה בְעֵֽדֹתֶיךָ נֶ֥גֶד מְלָכִ֗ים וְלֹ֣א אֵבֽוֹשׁ
47 וְאֶשְׁתַּֽעֲשַׁ֥ע בְּ֜מִצְו‍ֹתֶ֗יךָ אֲשֶׁ֣ר אָהָֽבְתִּי
48 וְאֶשָּׂ֚א כַפַּ֗י אֶל־מִ֖צְו‍ֹתֶיךָ אֲשֶׁ֥ר אָהָ֗בְתִּי וְאָשִׂ֥יחָה בְחֻקֶּֽיךָ
49 זְכָר־דָּבָ֥ר לְעַבְדֶּ֑ךָ עַ֜֗ל אֲשֶׁ֣ר יִֽחַלְתָּֽנִי
50 זֹ֣את נֶחָֽמָתִ֣י בְעָנְיִ֑י כִּ֖י אִמְרָֽתְךָ֣ חִיָּֽתְנִי
51 זֵדִים הֱלִיצֻ֣נִי עַד־מְאֹ֑ד מִ֜תּוֹרָֽתְךָ֗ לֹ֣א נָטִֽיתִי
52 זָ֘כַ֚רְתִּי מִשְׁפָּטֶ֖יךָ מֵֽעוֹלָ֥ם | יְהֹוָ֗ה וָֽאֶתְנֶחָֽם
53 זַלְעָפָ֣ה אֲחָזַתְנִי מֵֽרְשָׁעִ֑ים עֹֽ֜זְבֵ֗י תּֽוֹרָתֶֽךָ
54 זְמִרוֹת הָֽיוּ־לִ֥י חֻקֶּ֗יךָ בְּבֵ֣ית מְגוּרָֽי
55 זָ֘כַ֚רְתִּי בַלַּ֣יְלָה שִׁמְךָ֣ יְהֹוָ֑ה וָֽ֜אֶשְׁמְרָ֗ה תּֽוֹרָתֶֽךָ
56 זֹ֥את הָֽיְתָה־לִּ֑י כִּ֖י פִקֻּדֶ֣יךָ נָצָֽרְתִּי
57 חֶלְקִ֖י יְהֹוָ֑ה אָמַ֗רְתִּי לִשְׁמֹ֥ר דְּבָרֶֽיךָ
58 חִלִּ֣יתִי פָנֶ֣יךָ בְכָל־לֵ֑ב חָ֜נֵּ֗נִי כְּאִמְרָתֶֽךָ
59 חִשַּׁ֥בְתִּי דְרָכָ֑י וָֽאָשִׁ֥יבָה רַ֜גְלַ֗י אֶל־עֵֽדֹתֶֽיךָ
60 חַשְׁתִּי וְלֹ֣א הִתְמַהְמָ֑הְתִּי לִ֜שְׁמֹ֗ר מִצְו‍ֹתֶֽיךָ
61 חֶבְלֵ֣י רְשָׁעִ֣ים עִוְּדֻ֑נִי תּ֜וֹרָֽתְךָ֗ לֹ֣א שָׁכָֽחְתִּי
62 חֲצ֥וֹת לַ֗יְלָה אָ֖קוּם לְהוֹד֣וֹת לָ֑ךְ עַ֜֗ל מִשְׁפְּטֵ֥י צִדְקֶֽךָ
63 חָבֵ֣ר אָ֖נִי לְכָל־אֲשֶׁ֣ר יְרֵא֑וּךָ וּ֜לְשֹֽׁמְרֵ֗י פִּקּוּדֶֽיךָ
64 חַסְדְּךָ֣ יְ֖הֹוָה מָֽלְאָ֣ה הָאָ֑֗רֶץ חֻקֶּ֥יךָ לַמְּדֵֽנִי
65 טוֹב עָשִׂ֣יתָ עִם־עַבְדְּךָ֑ יְ֜הֹוָ֗ה כִּדְבָרֶֽךָ
66 ט֚וּב טַ֣עַם וָדַ֣עַת לַמְּדֵ֑נִי כִּ֖י בְמִצְו‍ֹתֶ֣יךָ הֶֽאֱמָֽנְתִּי
67 טֶ֣רֶם אֶ֖עֱנֶה אֲנִ֣י שֹׁגֵ֑ג וְ֜עַתָּ֗ה אִמְרָֽתְךָ֥ שָׁמָֽרְתִּי
68 טוֹב אַתָּ֥ה וּמֵטִ֗יב לַמְּדֵ֥נִי חֻקֶּֽיךָ
69 טָֽפְל֚וּ עָלַ֣י שֶׁ֣קֶר זֵדִ֑ים אֲ֜נִ֗י בְּכָל־לֵ֚ב | אֶצֹּ֬ר פִּקּוּדֶֽיךָ
70 טָפַ֣שׁ כַּחֵ֣לֶב לִבָּ֑ם אֲ֜נִ֗י תּוֹרָֽתְךָ֥ שִֽׁעֲשָֽׁעְתִּי
71 טֽוֹב־לִ֥י כִֽי־עֻנֵּ֑יתִי לְ֜מַ֗עַן אֶלְמַ֥ד חֻקֶּֽיךָ
72 ט֣וֹב לִ֖י תּ֣וֹרַת פִּ֑יךָ מֵֽאַלְפֵ֖י זָהָ֣ב וָכָֽסֶף
73 יָדֶ֣יךָ עָ֖שׂוּנִי וַיְכֽוֹנְנ֑וּנִי הֲ֜בִינֵ֗נִי וְאֶלְמְדָ֥ה מִצְו‍ֹתֶֽיךָ
74 יְרֵאֶיךָ יִרְא֣וּנִי וְיִשְׂמָ֑חוּ כִּ֖י לִדְבָֽרְךָ֣ יִחָֽלְתִּי
75 יָדַ֣עְתִּי יְ֖הֹוָה כִּי־צֶ֣דֶק מִשְׁפָּטֶ֑יךָ וֶֽ֜אֱמוּנָ֗ה עִנִּיתָֽנִי
76 יְהִי־נָ֣א חַסְדְּךָ֣ לְנַֽחֲמֵ֑נִי כְּאִמְרָֽתְךָ֥ לְעַבְדֶּֽךָ
77 יְבֹא֣וּנִי רַֽחֲמֶ֣יךָ וְאֶֽחְיֶ֑ה כִּ֖י ת֜וֹרָֽתְךָ֗ שַֽׁעֲשֻׁעָֽי
78 יֵבֹ֣שׁוּ זֵ֖דִים כִּי־שֶׁ֣קֶר עִוְּת֑וּנִי אֲ֜נִ֗י אָשִׂ֥יחַ בְּפִקּוּדֶֽיךָ
79 יָשֽׁוּבוּ־לִ֥י יְרֵאֶ֑יךָ וְ֜יֹֽדְעֵ֗י (כתיב וְ֜יֹֽדְעֵ֗ו) עֵֽדֹתֶֽיךָ
80 יְהִי־לִבִּ֣י תָמִ֣ים בְּחֻקֶּ֑יךָ לְ֜מַ֗עַן לֹ֣א אֵבֽוֹשׁ
81 כָּֽלְתָ֣ה לִתְשׁוּעָֽתְךָ֣ נַפְשִׁ֑י לִדְבָֽרְךָ֥ יִחָֽלְתִּי
82 כָּל֣וּ עֵ֖ינַי לְאִמְרָתֶ֑ךָ לֵ֜אמֹ֗ר מָתַ֥י תְּֽנַֽחֲמֵֽנִי
83 כִּֽי־הָ֖יִיתִי כְּנֹ֣אד בְּקִיט֑וֹר חֻ֜קֶּ֗יךָ לֹ֣א שָׁכָֽחְתִּי
84 כַּמָּה יְמֵ֣י עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ מָתַ֬י תַּֽעֲשֶׂ֖ה בְרֹֽדְפַ֣י מִשְׁפָּֽט
85 כָּֽרוּ־לִ֣י זֵדִ֣ים שִׁיח֑וֹת אֲ֜שֶׁ֗ר לֹ֣א כְתֽוֹרָתֶֽךָ
86 כָּל־מִצְו‍ֹתֶ֥יךָ אֱמוּנָ֑ה שֶׁ֖קֶר רְדָפ֣וּנִי עָזְרֵֽנִי
87 כִּמְעַט כִּלּ֣וּנִי בָאָ֑רֶץ וַֽ֜אֲנִ֗י לֹֽא־עָזַ֥בְתִּי פִקֻּדֶֽיךָ
88 כְּחַסְדְּךָ֥ חַיֵּ֑נִי וְ֜אֶשְׁמְרָ֗ה עֵד֥וּת פִּֽיךָ
89 לְעוֹלָ֥ם יְהֹוָ֑ה דְּ֜בָֽרְךָ֗ נִצָּ֥ב בַּשָּׁמָֽיִם
90 לְדֹ֣ר וָ֖דֹר אֱמֽוּנָתֶ֑ךָ כּוֹנַ֥נְתָּ אֶ֜֗רֶץ וַֽתַּֽעֲמֹֽד
91 לְמִשְׁפָּטֶיךָ עָֽמְד֣וּ הַיּ֑וֹם כִּ֖י הַכֹּ֣ל עֲבָדֶֽיךָ
92 לוּלֵ֣י תוֹרָֽתְךָ֣ שַֽׁעֲשֻׁעָ֑י אָ֖ז אָבַ֣דְתִּי בְעָנְיִֽי
93 לְעוֹלָם לֹא־אֶשְׁכַּ֣ח פִּקּוּדֶ֑יךָ כִּי־בָ֜֗ם חִיִּיתָֽנִי
94 לְֽךָ־אֲ֖נִי הוֹשִׁיעֵ֑נִי כִּ֖י פִקּוּדֶ֣יךָ דָרָֽשְׁתִּי
95 לִ֚י קִוּ֣וּ רְשָׁעִ֣ים לְאַבְּדֵ֑נִי עֵֽ֜דֹתֶ֗יךָ אֶתְבּוֹנָֽן
96 לְכָל תִּ֖כְלָה רָאִ֣יתִי קֵ֑ץ רְחָבָ֖ה מִצְוָֽתְךָ֣ מְאֹֽד
97 מָֽה־אָהַ֥בְתִּי תֽוֹרָתֶ֑ךָ כָּל־הַ֜יּ֗וֹם הִ֣יא שִֽׂיחָתִֽי
98 מֵאֹֽיְבַי תְּחַכְּמֵ֣נִי מִצְו‍ֹתֶ֑ךָ כִּ֖י לְעוֹלָ֣ם הִיא־לִֽי
99 מִכָּל־מְלַמְּדַ֥י הִשְׂכַּ֑לְתִּי כִּ֥י עֵֽ֜דְו‍ֹתֶ֗יךָ שִׂ֣יחָה לִֽי
100 מִזְּקֵנִ֥ים אֶתְבּוֹנָ֑ן כִּ֖י פִקּוּדֶ֣יךָ נָצָֽרְתִּי
101 מִכָּל־אֹ֣רַח רָ֖ע כָּלִ֣אתִי רַגְלָ֑י לְ֜מַ֗עַן אֶשְׁמֹ֥ר דְּבָרֶֽךָ
102 מִמִּשְׁפָּטֶ֥יךָ לֹֽא־סָ֑רְתִּי כִּ֥י אַ֜תָּ֗ה הֽוֹרֵתָֽנִי
103 מַה־נִּמְלְצ֣וּ לְ֖חִכִּי אִמְרָתֶ֑ךָ מִדְּבַ֥שׁ לְפִֽי
104 מִפִּקּוּדֶ֥יךָ אֶתְבּוֹנָ֑ן עַל־כֵּ֗ן שָׂנֵ֚אתִי | כָּל־אֹ֬רַח שָֽׁקֶר
105 נֵר־לְרַגְלִ֥י דְבָרֶ֑ךָ וְ֜א֗וֹר לִנְתִֽיבָתִֽי
106 נִשְׁבַּ֥עְתִּי וָֽאֲקַיֵּ֑מָה לִ֜שְׁמֹ֗ר מִשְׁפְּטֵ֥י צִדְקֶֽךָ
107 נַֽעֲנֵ֥יתִי עַד־מְאֹ֑ד יְ֜הֹוָ֗ה חַיֵּ֥נִי כִדְבָרֶֽךָ
108 נִדְב֣וֹת פִּ֖י רְצֵה־נָ֣א יְהֹוָ֑ה וּמִשְׁפָּטֶ֥יךָ לַמְּדֵֽנִי
109 נַפְשִׁ֣י בְכַפִּ֣י תָמִ֑יד וְ֜תוֹרָֽתְךָ֗ לֹ֣א שָׁכָֽחְתִּי
110 נָֽתְנ֬וּ רְשָׁעִ֣ים פַּ֣ח לִ֑י וּ֜מִפִּקּוּדֶ֗יךָ לֹ֣א תָעִֽיתִי
111 נָחַ֣לְתִּי עֵֽדְו‍ֹתֶ֣יךָ לְעוֹלָ֑ם כִּֽי־שְׂשׂ֖וֹן לִבִּ֣י הֵֽמָּה
112 נָטִ֣יתִי לִ֖בִּי לַֽעֲשׂ֥וֹת חֻקֶּ֗יךָ לְעוֹלָ֥ם עֵֽקֶב
113 סֵֽעֲפִ֥ים שָׂנֵ֑אתִי וְֽתוֹרָֽתְךָ֥ אָהָֽבְתִּי
114 סִתְרִ֣י וּמָֽגִנִּ֣י אָ֑תָּה לִ֜דְבָֽרְךָ֗ יִחָֽלְתִּי
115 ס֣וּרוּ מִמֶּ֣נִּי מְרֵעִ֑ים וְ֜אֶצְּרָ֗ה מִצְו‍ֹ֥ת אֱלֹהָֽי
116 סָמְכֵ֣נִי כְאִמְרָֽתְךָ֣ וְאֶֽחְיֶ֑ה וְאַל־תְּ֜בִישֵׁ֗נִי מִשִּׂבְרִֽי
117 סְעָדֵ֥נִי וְאִוָּשֵׁ֑עָה וְאֶשְׁעָ֖ה בְחֻקֶּ֣יךָ תָמִֽיד
118 סָלִיתָ כָּל־שֹׁגִ֣ים מֵֽחֻקֶּ֑יךָ כִּי־שֶׁ֜֗קֶר תַּרְמִיתָֽם
119 סִגִ֗ים הִשְׁבַּ֥תָּ כָל־רִשְׁעֵי־אָ֑רֶץ לָ֜כֵ֗ן אָהַ֥בְתִּי עֵֽדֹתֶֽיךָ
120 סָמַ֣ר מִפַּחְדְּךָ֣ בְשָׂרִ֑י וּמִמִּשְׁפָּטֶ֥יךָ יָרֵֽאתִי
121 עָשִׂיתִי מִשְׁפָּ֣ט וָצֶ֑דֶק בַּל־תַּ֜נִּיחֵ֗נִי לְעֹֽשְׁקָֽי
122 עֲרֹ֣ב עַבְדְּךָ֣ לְט֑וֹב אַל־יַֽעַשְׁקֻ֥נִי זֵדִֽים
123 עֵינַי כָּל֣וּ לִישֽׁוּעָתֶ֑ךָ וּלְאִמְרַ֥ת צִדְקֶֽךָ
124 עֲשֵׂ֖ה עִם־עַבְדְּךָ֥ כְחַסְדֶּ֗ךָ וְחֻקֶּ֥יךָ לַמְּדֵֽנִי
125 עַבְדְּךָ־אָ֖נִי הֲבִינֵ֑נִי וְ֜אֵֽדְעָ֗ה עֵֽדֹתֶֽיךָ
126 עֵת לַֽעֲשׂ֣וֹת לַֽיהֹוָ֑ה הֵ֜פֵ֗רוּ תּֽוֹרָתֶֽךָ
127 עַל־כֵּ֖ן אָהַ֣בְתִּי מִצְו‍ֹתֶ֑יךָ מִזָּהָ֥ב וּמִפָּֽז
128 עַל־כֵּ֚ן | כָּל־פִּקּ֣וּדֵי כֹ֣ל יִשָּׁ֑רְתִּי כָּל־אֹ֖רַח שֶׁ֣קֶר שָׂנֵֽאתִי
129 פְּלָא֥וֹת עֵֽדְו‍ֹתֶ֑יךָ עַל־כֵּ֜֗ן נְצָ֘רָ֥תַם נַפְשִֽׁי
130 פֵּ֖תַח דְּבָרֶ֥יךָ יָאִ֗יר מֵבִ֥ין פְּתָיִֽים
131 פִּ֣י פָ֖עַרְתִּי וָאֶשְׁאָ֑פָה כִּ֖י לְמִצְו‍ֹתֶ֣יךָ יָאָֽבְתִּי
132 פְּנֵה־אֵלַ֥י וְחָנֵּ֑נִי כְּ֜מִשְׁפָּ֗ט לְאֹֽהֲבֵ֥י שְׁמֶֽךָ
133 פְּעָמַי הָכֵ֣ן בְּאִמְרָתֶ֑ךָ וְֽאַל־תַּשְׁלֶט־בִּ֥י כָל־אָֽוֶן
134 פְּדֵנִי מֵעֹ֣שֶׁק אָדָ֑ם וְ֜אֶשְׁמְרָ֗ה פִּקּוּדֶֽיךָ
135 פָּנֶ֣יךָ הָ֖אֵר בְּעַבְדֶּ֑ךָ וְ֜לַמְּדֵ֗נִי אֶת־חֻקֶּֽיךָ
136 פַּלְגֵי־מַ֖יִם יָרְד֣וּ עֵינָ֑י עַ֜֗ל לֹא־שָֽׁמְר֥וּ תֽוֹרָתֶֽךָ
137 צַדִּ֣יק אַתָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֑ה וְ֜יָשָׁ֗ר מִשְׁפָּטֶֽיךָ
138 צִוִּיתָ צֶ֣דֶק עֵֽדֹתֶ֑יךָ וֶֽאֱמוּנָ֥ה מְאֹֽד
139 צִמְּתַ֥תְנִי קִנְאָתִ֑י כִּי־שָֽׁכְח֖וּ דְבָרֶ֣יךָ צָרָֽי
140 צְרוּפָ֖ה אִמְרָֽתְךָ֥ מְאֹ֑ד וְעַבְדְּךָ֥ אֲהֵבָֽהּ
141 צָעִ֣יר אָֽנֹכִ֣י וְנִבְזֶ֑ה פִּ֜קֻּדֶ֗יךָ לֹ֣א שָׁכָֽחְתִּי
142 צִדְקָֽתְךָ צֶ֥דֶק לְעוֹלָ֑ם וְתוֹרָֽתְךָ֥ אֱמֶֽת
143 צַר־וּמָצ֥וֹק מְצָא֑וּנִי מִ֜צְו‍ֹתֶ֗יךָ שַֽׁעֲשֻׁעָֽי
144 צֶ֖דֶק עֵֽדְו‍ֹתֶ֥יךָ לְעוֹלָ֗ם הֲבִינֵ֥נִי וְאֶֽחְיֶֽה
145 קָרָ֣אתִי בְכָל־לֵ֖ב עֲנֵ֥נִי יְהֹוָ֗ה חֻקֶּ֥יךָ אֶצֹּֽרָה
146 קְרָאתִ֥יךָ הֽוֹשִׁיעֵ֑נִי וְ֜אֶשְׁמְרָ֗ה עֵֽדֹתֶֽיךָ
147 קִדַּ֣מְתִּי בַ֖נֶּשֶׁף וָֽאֲשַׁוֵּ֑עָה לִדְבָֽרְךָ֥ (כתיב לִדְבָֽרְיךָ֥) יִחָֽלְתִּי
148 קִדְּמ֣וּ עֵ֖ינַי אַשְׁמֻר֑וֹת לָ֜שִׂ֗יחַ בְּאִמְרָתֶֽךָ
149 קוֹלִ֣י שִׁמְעָה כְּחַסְדֶּ֑ךָ יְ֜הֹוָ֗ה כְּמִשְׁפָּטֶ֥ךָ חַיֵּֽנִי
150 קָֽרְבוּ רֹֽדְפֵ֣י זִמָּ֑ה מִתּוֹרָֽתְךָ֥ רָחָֽקוּ
151 קָר֣וֹב אַתָּ֣ה יְהֹוָ֑ה וְֽכָל־מִצְו‍ֹתֶ֥יךָ אֱמֶֽת
152 קֶ֣דֶם יָ֖דַעְתִּי מֵעֵֽדֹתֶ֑יךָ כִּ֖י לְעוֹלָ֣ם יְסַדְתָּֽם
153 רְאֵה־עָנְיִ֥י וְחַלְּצֵ֑נִי כִּֽי־ת֜וֹרָֽתְךָ֗ לֹ֣א שָׁכָֽחְתִּי
154 רִיבָ֣ה רִ֖יבִֽי וּגְאָלֵ֑נִי לְאִמְרָֽתְךָ֥ חַיֵּֽנִי
155 רָח֣וֹק מֵֽרְשָׁעִ֣ים יְשׁוּעָ֑ה כִּֽי־חֻ֜קֶּ֗יךָ לֹ֣א דָרָֽשׁוּ
156 רַֽחֲמֶ֖יךָ רַבִּ֥ים | יְהֹוָ֑ה כְּמִשְׁפָּטֶ֥יךָ חַיֵּֽנִי
157 רַבִּ֣ים רֹֽדְפַ֣י וְצָרָ֑י מֵ֜עֵֽדְו‍ֹתֶ֗יךָ לֹ֣א נָטִֽיתִי
158 רָאִ֣יתִי בֹֽ֖גְדִים וָֽאֶתְקוֹטָ֑טָה אֲשֶׁ֥ר אִ֜מְרָֽתְךָ֗ לֹ֣א שָׁמָֽרוּ
159 רְאֵה כִּי־פִקּוּדֶ֣יךָ אָהָ֑בְתִּי יְ֜הֹוָ֗ה כְּחַסְדְּךָ֥ חַיֵּֽנִי
160 רֹֽאשׁ־דְּבָֽרְךָ֥ אֱמֶ֑ת וּ֜לְעוֹלָ֗ם כָּל־מִשְׁפַּ֥ט צִדְקֶֽךָ
161 שָׂרִים רְדָפ֣וּנִי חִנָּ֑ם וּ֜מִדְּבָֽרְךָ֗ (כתיב וּ֜מִדְּבָֽרְיךָ֗) פָּחַ֥ד לִבִּֽי
162 שָׂ֣שׂ אָ֖נֹכִי עַל־אִמְרָתֶ֑ךָ כְּ֜מוֹצֵ֗א שָׁלָ֥ל רָֽב
163 שֶׁ֣קֶר שָׂ֖נֵאתִי וָֽאֲתַעֵ֑בָה תּוֹרָֽתְךָ֥ אָהָֽבְתִּי
164 שֶׁ֣בַע בַּ֖יּוֹם הִלַּלְתִּ֑יךָ עַ֜֗ל מִשְׁפְּטֵ֥י צִדְקֶֽךָ
165 שָׁל֣וֹם רָ֖ב לְאֹֽהֲבֵ֣י תֽוֹרָתֶ֑ךָ וְאֵ֖ין לָ֣מוֹ מִכְשֽׁוֹל
166 שִׂבַּ֣רְתִּי לִֽישׁוּעָֽתְךָ֣ יְהֹוָ֑ה וּמִצְו‍ֹתֶ֥יךָ עָשִֽׂיתִי
167 שָֽׁמְרָ֣ה נַ֖פְשִׁי עֵֽדֹתֶ֑יךָ וָאֹֽהֲבֵ֥ם מְאֹֽד
168 שָׁמַ֣רְתִּי פִ֖קּוּדֶיךָ וְעֵֽדֹתֶ֑יךָ כִּ֖י כָל־דְּרָכַ֣י נֶגְדֶּֽךָ
169 תִּקְרַ֚ב רִנָּתִ֣י לְפָנֶ֣יךָ יְהֹוָ֑ה כִּדְבָֽרְךָ֥ הֲבִינֵֽנִי
170 תָּב֣וֹא תְחִנָּתִ֣י לְפָנֶ֑יךָ כְּ֜אִמְרָֽתְךָ֗ הַצִּילֵֽנִי
171 תַּבַּ֣עְנָה שְׂפָתַ֣י תְּהִלָּ֑ה כִּ֖י תְלַמְּדֵ֣נִי חֻקֶּֽיךָ
172 תַּֽעַן־לְשׁוֹנִ֥י אִמְרָתֶ֑ךָ כִּ֖י כָל־מִצְו‍ֹתֶ֣יךָ צֶּֽדֶק
173 תְּֽהִי־יָֽדְךָ֥ לְעָזְרֵ֑נִי כִּ֖י פִקּוּדֶ֣יךָ בָחָֽרְתִּי
174 תָּאַ֣בְתִּי לִֽישׁוּעָֽתְךָ֣ יְהֹוָ֑ה וְ֜תוֹרָֽתְךָ֗ שַֽׁעֲשֻׁעָֽי
175 תְּֽחִי־נַ֖פְשִׁי וּֽתְהַֽלְלֶ֑ךָּ וּמִשְׁפָּטֶ֥ךָ יַעְזְּרֻֽנִי
176 תָּעִ֗יתִי כְּשֶׂ֣ה אֹ֖בֵד בַּקֵּ֣שׁ עַבְדֶּ֑ךָ כִּ֥י מִ֜צְו‍ֹתֶ֗יךָ לֹ֣א שָׁכָֽחְתִּי

King James VersionEdit

The English version in the King James Bible can be seen at Psalms 119.

StructureEdit

 
A Haredi Jew reciting Psalm 119 at the Western Wall

Psalm 119 is one of several acrostic poems found in the Bible. Its 176 verses are divided into 22 stanzas, one for each of the 22 characters that make up the Hebrew alphabet. In the Hebrew text, each of the eight verses of each stanza begins with the same Hebrew letter. This feature was not maintained in the Septuagint, except that many manuscripts have placed at the beginning of each stanza the name of the corresponding Hebrew letter (for example, ʾalef the first stanza, the last is taw).[3]

Because of this structure, the Psalm 118/119 was one of the main occurrences of the Hebrew alphabet in the texts of the medieval and modern West.[4]

Each of the 22 sections of 8 verses is subheaded with the name of a letter in the Hebrew alphabet. These subheadings are spelled very differently amongst the various Bible text versions, even amongst the translations into different foreign languages. Their antiquated spellings shown in the Authorized King James Version of 1611 were written with influences of Latin and German medieval theological scholarship—forms which greatly differ from the standard modern-day renditions.

Most printed editions also show the actual Hebrew letters along with these subheadings.

Section Hebrew

Letter

Hebrew Letter Name Verses
AD 1611 Modern
I א Aleph ʾAlef 1–8
II ב Beth Beth 9–16
III ג Gimel Gimel 17–24
IV ד Daleth Daleth 25–32
V ה He Heʾ 33–40
VI ו Vau (Vav) Waw 41–48
VII ז Za(j)in Zayin 49–56
VIII ח Cheth Ḫeth 57–64
IX ט Teth Ṭeth 65–72
X י Jod Yudh 73–80
XI כ C(h)aph Kaf 81–88
XII ל Lamed Lamedh 89–96
XIII מ Mem Mem 97–104
XIV נ Nun Nun 105–12
XV ס Samech Samekh 113–20
XVI ע A(j)in ʿAyin 121–28
XVII פ Pe Peʾ 129–36
XVIII צ Tzaddi(k) Ṣadheh 137–44
XIX ק Koph Quf 145–52
XX ר Res(c)h Resh 153–60
XXI ש S(ch)in Śin / Shin 161–68
XXII ת Tau (Tav) Taw 169–76

Literary featuresEdit

This psalm is one of about a dozen alphabetic acrostic poems in the Bible. Its 176 verses are divided into twenty-two stanzas, one stanza for each letter of the Hebrew alphabet; within each stanza, each of the eight verses begins (in Hebrew) with that letter.[5] The name of God (Yahweh/Jehovah) appears twenty-four times.

Employed in almost (but not quite) every verse of the psalm is a synonym for the Torah, such as dabar ("word, promise"), mishpatim ("rulings"), etc.[5]

The acrostic form and the use of the Torah words constitute the framework for an elaborate prayer. The grounds for the prayer are established in the first two stanzas (alef and beth): the Torah is held up as a source of blessing and right conduct, and the psalmist pledges to dedicate himself to the law. The prayer proper begins in the third stanza (gimel, v. 17). Like many other psalms, this prayer includes dramatic lament (e.g. verses 81–88), joyous praise (e.g. verses 45–48) and prayers for life, deliverance and vindication (e.g. verses 132–34). What makes Psalm 119 unique is the way that these requests are continually and explicitly grounded in the gift of the Torah and the psalmist's loyalty to it.

The first and fifth verses in a stanza often state the same theme followed by a statement of opposition, affliction or conflict, and the final (eighth) verse tends to be a transition introducing the next stanza. Several dozen prayers are incorporated into the Psalm, e.g. "Open my eyes that I may behold wondrous things out of your law." Themes include opposition by man, affliction, delight in the law and the goodness of God, which sometimes run into each other: "I know, O Lord, that your rules are righteous, and that in faithfulness you have afflicted me" (v. 75), or "If your law had not been my delight, I would have perished in my affliction" (v. 92). The Psalmist at times seems to appeal to God's sovereignty, "inclining his heart to the law" in contrast to the Psalmist saying "I incline my heart."[clarification needed] Thus, God as sovereign is invoked in v.36 "Incline my heart to your testimonies", while the Psalmist also takes personal responsibility in v. 112, "I incline my heart to perform your statutes forever." It ends with an appeal to God to seek his servant who strayed.

UsesEdit

JudaismEdit

  • Verse 66 is recited prior to the shofar blowing on Rosh Hashanah.[6]
  • Verse 72 is quoted in Pirkei Avot, Chapter 6, no. 9.[7]
  • Verses 89–91 are recited during the blessings before the Shema on the second day of Rosh Hashanah.[8]
  • Verse 99 is quoted in Pirkei Avot, Chapter 4, no. 1.[9]
  • Verse 108 is recited prior to the shofar blowing on Rosh Hashanah.[6]
  • Verse 122 is recited prior to the shofar blowing on Rosh Hashanah.[6]
  • Verse 142 is part of Uva Letzion[10] and Tzidkatcha.[11]
  • Parts of verses 153–54 comprise the blessing Re'eh of the weekday Amidah.[12]
  • Verse 160 is recited prior to the shofar blowing on Rosh Hashanah.[6]
  • Verse 162 is recited prior to the shofar blowing on Rosh Hashanah.[6]
  • Verse 165 is part of Talmud Berachos 64a.[13]
  • Verses 166, 162, and 165 are recited in that order by the mohel at a brit milah.[14]

Eastern OrthodoxEdit

 
Les Très Riches Heures du duc de Berry, Folio 49r - David Releases Prisoners the Musée Condé, Chantilly

The psalm (118 in the Septuagint) figures prominently in the worship of the Orthodox Church. There is a tradition that King David used this psalm to teach his young son Solomon the alphabet—but not just the alphabet for writing letters: the alphabet of the spiritual life.

The psalm comprises an entire Kathisma (division of the Psalter) in Orthodox liturgical practice. In Orthodox monasteries it is read daily at the Midnight Office: "At midnight I arose to give thanks unto Thee for the judgments of Thy righteousness" (v. 62). It is read at Matins on Saturdays and is also chanted on many Sundays throughout the year. A major portion of Matins on Holy Saturday comprises chanting the entire psalm as a threnody, divided into three parts (stases) with Praises (Greek: Enkomia) interspersed between each verse. This chanting is done as all stand holding candles around a catafalque over which has been placed the Epitaphion (a shroud embroidered with the figure of Christ laid out for burial).

The psalm is also chanted with special solemnity at Orthodox funeral services and on the various All-Souls Days occurring throughout the year, with "Alleluia" chanted between each verse. Its use here is a reflection of the chanting done on Holy Saturday. "Alleluia" is chanted between the verses to signify the victory over death accomplished by Christ's death and Resurrection, and the eternal reward promised to the faithful.

The Psalm contains several dozen prayers and several themes run through it. God's goodness in the midst of affliction and delight in God's law. God is seen sovereignly "inclining ones heart" and the Psalmist "inclines his heart" to the statutes.

Latin Church liturgyEdit

 
Reverse glass painting of a woman praying Psalm 119 (118):22, Aufer a me opprobrium et contemptum ("Take away from me scorn and contempt")

The Rule of Saint Benedict assigned this psalm to four minor canonical hours on Sundays and three on Mondays. The sections corresponding to the first four letters of the 22-letter Hebrew alphabet are used at Prime, the following sets of three sections at Terce, Sext and None on Sundays. The remaining sections corresponding to the last nine letters of the Hebrew alphabet, are assigned to Terce, Sext and None on Mondays.[15]

The 1568 Roman Breviary of Pope Pius V has Psalm 119 recited in its entirety every day: the sections corresponding to the first four letters of the Hebrew alphabet at Prime, and the others in sets of six sections each at Terce, Sext and None respectively.[16][17]

In the 1910 reform of the Roman Breviary by Pope Pius X, Psalm 119 is recited only on Sundays, divided as in the arrangement of Pius V.[17][18]

Since the reform of the Roman Rite liturgy in the wake of the Second Vatican Council, the Liturgy of the Hours has a section of Psalm 119, corresponding to a single letter of the Hebrew alphabet, in the midday canonical hour on each day of the four-week cycle except on Monday of the first week (when the second half of Psalm 19 (18), which is similar in theme, is used instead) and on Friday of the third week (when the Passion Psalm 22 (21) is used). In addition, a section of Psalm 119 is used at Saturday Lauds in weeks 1 and 3, and another section at Vespers of Saturday of week 1.

In the Roman Rite Mass portions of Psalm 119 are used a responsorial psalm on Sundays 6 and 17 of Year A of the three-year cycle of Sunday readings, on Saturday of the first week in Lent and on the third Monday in Eastertide. It is also used on five days of Year I of the two-year cycle of Ordinary Time weekday readings[a] and fifteen days of Year II.[b] A portion is also used on the feast of a Doctor of the Church.[19]

Musical settingsEdit

  • Psalm 119:1 was set to music by Charles Villiers Stanford.
  • Psalm 119:18 inspired the hymn Open My Eyes, That I May See by Clara H. Scott.[20]
  • Psalm 119:25–32 was set to music by z6.[21]
  • Psalm 119:33–38 was set to music by William Byrd as Teach Me, O Lord.
  • Psalm 119:41–48 was set to music by Fast Eddie.[22]
  • Psalm 119:57–64 was set to music by Robert White (composer) as Portio mea Domine.
  • Psalm 119:65–72 was set to music by z6.
  • Psalm 119:89 is a popular Nigerian praise song.
  • Psalm 119:105 was set to music by Amy Grant.
  • Psalm 119:105–12 was set to music by Chief Cornerstone.[23]
  • Psalm 119:153–60 was set to music by Fast Eddie.[24]
  • Psalm 119:1–176 was completed in 1671 by Heinrich Schütz.
  • Czech composer Antonín Dvořák set verses 114, 117, 119 and 120 to music in his Biblical Songs (1894).

A complete English version of Psalm 119 from the King James Bible was completed by Frederick Steinruck, Michael Misiaszek, and Michael Owens.

The Psalm is put to music in The Book of Psalms for Worship, published by Crown and Covenant Publications.[25]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Wednesday and Friday of week 7, Tuesday of week 10, Thursday of week 32, Monday of week 33.
  2. ^ Saturday of week 4, Monday of week 6, Friday of week 9, Wednesday of week 12, Friday of week 13, Monday of week 18, Tuesday of week 19, Monday of week 22, Tuesday and Wednesday of week 25, Saturday of week 26, Tuesday of week 28, Friday of week 29, Friday of week 32, Friday of week 33.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Psalmus 118 (119)", Parallel Latin/English Psalter, Medievalist, archived from the original on 2017-05-07
  2. ^ "Reminders from God". Classical Conversations. Retrieved 2019-04-28.
  3. ^ Harl, Marguerite (1972), La Chaîne palestinienne sur le Psaume 118, introduction, texte grec critique et traduction (in French), 1, Paris: Cerf, p. 106.
  4. ^ Schwarzfuchs, Lyse (2004), Le livre hébreu à Paris au XVIe siècle : inventaire chronologique (in French), Paris: Bibliothèque nationale de France.
  5. ^ a b Murphy, Roland E. (2000). The Gift of the Psalms. Hendrickson. ISBN 1-56563-474-8.
  6. ^ a b c d e The Complete Artscroll Machzor for Rosh Hashanah, p. 435.
  7. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, p. 587
  8. ^ The Complete Artscroll Machzor for Rosh Hashanah, p. 269.
  9. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, p. 565.
  10. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, p. 157.
  11. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, p. 525.
  12. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, p. 102.
  13. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, p. 479.
  14. ^ The Complete Artscroll Siddur, p. 209.
  15. ^ "Monastic". Gregorian books.
  16. ^ "Pre-Pius X Psalter (up to 1911)". Gregorian books.
  17. ^ a b "Arrangement of the Psalms". Gregorian books.
  18. ^ "Pius X Psalter (1911-1971)". Gregorian books.
  19. ^ Ordo Lectionum Missae (PDF) (in Latin), Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1981.
  20. ^ Donovan, Richard Niell (2007). "Hymn Story: Open My Eyes". Lectionary.
  21. ^ Sound cloud
  22. ^ Sound cloud.
  23. ^ Sound cloud.
  24. ^ Sound cloud.
  25. ^ "The Book of Psalms for Worship, Psalter, Book of Psalms". Crown and covenant.

Further readingEdit

  • Bridges, Charles (1974) [1827], An Exposition of Psalm 119, Edinburgh: The Banner of Truth Trust, ISBN 0-85151-176-7
    • In its original preface, Bridges stated that his purpose in writing on Psalm 119 was to 'furnish a correct standard of Evangelical sincerity for the habitual scrutiny of his own heart', corresponding to 'the several graces of the Christian system'
  • Scott N. Callaham: "An Evaluation of Psalm 119 as Constrained Writing," Hebrew Studies 50 (2009): 121–35.

External linksEdit