Proto-fascism

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Proto-fascism refers to the direct predecessor ideologies and cultural movements that influenced and formed the basis of fascism.[1][2] A prominent proto-fascist figure is Gabriele D'Annunzio, the Italian nationalist whose politics influenced Benito Mussolini and Italian Fascism.[1] Proto-fascist political movements include the Italian Nationalist Association (Associazione Nazionalista Italiana, ANI), the German National Association of Commercial Employees (Deutschnationaler Handlungsgehilfen-Verband, DHV) and the German National People's Party (Deutschnationale Volkspartei, DNVP).[2]

Photograph of Gabriele D'Annunzio in 1921. D'Annunzio was an Italian nationalist and poet who is considered a proto-fascist.

Precedents for modern fascism can be seen in the cultures and governments of older nations which were heavily based on a desire to maintain law and order, such as the Roman Empire and the anciens régimes of Europe.[citation needed] Other people who have been labeled proto-fascist because they shared an ideological basis with fascism include:

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Spackman, Barbara: Fascist Virilities: Rhetoric, Ideology, and Social Fantasy in Italy, p. 78.
  2. ^ a b Peter Davies, Derek Lynch. The Routledge Companion to Fascism and the Far Right London, England, UK; New York, New York, USA: Routledge. p. 94.
  3. ^ Ulrich Broich, H. T. Dickinson, Eckhart Hellmuth, Martin Schmidt: Reactions to Revolutions: The 1790s and Their Aftermath, p. 255
  4. ^ John Mazis, A Man For All Seasons: The Uncompromising Life of Ion Dragoumis
  5. ^ "Γιάννης Μάζης: "Ο Δραγούμης δεν έχω καμία αμφιβολία ότι ήταν ένας πρωτοφασίστας"". Εθνικόν Κράτος (in Greek). 2017-06-04. Retrieved 2018-10-23.
  6. ^ "Patrick Pearse: proto-fascist eccentric or visionary?". History Ireland (Podcast). Retrieved 2019-03-10.
  7. ^ Bertrand Russell. The Autobiography of Bertrand Russell 1872-1914 (Little, Brown and company, 1951) page 112
  8. ^ Ferretter, Luke (2015). ""A Prison for the Infinite": D. H. Lawrence and Bertrand Russell on the War". Études Lawrenciennes (46). doi:10.4000/lawrence.226.
  9. ^ Kurlander, Eric (2002). "The Rise of Völkisch-Nationalism and the Decline of German Liberalism: A Comparison of Liberal Political Cultures in Schleswig-Holstein and Silesia 1912-1924". European Review of History: Revue européenne d'histoire. 9 (1): 23–36. doi:10.1080/13507480120116182. ISSN 1350-7486. S2CID 145167949.
  10. ^ Simon Levis Sullam: Giuseppe Mazzini and the Origins of Fascism

SourcesEdit