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The protests against Rodrigo Duterte, the 16th President of the Philippines, began on November 18, 2016, following the burial of late president Ferdinand Marcos, whom Duterte supported.[2] These series of protests are conducted by several left and right-wing groups and other opponent figures mainly due to ongoing war on drugs, martial law in the Mindanao, employment issues such as contractual term being applied by the company and increasing basic goods and inflation due to Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act.

Protests against Rodrigo Duterte
Protest Mobilization Bonifacio Day 2018.jpg
Protesters demonstrate on Bonifacio Day, November 30, 2018
DateNovember 18, 2016 — ongoing[note 1]
(2 years and 8 months)
Caused by
  • Cessation of martial law in Mindanao
  • Abolition of TRAIN Law
  • Abolition of employment contract and end-of-contract
  • Salary and minimum wage increase for the contractual workers
  • Withdrawal of Chinese fleets from the Philippine waters
  • Impeachment[note 2] and resignation of President Rodrigo Duterte and his government
  • Demonstrations
  • Sit-ins
  • Rallies
  • Marches
  • Internet activism
Parties to the civil conflict

Left-wing groups:

Liberal Groups:

Opposition organizations and coalitions:

  • Movement Against Tyranny
  • #TindigPilipinas (from September 2017)
  • Laban ng Masa
  • #BabaeAko Movement (formed May 2018)[8]


Various youth formations:

  • Youth Act Now Against Tyranny
  • #YouthResist[9]

Other figures:

Supported by:

Lead figures
Centralized and non-centralized leadership
Peak numbers vary:
  • 40,000 (organizers claim)[14]
  • 20,000 (media claim)
  • 7,000 (police estimate)
Injuries60+ (10 protesters, 50 police)[15]



President Rodrigo Duterte

War on drugs and extrajudicial killingsEdit

Since his inauguration on June 30, Duterte implemented the war against illegal drugs in the country, promising to kill thousands of people involved in the drug trade.[18][19] The campaign was overwhelmingly condemned by local politicians and international human rights, Western media, and some politicians overseas due to human rights violations and high number of killings amid drug campaign.[20][21]

The killing of 17-year-old student, Kian Loyd delos Santos, from Caloocan, on August 16, 2017 sparked controversy among the local politicians and militant groups, and triggered massive protest in the country.[22][23] The family of Delos Santos, on August 25, filed murder and torture charges against police officers involved in the drug operation.[24] Another two teenagers were killed on the same month delos Santos were killed: Carl Angelo Arnaiz, a 19-year-old teenager, last found in Cainta, Rizal, was tortured and shot dead also on August 17 by police after robbing a taxi in Caloocan.[25] His 14-year-old friend, Reynaldo de Guzman, also called under the nickname "Kulot," was stabbed to death thirty times and thrown into a creek in Gapan, Nueva Ecija. Along with the deaths of Kian delos Santos, the deaths of the two teenagers also triggered public outrage and condemnation.[26]

Aside from war on drugs and extrajudicial killings, there are forced disappearances under the Duterte administration with only six have been reported.[27] It was being remembered by their relatives – most of them are still in grieving since the Arroyo administration – every All Saints' Day.[27] According to the Asian Federation Against Involuntary Disappearances (AFAD), there are 1,993 cases of forced disappearances since Marcos regime.[28]

As of January 2019, the death toll of war against drugs reached 5,104 dead,[note 3] according to the Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency (PDEA).[30]

Burial of Ferdinand MarcosEdit

Protesters opposing the burial of Marcos.

During his 2016 presidential campaign, Duterte supported the burial of late President and dictator Ferdinand Marcos at the Heroes' Cemetery in Taguig.[31] On November 8, 2016, the Supreme Court permitted Marcos' burial in a 9–5–1 vote.[32] Marcos was buried at the Heroes' Cemetery on November 18.[33]

Phasing out of jeepneysEdit

A series of protest and strike action staged by jeepney drivers in the Philippines to oppose the government's plan to phaseout jeepneys over 15 years old. The strike, which started on February 6 and 27, caused hundreds of passengers to be stranded.[34][35] As a result of protests, classes in the country were suspended, as well as the government work.[36][37][38] Transport groups resumed the protests on September 24[39] and October 14 to 16.[40] On October 18, 2017, Duterte said that on January 1, next year, "If you can't modernize that, leave. You're poor? Son of a bitch, go ahead, suffer in poverty and hunger, I don't care."[41] However, Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) chairman Martin Delgra said the next day that Duterte's call was only his "expression of urgency."[42] Its proposal of jeepney modernization will displace 270,000 jeepneys nationwide and around 650,000 drivers and it costs up to P1.6 million.[41]

In January 2018, an operation called "Tanggal Usok, Tanggal Bulok" was implemented by Inter-Agency Council for Traffic (I-ACT) for the dilapidated and smoke belching jeepneys.[43][44] However, its commuters gave a difficult time in riding jeepneys,[43] particularly the students.[45] Commuters expressed their frustration on social media for apprehending the jeepneys that causes the commuters to be stranded.[45]

Declaration of martial law in Mindanao and the subsequent extensionEdit

Anti-martial law, anti-imperialist calls by indigenous peoples and Moro people during the Lakbayan 2017

Duterte declared martial law in the whole Mindanao on May 23, 2017 following the crisis in Marawi between Philippine government security forces and militants affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), including the Maute and Abu Sayyaf Salafi jihadist groups.[46][47][48] The deadline of martial law was extended three times.[49]

Proposed revolutionary governmentEdit

In October 2017, Duterte said that he would declare a revolutionary government against the supposed conspirator of destabilizing the government made by the communist rebels, Liberals and other factions.[50][51] He said to the media that "'Pag ang (if the) destablization ninyo patagilid na at medyo magulo na (would be shaky and more trouble), I will not hesitate to declare a revolutionary government until the end of my term."[51] The next month, he clarified that he would only declare a revolutionary government if "things go out of control."[52] Should the revolutionary government declared, "he would order the security forces to arrest all destabilizers and go on a full-scale war against communist rebels."[50] Duterte draws criticism from the opposition, stating that the declaration is a beginning of the stage towards his dictatorship.[53]

Against the mediaEdit

On January 11, 2018, the Securities and Exchange Commission of the Philippines (SEC) revoked Rappler's certificate of incorporation over Rappler's use of Philippine Depository Receipts (PDRs). It said that the provisions of the PDR issued to Omidyar Network by Rappler gave the American investment firm control over the local media firms' other PDR holders as well as its corporate policies, which the SEC says is a violation of the Constitution's provisions on foreign ownership and control.[54] Rappler claimed that it was 100% Filipino owned and that Omidyar only invests in the media firm.[55] Despite the certificate revocation, SEC stated that Rappler could still operate since their decision was not final, pointing out that the media firm could also challenge the decision before the Court of Appeals within 15 days.[56] Malacañang Palace also suggested that Rappler authors can still continue to publish on their website as bloggers.[57] On February 28, Omidyar Network donated its Rappler PDRs to the editors and executives of Rappler.[58]

On February 13, 2019, Rappler CEO Maria Ressa was arrested by National Bureau Investigation (NBI) for cyber libel upon the orders of the Manila Regional Trial Court Branch 46, "alleged that her right to due process was violated."[59] Ressa is known for her criticism against Duterte's war on drugs.[60] The arrest of Ressa sparked condemnations from the international journalists and local groups, who slammed the Duterte administration by saying that the action is "clearly part of the administration's attack on press freedom."[61] Duterte denied his involvement of her arrest.[62]

On May 3, 2019, the Center for Media Freedom and Responsibility released the data of the government's attacks against the media:

Attacks and threats against the Press (June 30, 2016 to April 30, 2019)[63]
Luzon 89
Visayas 13
Mindanao 26
Total number of cases 128

Other data such as online harassment, defamation and intimidation to the reporters and journalists are the most reported cases.[63]

Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act (TRAIN law) and the subsequent inflationEdit

Duterte signed the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act, also known as TRAIN law, on December 19, 2017 that lowers personal income taxes while increases the price of fuel, cars, coal and sugar-sweetened drinks.[64]

Endo contractualizationEdit

Labor Day 2018 mobilization

The contractualization defines "a practice where a company hires contractual workers only when is necessary" while "endo" (end of contract) "refers to the scheme that corrupt companies exercise to abuse their workers."[65][66] The above-mentioned was heavily opposed by the labor groups as they urged Duterte to sign executive order (EO) that will regulate contractualization.[5] According to Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque, the EO will be possibly signed on May 1, Labor Day.[67] However, on April 19, Labor Secretary Silvestre Bello III confirmed that there will be no longer an executive order, and, instead, the Congress will be the one to pass it.[68]

Removal of Sereno by the Supreme CourtEdit

Ousted Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno (left) addresses her crowd of supporters after her peers in the Supreme Court voted to oust her based on the solicitor general's quo warranto petition on May 11, 2018

Demonstrations[69] staged by the supporters of Supreme Court Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno occurred, following her impeachment process filed against her[70][71] and her subsequent indefinite leave.[72][73] The main reasons for the impeachment proceedings, according to the complainant, lawyer Larry Gadon, was that Sereno allegedly failed to declare her Statement of Assets, Liabilities and Net worth (SALN) and was also responsible for tax misdeclarations and unauthorized expenses.[74]

Against Catholic ChurchEdit

Shooting of Marcelito Paez, Mark Ventura and Richmond NiloEdit

On December 4, 2017, Marcelito Paez was killed by unidentified assailant while driving his Toyota Innova in Jaen-Zaragoza Road in Jaen, Nueva Ecija. Human rights organization Karapatan condemned the killing of Paez.[75] Before his death, Paez helped for the release of the political prisoner Rommel Tucay, who was detained in Cagayan jail.[76]

On April 29, 2018, a 37-year-old priest Mark Ventura was shot dead by riding-in-tandem assailants after taking a Sunday mass in Gattaran, Cagayan. Authorities said that Ventura blessed the children and talked to the choir members when the assailants shot him.[77] The CBCP, Senator Francis Pangilinan and Anakbayan condemned the murder of Ventura, with Anakbayan called it "fascistic, tyrannical, and mafia-style rule" by the Duterte administration.[78] On May 1, Manila Archbishop Luis Antonio Tagle denounced the killing, saying in Tagalog, "Isn't he a gift from God? Is it that easy now to kill and throw a person away?"[79] On May 3, the Ventura's family and the Cagayan Valley police issued a P300,00 reward for the information of the suspect of the murder.[80]

On June 10, a priest, Richmond Nilo of the Diocese of Cabanatuan, was gunned down by unknown assailant as he was preparing for evening mass at a small chapel in Zaragoza, Nueva Ecija on June 10, 2018 at 6:05 pm.[81][82] Following the murder, the Philippine National Police said that they tagged at least five suspects in connection with the killing of Nilo. One of the suspects linked to the murder, Adell Roll Milan—an altar boy at the church,[83] was arrested by the police on June 14.[84] PNP chief Oscar Albayalde identified him a resident of Barangy Malapit, San Isidro, Nueva Ecija.[85] The police retrieved surveillance cameras; one showing the two men riding in the motorcycle in a road near the chapel moments before the crime, and another one showing a third suspect who served as lookout while two others were seen in a getaway vehicle.[86] Another CCTV footage, timestamped 5:09 pm, shows Milan is seen riding his motorcycle outside T. Ador Dionisio National High School, roughly 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the church.[87] However, Elena Matias, grandmother of Milan, during the interview with Rappler, said that the police (wearing only civilian clothes) wrongly arrested him as they did not introduce themselves, and did not present any warrant of arrest.[87][88] The distance between Milan's house and the small chapel is just at least 25 kilometers away. Matias also said that neither she nor her grandson had knowledge of the killing.[88]

Larry Gadon, Milan's lawyer, believes that he is a fall guy. Milan's childhood friend, Nelson John Oreo, claimed that he was with Milan 4:00 to 8:30 p.m. on the day when the priest was killed.[83]

Several members from religious sectors, such as CBCP, and opposition politicians, have directly pointed the finger at Duterte,[89][85][90] who is known for his attacks against the church—whom are critical of the administration.[91][92][93]

Another alleged perpetrator of Nilo's murder identified as Omar Mallari, who was arrested by the police on July 2. According to the police, they traced Mallari's whereabouts using the plate number of vehicle which was caught in a CCTV footage when Nilo was killed. Aside from Mallari, they also apprehended the suspect Manuel Torres, while two other suspects, Rolando Garcia and Marius Albis Torres, surrendered. However, some of the suspects remain at large. The police said that, in their affidavits, Mallari and Garcia said that they were paid by Torres a P100,000 to kill the priest.[94] On October 5, another suspect named Bernie Limpio, 36, was arrested during the nighttime buy-bust operation in Maddela, Quirino. During the investigation by the police, they found out that Limpio has an arrest warrant for the Nilo's case.[95]

Oplan TambayEdit

On mid-June 2018, Duterte launched the campaign, called Oplan Tambay, against the loiterers (Tagalog: tambays) who violated the city ordinance such as smoking in public places, drinking liquor on the streets, and going shirtless in public.[96] The campaign had at least 8,000 residents were either accosted or apprehended for violating the rules in two weeks.[97]

However, this campaign was described by some sectors as another human rights violation being committed by the administration.[98] Randy David, sociology professor of University of the Philippines, said in an opinion statement that Duterte has "able to instill fear in people's minds even without declaring martial law by ordering the Philippine National Police to crack down on "tambays" or street loiterers."[99] Gabriela party-list blamed Duterte for high volume of loiterers in the streets, citing the government's failure of ending the ENDO and wage issues.[100] Conversely, Chief Insp. Mercy Villaro, spokesperson of the Mandaue City Police Office said the campaign against loiterers "would help address the problem of fraternities in the city."[101]

On June 25, a netizen posted a photo of commuters holding a tarpaulin banner saying "Hindi po kami tambay, nag-aabang lang ng jeep. At kung tambay man huwag kaming hulihin, saktan, patayin!" (transl. "We're not hanging out, just waiting for the jeep. And if we are bystanders, do not arrest, hurt, kill!") while waiting for a jeepney ride.[102]

Death of Genesis 'Tisoy' ArgoncilloEdit

A teenage boy named Genesis 'Tisoy' Argoncillo, who was arrested during an Oplan Tambay operation on June 15, was allegedly killed by fellow detainees inside the Novaliches Police Station on June 19 after serving 4-days in the detention.[103][104][105] On June 15, the Quezon City Police Department (QCPD)-Station 4 conducted a raid (also known as Oplan Galugad) in Sitio 5B, Novaliches.[104] The police claimed that Argoncillo and his friends challenged a fight with them when the authorities arrived at their scene, thus Argoncillo was imprisoned for "alarm and scandal."[104] The QCPD-4 chief denied that there was a "foul play" occurred on Argoncillo's death. On the midnight of June 18, one of the inmate discovered the unconscious Argoncillo.[104]

According to Argoncillo's elder sister, Marilou Argoncillo, he was watching videos on his phone in front of a store next to their house in Novaliches, Quezon City, when police officers arrested him for being a shirtless.[106] Supt. Carlito Grijaldo, commander of Quezon City Police Station 4, said that Argoncillo's death was self-inflicted, claiming that the detainee was "mentally disturbed".[106] A death certificate shows that Argoncillo's "immediate cause" of his death was "multiple blunt force trauma" applied to his "head, neck, chest, and upper extremities."[107] QCPD Director Chief Supt. Joselito Esquivel said that Argoncillo had no signs of external injuries when the autopsy conducted.[103] The police earlier claimed that Argoncillo had died from shortness of breath.[97] The police filed the charges against Justin Mercado and Richard Bautista—alleged Sputnik gang members. The two were held responsible for supposedly mauling Argoncillo.[103] According to Esquivel, they have been relieved at least five police officers following the death of Argoncillo.[108]

Protesters rallied against peasant killings under Duterte, including the Sagay massacre

Alleged killing of farmers by the militaryEdit

Farmer protesters are among of the opposition figures due to their claim that the military allegedly killed the farmers under the Duterte administration.[109] According to Unyon ng Manggagawa sa Agrikultura, there are 213 farmers have been killed so far under the Duterte regime as of July 2019.[110] However, the killing of farmers clearly becomes a major story when, on October 20, 2018, an armed gunmen killed nine farmers inside the sugarcane plantation in Sagay, Negros Occidental.[111] Initially, the police stated that the New People's Army may be "behind" of the massacre.[112] However, opposition groups, likewise, said that Duterte administration and the military "should be held responsible" for this,[113] and another group also pointed their finger to Duterte for the act.[114]

Negros Oriental killingsEdit

On March 30, 2019, police operations were conducted simultaneously in three different towns in Negros Oriental, leaving 14 people killed while 12 others were arrested.[115][116][117][118] According to the local police and Criminal Investigation and Detection Group, who conducted the operations, said the suspects opened fire and resisted arrests while serving the warrant for illegal possession of firearms and explosives.[116][115] They added that the people were the suspected members of the Special Partisan Unit of the New People's Army (NPA).[115] PNP Chief Oscar Albayalde asserted that the operation was "not the massacre" and those people were killed are those who "fought back".[119] Karapatan and UMA National Federation of Sugar Farmers condemned the incident, saying that these people were merely farmers and habal-habal drivers.[119] As a result, the provincial director of Negros Oriental police and three other police officers were relieved from the post.[120] Human Rights Watch and Unyon ng mga Manggagawa sa Agrikultura called for the investigation of the killings.[120]

On April 9, the Diocese of Dumaguete called for the "impartial investigation into the deaths of these 14 men."[117] Presidential Spokesperson Salvador Panelo said that the families of the slain people "should file charges."[121]

Lowering of age of criminal responsibilityEdit

Students from Ateneo de Manila University protested against lowering the minimum age of criminal responsibility

On January 21, 2019, the House committee bill was issued, stating that the age of criminal responsibility will be lowered from 15 to nine years of age.[122][123] However, it was opposed by some advocates including UNICEF and Save the Children,[124][125] local politicians, artists and celebrities[126] who used the hashtag #ChildrenNotCriminals as the condemnation.[127] Prior to this, it had been planned by congressmen, which was then echoed by President Duterte,[128] to lower the age of criminal responsibility in 2016.[129]

Other protestsEdit

Aside from above-mentioned protests, demonstrators also protested other issues such as:

Protests against overseas ties with DuterteEdit


The militant groups decried the ties between President Duterte and China over the occupation of Chinese vessels and the reported harassment of the fishermen amidst the territorial disputes in the South China Sea.[137][138]

On July 12, 2018, tarpaulin banners read "WELCOME TO THE PHILIPPINES, PROVINCE OF CHINA" (with a Chinese translation below the text) have been installed on several footbridges in Metro Manila, coinciding the two-year anniversary of winning the Philippines on its arbitration case against China.[139] It is possible that the tarpaulin are the reference to a "joke" made by Duterte that "the country can be a province of the Asian giant," five months earlier.[139][140] Chinese Ambassador Zhao Jianhua slammed the banners, calling it a "vicious attack" on the "independent foreign policy" pursued by Duterte.[141] Zhao also said that the Philippines "can never be any part of China."[142] The Philippine National Police were investigating the person behind this installed tarpaulin,[143] but the person were never known.[139] Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that the banners were "absurd" and the "enemies" of the government.[143] Opposition lawmakers Bayan Muna Rep. Carlos Zarate and Alliance of Concerned Teachers Rep. Antonio Tinio denied that leftist groups were behind of the tarpaulins.[143]

Student-activists from University of the Philippines and Ateneo de Manila University burn the flags of China and US to protest against their encroachment of Philippine sovereignty.

The state visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping on November 19–21, 2018, was being protested by the militant groups, who called him to "go away" in Mandarin.[144] The reason why they protested is because the Philippines "sold" the territories to China.[144]

The incident at the Reed Bank occurred on June 9, 2019 when a Chinese vessel rammed the Philippine fishing boat, F/B Gem-Ver, which carried 22 fishermen, causing the latter to sank.[145] All of the fishermen were rescued by the Philippine Navy.[145] For several days after incident, Duterte was kept silent about the incident until June 17 when he eventually made a statement, saying that the incident was just the "maritime incident."[146][147] Because of the incident, several militant groups have desired to impeach Duterte for allowing "China to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the West Philippine Sea."[3][148]

United StatesEdit

Despite the US government being highly critical to Duterte's war on drugs,[149] most of the militant groups – particularly the left-wing groups – also aimed at the United States through their placards or banners due to "imperialism"[150] and neoliberal policies,[151] with even displaying the Trump-Duterte effigies.[152] Activists have claimed that despite the condemnation, the US continues to fund the war on drugs and Duterte's anti-insurgency program.[153] Moreover, they cite the continuation and upholding of earlier treaties such as the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) as examples of the US breaching Philippine sovereignty.[154]

Trump's visit to the PhilippinesEdit

Activists burn rotating Trump effigy, dubbed as "Fascist Spinner," inspired by the fidget spinner.

Protests erupted from November 9—14, 2017, thousands staged the protest against the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit hosted by the Philippines.[155][156] Their call was to ban the visit of U.S. President Donald Trump, who visited the country to attend ASEAN-related summits as a dialogue partner.[157] It is because, according to student leader Elijah San Pedro, Trump seemingly "to have dragged the Philippines into his war rhetorics against North Korea."[158] Atty. Aaron Pedrosa of SANLAKAS also said that Mamasapano massacre and the war in Marawi were created by the U.S.-led War on Terror.[158] Karapatan Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights slammed the Trump administration for "'funding' the administration's war on drugs."[158] The Philippine Coast Guard reported that protesters attempted to bribe fishermen to get them close to the United States Embassy.[159] A group of protesters led by Anakbayan managed to reached the gate of Philippine International Convention Center, despite tight security.[160]

Militant group Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap (Kadamay) also staged protests against Trump.[161][162] A group said that the ₱15.5-billion ($292 million) budget of the ASEAN Summit could have been used for the poor.[163] Aside from Trump, protesters also burned the images of Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, whom "protesters said are responsible for the anti-Filipino and imperialistic agenda allegedly promoted by the Duterte administration."[164]

Anti-riot police used water cannon and sonic alarm to repel activists.[165] Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, led by Renato Reyes, have the Trump's effigy — with four rotating hands shaped into the swastika symbol and President Rodrigo Duterte can be seen behind — burned.[165] Despite being fired by the water cannon, the protesters continue to push forward against the blocking police.[166] It is reported that 20 members of militant groups were injured after engaged the clash with the police.[167] Trump arrived in the country on November 12.[168]


Following the burial of Ferdinand MarcosEdit

The protests against Rodrigo Duterte started when late dictator Ferdinand Marcos was buried on November 18, 2016 at the Libingan ng mga Bayani, which was describe by the media as a "surprise burial". Remembering the Marcos dictatorship era, thousands of protesters, including well-known personalities and politicians, staged the protests.[169][170][171][172]

Organized by religious groupsEdit

The "Walk for Life" was a mass demonstration organized by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) protesting the reintroduction of the death penalty and call for an end to killings amid the country's ongoing war on drugs. The event was first announced on late January 2017 by former CBCP President Socrates Villegas, who encourages the Filipino people to join in a said event.[173]

On February 18, 2017, the march gathered approximately 20,000 Filipino Catholics in Manila. The church had led the revolutions that successfully toppled former Presidents Ferdinand Marcos in 1986 and Joseph Estrada in 2001, all of which are held in EDSA.[174] Among those who joined the rally was Senator Leila de Lima, a critic of Duterte who opposes the war on drugs.[175] On February 24, 2018, thousands of people joined at the Quirino Grandstand.[176]

On November 5, 2017, the Catholic Church held a prayer rally and healing mass, dubbed as "Lord, Heal Our Land", held at the EDSA highway, the site of the People Power Revolution, to oppose the extrajudicial killings. The procession was attended by around 3,500 people.[177] CBCP president and Lingayen-Dagupan Archbishop Socrates Villegas said:

Let us ask that our prayers for the country's healing be answered. The November 5 activity has no colors. It will stand for transparency, clarity of vision, purity of heart. We won't be there to shout and hold a rally. We will pray and whisper to Jesus' heart to ask for forgiveness, forgiveness for the country that sinned."[178]

Administration opponent groups such as Movement Against Tyranny and Tindig Pilipinas were present at the event.[178] They clarified that the event was to only express frustration, not the "destabilization."[179] Opposition politicians such as Senators Bam Aquino, Franklin Drilon, Risa Hontiveros[180] and Antonio Trillanes were also present.[177]

People Power Revolution anniversaryEdit

On February 25, 2017, demonstrators celebrated the 31st anniversary of People Power Revolution. Opposition figures such as Senators Bam Aquino, Risa Hontiveros, Francis Pangilinan and Franklin Drilon and former President Benigno Aquino III—whom being cheered upon his arrival.[181] Block Marcos Movement arrived at People Power Monument at 9pm and they installed a white shovel at the People Power Monument, which means of exhumation of late dictator Ferdinand Marcos from the grave at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.[181] Former President Fidel V. Ramos expresses his disappointment over Duterte's absence at the event.[182] There is a minor tension within the event involving the heated confrontation of APO Hiking Society member Jim Paredes and some members of Duterte Youth. The event was recorded on the phone.[183]

Protesters demonstrate during the 32nd anniversary of People Power Revolution.

Several students from various universities walked out their classes to protest against the jeepney and ongoing martial law in the Mindanao on February 23, 2018.[184][185] The hashtag #WalkOutPH reached more than 3,000 tweets and at least 2.6 million impressions on Twitter.[186]

Demonstrators commemorated the 32nd anniversary of People Power Revolution (also dubbed as "People Werpa")[187] on February 25, 2018, which was successfully ended the dictatorship rule of Marcos on the same day of 1986.[188] According to Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque, Duterte will not attend the event but instead "the President will be in his home province in Davao City".[188] Last year, Duterte also did attend the event.[188] As the day approaches, several groups including students, activists, and other opponents held the protests against Duterte administration actions.[189] An online poll conducted by Communications Assistant Secretary Mocha Uson, stating "Naniniwala ba kayo na ang 1986 EDSA PEOPLE POWER ay isang produkto ng FAKE NEWS???" ("Do you think the 1986 EDSA People Power is a product of fake news?"), which garnered 84% voted "yes" out of 61,800 respondents.[190] However, Harry Roque said that the event is not 'fake news'.[190]

On February 23, 2019, more than 1,300 opposition figures such as Liberal Party, Tindig Pilipinas, Magdalo and Akbayan gathered at the People Power Monument in White Plains to commemorate the 33rd anniversary of People Power Revolution.[191][192] There, they denounced, through the placards, the administration-supported senatorial candidates for 2019 such as former Presidential Aide Bong Go and former Ilocos Norte Governor Imee Marcos.[192] UP Diliman screened the film, Citizen Jake, directed by Mike de Leon and starring Atom Araullo as the title character Jake Herrera, which follows "a journalist whose principles clash with the political interests of his estranged father, a powerful senator."[193] A 5-minute short film entitled Kangkungan,[194] also directed by Mike de Leon was uploaded on Vimeo, slamming the policy of Duterte.[195]

Opposition figures have made their statement ahead of the event: Senator Bam Aquino calls the Filipino people "to air their grievances through the ballot in the May elections." Senator Leila de Lima denounced the persecution of prominent critics of the administration such as her arrest, voiding of amnestry of Senator Antonio Trillanes, removal of Supreme Court Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno, and the deportation of Sister Patricia Fox "in order to stop her active involvement in human rights work."[191] Vice President Leni Robredo called the people to break the misconception that the event is merely about the "dilawans" (transl. "yellows") and instead remember the anniversary event.[4] It was reported that the number of people participated are fewer than the last year.[196]

On February 24, about 600 people gathered at the People Power Monument.[197] Among the attendees were former President Benigno Aquino III, the supporters of opposition senatorial candidates from the Otso Diretso. It also shows the footage of Duterte's expletive speeches on the projector.[197] On his speech, Aquino breaks the silence on the Dengvaxia controversy and the measles outbreak.[197][198]

On February 25, just like the previous events, Duterte, again, did not attend the event.[199] The Otso Diretso had challenged the Hugpong ng Pagbabago candidates for the debate on this date.[200] Davao City Mayor Sara Duterte said that the Hugpong candidates agreed to attend the debates.[200] However, none of the Hugpong candidates showed up at the event.[201]

Labor Day protestsEdit

On May 1, 2018, about 20,000 protesters[note 6] clad in red shirts gathered at Mendiola for the much awaited of "endo" termination, featuring Duterte's effigies.[203][204] Duterte signed the executive order about ending of end-of-contract scheme or "endo".[205] However, what Duterte signed about is for the employers not the workers — not the EO they had drafted,[206] much to the dismay of the labor groups.[204] Before that, Duterte promised on February to signed the EO but it was postponed to March 15[207] and then on April 16.[68][204] The signed EO garnered mixed reception from various groups.[208] Therefore, labor groups vowed to held a larger protest until the contractualization is ended.[203]

On April 30, few members of Tindig Pilipinas gathered at the headquarters of Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) to protests the "increasing" Chinese workers in the country.[209]

On May 1, several militant groups held the rally on Labor Day, condemning the government's failure of "endo", TRAIN Law and demanding the salary increase and the minimum wage increase to Php 750.[209][210][211] According to the Philippine National Police, about 8,000 people attended the rally.[210] Like the previous events, the groups featured an effigy of Duterte.[211] Some labor groups have gathered at the Mendiola Bridge as early as 6 a.m. and then marched across the streets in Metro Manila; the program ended at 5 p.m.[210] Other figures such as 2019 senatorial candidates Leody de Guzman, Sonny Matula, Allan Montaño, Lawin Arellano, and Neri Colmenares also there at the rally; de Guzman criticized the way of passing the workers' salary law by the previous seated Senators.[211] Colmenares and Matula urged the Filipino people to "elect someone like them in the Senate who would push for pay hike and put an end to contractualization."[212] Otso Diretso candidates Bam Aquino, Chel Diokno and Erin Tañada also attended the rally at the Welcome Rotonda.[212] Two Australian tourists also joined the rally, though the joining of the foreigners at the political rally is a violation of Immigration law in the country.[211]

Independence Day (June 12) protestsEdit

On June 12, 2017, Independence Day, the speech of Senator Panfilo Lacson in Kawit, Cavite was interrupted by the chant coming from the Gabriela and other groups. They are apprehended later.[citation needed]

On June 12, 2018, President Duterte's speech in Kawit, Cavite was interrupted when 10 demonstrators chanted "Hunyo 12, huwad na kalayaan! Duterte patalsikin, pasista biguin!" Duterte remained calm and saying that "the protesters' right to express their thoughts and feelings."[213][214][215] One of the demonstrators was arrested for “interrupting public order”.[216]

Duterte's State of the Nation Address / "United People's SONA"Edit


Several groups led the protest on the day of President Duterte's second State of the Nation Address (SONA). According to Renato Reyes, secretary general of Bayan, the president's promises of improvements during his first SONA still remained unfulfilled, including issues on contractualization, land reforms, and economic policy.[217] Reyes also said that, "Under his administration, regularization has already happened: It is now regular to kill drug suspects, regular to sabotage peace talks, regular to militarize, and regular to spread fake news and disinformation."[218] Also, labor unions Kilusang Mayo Uno and Alyansa ng mga Manggagawa Laban sa Kontraktwalisasyon led similar protests, calling "to resume peace talks and to end martial law in Mindanao."[219][220] About 5,000 members of Bagong Alyansang Makabayan from Roxas City, 3,000 in Iloilo City, 2,500 in Kalibo, 500-800 in Cebu City, and 500 in Estancia, Iloilo, joined the protest, concerning an end to contractualization, land reform, free education and jeepney modernization.[221] Also, about 300 Lumad people joined the protest, calling to stop the martial law.[222] At midnight, around 100 anti-Duterte protesters held a candle vigil, led by Senator Risa Hontiveros, condemning the extrajudicial killings and extension of martial law in Mindanao. Hontiveros called Duterte's second SONA a "fake."[223] At night, Duterte confronted the protesters for the first time.[224]


State of the Nation Address mobilization 2018
Protest art during State of the Nation Address 2018

Ahead of Duterte's third State of the Nation Address, opposition lawmakers announced that they will wear protest Barongs with artwork.[225] Opposition figures—such as Senators Antonio Trillanes IV, Risa Hontiveros, and Bam Aquino—attend the mass at the University of the Philippines Diliman. There, Bishop Broderick Pabillo said on the sermon that the proposed federalism and the charter change are not the solution of wiping out the problem in the country.[226]

Over 6,000 police officers will deploy in different areas in Metro Manila to secure the SONA.[227] Dubbed the protest as "United People's SONA,"[228] different groups coalitions and organizations held a protests on the day of Duterte's third State of the Nation Address nationwide.[229][230]

On July 24, 2019, the day of SONA, Bayan Muna Southern Tagalog featured Duterte's effigy and then burned it.[231][232] Demonstrators gathered at University of the Philippines Diliman, slamming the series of killings in the country and the increase of basic goods due to Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Act (TRAIN law) while some considering to "Oust Duterte."[233] Gabriela, in Commonwealth Avenue in front of Tandang Sora flyover, also slammed Duterte.[234] In Bicol, militant groups also held a rally.[235] Meanwhile, Pro-Duterte groups also gathered in Batasan Road.[236] According to Bayan Muna Representative Renato Reyes, through tweet, about 40,000 have attended and he called it "the biggest SONA rally under the Duterte regime."[14]


A week before Duterte's fourth State of the Nation Address on July 22, 2019, it was announced that former Supreme Court Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno will attend the rally against Duterte on that event.[237] Malacañang Palace said that Sereno is welcome to express her freedom by joining the rally.[238]

Anniversary of 1972 martial lawEdit

Supporters of Duterte gathered at the front of the Quiapo Church during the National Day of Protest.

On September 21, 2017, nationwide protests — also known as "National Day of Protest" — are conducted by various groups against the government's implementation of war on drugs and the ongoing martial law in the whole of Mindanao under the Duterte administration, as part of the commemoration of the 45th anniversary of the declaration of martial law in 1972 by late President Marcos.[239][240] As the day of protest approaching, Malacañang Palace released Duterte's Proclamation No. 319 and Memorandum Circular no. 26 on this day.[241] A Memorandum Circular no. 26 states that government offices and public schools at all levels are suspended.[241] Duterte said that he will not condone any means of violence committed by protesters.[242][243] Duterte even dared the communist New People's Army "to bring the protests to Manila, as he vowed not to arrest them."[244]

Protesters at Mendiola

Left-wing activists and opposition of Duterte accused him of abuses and authoritarianism similar to that of Marcos.[245] Vice President Leni Robredo states that "If we do not remember the past, we are condemned to repeat it. Sadly those who are deceived do not even know that they are walking a doomed path."[note 7][245] In Plaza Miranda, about 500 pro-Duterte rallyists occupied in front of the Quiapo Church.[247] Teddy Casiño said to Duterte that "he is the subject of the protest," after the latter declares September 21 a day of protest.[248] Pro and anti-Duterte rallyists also engaged in chant battle.[248] A group of pro-Duterte supporters are seen elsewhere in the city, calling to stop the "destabilization," which is rumored to be made by the opposition.[249]

On September 21, 2018, nationwide protests are conducted, marking the 46th anniversary of Martial Law. These protests are mainly conducted by several groups such as Youth Act Now Against Tyranny and Bagong Alyansang Makabayan.[250] They also featured the caricatures of Duterte, along with former President and newly-installed House Speaker Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and Ferdinand and Bongbong Marcos. Also, removed Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno also present at the event. Liberal Party members held the event by mass. Meanwhile, pro-Duterte supporters also held the demonstration.[251] Other groups featured a stack of buckets with the pictures of Duterte, the Marcoses, newly-appointed Chief Justice Teresita de Castro and other Duterte's cabinet — parodying the milk brand Alaska, which was then being toppled by the slippers.[252] Some protesters questioned the inclusion of former President Benigno Aquino III's face in the bucket, whom the organizers said that because of unsolved problems in the country. They later removed Aquino's face in the bucket as a respect.[252]

Pandi housing project protestsEdit

An urban group Kadamay (Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap) started their protests on March 8, 2017 when they occupied the idle houses in Pandi, Bulacan.[253] During the course of the occupation, they slammed the National Housing Authority, as well as President Duterte, for not considering of giving the house to the poor people.[254] Other groups such as Kilusang Mayo Uno, Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, Makabayan, Gabriela and Anakpawis joined the protests.[255] On March 24, Kadamay protests turns violent when they attempt to break the gate of NHA. One person is injured after breaking the logo of NHA.[256] The protests eventually ended on April 4 when Duterte announced that members of Kadamay may now live in units, as long as they do not oust police officers and soldiers who currently reside there.[257]

In the aftermath of Pandi occupation, Kadamay gathered at the headquarters of the Office of the Ombudsman, demanding the livelihood so that they can pay their occupied house.[258] One member of Kadamay was arrested for using illegal drugs, which were used to suppress the fatigue brought by Labor Day demonstrations.[259]

Martial law deadline extensionEdit

Following the declaration of martial law in Mindanao on May 23, 2018, protests were held in Mendiola Street, calling for revocation of its declaration. The groups cited the increase of human rights violation cases because of the course of martial law and they added that martial law is not the solution to the situation happening in Mindanao.[260] On May 29, various groups including Lumad and Moro people and farmers from Mindanao gathered at separated places in Metro Manila to condemn the declaration of martial law and killing of innocent civilians amid the Marawi crisis.[261] Meanwhile, demonstrators from Southern Tagalog marched to Mendiola, and some groups gathered at the Senate. Former Commission on Human Rights (CHR) chairperson Etta Rosales and Albay Representative Edcel Lagman condemned the declaration.[261]

On July 21, a Senate session of martial law extension was interrupted by eight militant groups, who were immediately arrested. In the session, the lawmakers had questioned the reports of human rights violation cases, which were denied by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP).[262] On December 13, 2017, Duterte's request of extending the martial law was granted by the Congress with the vote of 240–27 (14–4 from the Senate, 226–23 from the House),[263] causing another batch of protests.[264] On December 13, 2018, for the third time, the Senate and the House of Representatives approve President Duterte's request for the martial law extension in Mindanao until 2019.[49] This approval was triggered by the protests, whose participants are from Mindanao; many of whom were shocked and saddened the result.[265]

Bonifacio Day protestsEdit

On November 30, as part of the celebration of Bonifacio Day, a protest was held, condemning the revolutionary government threat.[266] On the other side, around thousands of Duterte supporters gathered at Mendiola, urging Duterte to declare a revolutionary government.[267] Presidential spokesperson Harry Roque advised the pro-revolutionary government supporters "to conduct their rallies in a peaceful, orderly manner."[268] Harry Roque also said that "The president has earlier said that he does not want a revolutionary government. This, however, does not mean he would prevent citizens from expressing their support for a revolutionary government."[268]

On November 28, 2018 labor groups — some of them are still working as an "irregular" employee at the company for 20 years — staged a protests in Mendiola and they will stay until November 30, Bonifacio Day. Kilusang Mayo Uno chairperson Elmer Labog said that they will not stop demonstrating until Malacañang entertain them about not only regularization and wage increase but also stopping the military presence in Mindanao amidst ongoing martial law.[269] On November 30, demonstrators marched at Mendiola bringing the effigy of Duterte depicted as king, which was then destroyed by using shovel and dummy sledgehammer.[270] Other groups expressed their anger by singing to the tune of "Despacito."[270]

Bonifacio Day 2018 protest.

Revocation of RapplerEdit

#DefendPressFreedom Black Friday mobilization

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines staged a protest, dubbed as "Black Friday Protest for Freedom," in Quezon City and other parts of the country such as Bacolod and Zamboanga City[271] on the evening of January 19, 2018,[272][273][274] following the revocation of online news site Rappler by Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) eight days prior.[275] At the same time, National Bureau of Investigation has issued a subpoena against CEO Maria Ressa, former reporter Reynaldo Santos, and businessman Benjamin Bitanga for violating the anti-cybercrime act.[276] The protest was attended by 300 people, wearing black T-shirts, against the attacks on press freedom by the government.[271][277] Rappler is known to be critical of the Duterte administration.[278] Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that Duterte has no involvement in the SEC's decision.[279] Roque said that the Friday protest "is a testament that freedom is alive and democracy is alive in the Philippines."[280] Nevertheless, the revocation was widely condemned by the opposition figures such as Kadamay chairperson Gloria Arellano,[281] Senators Leila de Lima[281] and Antonio Trillanes — who said that the decision is similar to Duterte's strategy against De Lima's imprisonment for drug charges,[282] National Union of Journalists of the Philippines,[283] Anakbayan,[283] UP Diliman,[283] and the anonymous critic from The New York Times.[284] Other bloggers and journalists were also present at the protest.[285]

Quo warranto petition against SerenoEdit

On April 10, a video showing lawyer Larry Gadon approaches in front of the supporters of Supreme Court Chief Justic Maria Lourders Sereno — who is facing the quo warranto petition — and the blocking police officers several meters away, raises his middle finger and shouts "Mga bobo" (English: Idiots),[286] prompting the supporters to filed the complaint against Gadon nine days later.[287]

After Solicitor General Jose Calida filed a quo warranto petition against her,[288] the Supreme Court voted for the removal of Sereno from the high court on May 11, 2018 with the votes of 8-6.[289] At the same time, supporters of Sereno gathered at the streets near the Supreme Court.[290] Politicians expressed condemnation of ousting Sereno.[291] In the aftermath of ousting Sereno, a prayer rally and protests was conducted in Bacolod,[292] Katipunan Ave, Quezon City,[293] and even displaying a makeshift coffin that, according to the protesters, symbolizes and mourns the "death of democracy" and the "death of judiciary."[294] Among those who joined the rally were former CHR Chairperson Etta Rosales and Archdiocese of Manila Broderick Pabillo.[295] On May 12, church groups members announced that they will held the 10-day vigil in front of the Supreme Court.[296]

Members of the religious sectors protested against church persecution on January 25, 2019. They were joined by allied groups.

Other eventsEdit

In early January 2018, several groups staged the protests against TRAIN LAW, which the group blamed it for increasing basic goods and oil prices.[297] TRAIN law also had the impact to the store owners due to increasing prices.[298] On May 24, 2018, a coalition called "Stop Train Coalition" launched the signature that needed at least a million signatures to junk the TRAIN law.[298] As of October 2018, the country's inflation rose to 6.2%,[299] the highest rate since nine years.[300]

Farmer groups celebrated the 32nd anniversary of 1987 Mendiola massacre on January 22, 2019, appealing for land reform. Despite the massacre happened during the Corazon Aquino administration, most militant groups aimed at Duterte.[301] Opposing the lowering of age of criminal responsibility, a prayer rally was held on January 25, 2019 at Malate, Manila. Among those were present are formers Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno and Social Welfare and Development Secretary Dinky Soliman. The attendees demonstrate through air horn (pump), candle lighting and writing in the freedom wall.[302]

Outside the PhilippinesEdit

While the protests are mainly held within the country, there are, yet occasionally, protests being held overseas. The first known documented protests aimed directly against Duterte was held in Philippine consulate in New York City on October 11, 2016, condemning the war on drugs.[1] Following the shooting of 17-year-old student Kian delos Santos on August 16, 2017, a massive protests were held in several countries.[303] The state visit of Duterte in Israel was met by the protests on September 4, 2018.[304]

Alleged destabilization plotsEdit

Since September 2018, the alleged ouster plot against Philippine President Rodrigo Duterte made by the opposition figures have been publicized by the authorities and the Malacañang Palace.


Recipient Category Year Ref.
Shibby de Guzman 30 Most Influential Teens (Time) 2017 [305]
#BabaeAko movement 25 Most Influential People on the Internet (Time) 2018 [306]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ The first known protests occurred at the Philippine Consulate in New York City on October 11, 2016.[1] November 18 is the start of the protest in the Philippines, the first documented protest aimed directly at Duterte.[2]
  2. ^ Since July 2019.[3]
  3. ^ Nevertheless, several oppositions and critics of the administration asserted that the number of people killed in the drug war has reached more than 20,000 (February–March 2018).[29]
  4. ^ K-12 program, officially known as Republic Act (RA) 10533, was approved by then-President Benigno Aquino III on May 15, 2013.[130]
  5. ^ Typhoon Haiyan happened during the Benigno Aquino III administration on early November 2013.[134]
  6. ^ Another source said 6,920 from the police estimate.[202]
  7. ^ Robredo's quote appeared to be derived from the writer and philosopher George Santayana's original quote.[246]


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  15. ^ For the protesters:
    Mar 24, 2017: 1 (ref)
    November 12, 2017: 9 (ref)

    For the police
    November 15, 2017: 50 (ref)
  16. ^ April 3, 2017: 80 (ref)
    July 21, 2017: 8 (ref)
    June 12, 2018: 1 (ref)
  17. ^ May 1, 2017: 1 (ref)
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  44. ^ "250 PUVs flagged down in campaign vs old vehicles, smoke belchers". Philippine Daily Inquirer — via YouTube.
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    Interviews at 0:25-35.
    Student 1: "Medyo, mahirap talaga tapos sumakay talaga."
    Student 2: "..., pasehero yung naapektuhan, at syempre pati yung [mga] drivers."
    Student 3: "Masyado... Konti yung kasi mga jeep."
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  105. ^ "Genesis Argoncillo killed by fellow detainees – QC police". Rappler.
  106. ^ a b "'Binaboy nila kapatid ko': Family seeks justice for man allegedly beaten to death in detention". ABS-CBN News.
  107. ^ "Exclusive: Photos, death certificate show Genesis 'Tisoy' Argoncillo beaten to death". Rappler.
  108. ^ "5 QC cops relieved from posts over death of Genesis Argoncillo". GMA News.
  109. ^ Rafales, April. "TV Patrol: Ilang magsasaka, nangalampag sa DAR". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube. (0:36– ) Rafales: "Kinondena nila ang pagkontrol, pang-aabuso at pananakot umano ng militar sa kanilang lugar para imonopulyo ang mga lupa. Tinukoy din nila ang mga militar na pasimuno sa mga pagpatay sa mga magsasaka at kanilang mga kaanak." / Enrique Tumampil, Vice Chair of Kilusang Magbubukid of Masbate: Umaabot na po sa 10 ang bilang sa extrajudicial killing kasama na 'yon mga inosenteng bata / Eljohn Tumampil: "Ang bahay na mapasukan namin na walang tao, pinag-uutusan po ako na papasukin doon. Pag hindi ako sinusunod, binubugbog po nila ako."
  110. ^ "Grupo: Mga naulila ng EJK 'susuporta sa impeachment ni Duterte'". The Philippine Star.
  111. ^ "PNP eyes 4 groups in killing of 9 sugar farmers in Sagay". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  112. ^ "NPA may be behind Negros Occidental attack — PNP". CNN Philippines. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  113. ^ "Lorenzana hits Bayan Muna chair Colmenares for linking military to Sagay massacre". GMA News. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  114. ^ "Palace condemns killing of 9 Negros sugar workers". GMA News. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  115. ^ a b c "14 killed in police operations in Negros Oriental". Rappler.
  116. ^ a b "14 dead in Negros Oriental police operations". The Philippine Star.
  117. ^ a b "Dumaguete Diocese seeks impartial probe into 14 farmers' death". SunStar.
  118. ^ "Palace defends Negros Oriental police ops that left 14 farmers dead". ABS-CBN News.
  119. ^ a b "PNP: Negros Oriental operations where 14 died 'not a massacre'". The Philippine Star.
  120. ^ a b "Negros Oriental police officials relieved over ops that killed 14 farmers". The Philippine Star.
  121. ^ "Families of 14 farmers killed in Negros Oriental should file charges, says Malacañang". BusinessWorld.
  122. ^ "House Bill (HB) 8858" (PDF).
  123. ^ "House changes proposed minimum criminal liability age from 9 to 12 years old". Rappler.
  124. ^ "UNICEF, Save the Children oppose lowering age of criminal responsibility". GMA News.
  125. ^ "Philippine artists' group opposes lowering of age of criminal responsibility". Rappler.
  126. ^ "PH artists, celebrities react to bill that lowers age of criminal liability". Rappler.
  127. ^ "Celebrities react to bill on lowering age of criminal liability". The Philippine Star.
  128. ^ "Children in conflict with the law: Cracks in Juvenile Justice Act". Rappler. Duterte, echoed by his allies in the House of Representatives, wants to lower the minimum age of criminal liability from 15 years old down to 9. He believes it should be done because syndicates are using more children to commit crimes.
  129. ^ "Congressmen want 9-year-old kids charged for crimes". Rappler.
  130. ^ "President Aquino Signs K+12 Program Into Law". Tech for the Philippines.
  131. ^ "TV Patrol: Kawalan ng pangmatagalang solusyon sa problema sa bigas, iprinotesta". ABS-CBN News.
  132. ^ "REPUBLIC ACT No. 10931". The LAWPHiL Project. Archived from the original on September 2, 2018.
  133. ^ "TV Patrol: Ilang state university, college, tinatanong kung bakit naniningil" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News — via YouTube.
  134. ^ "Aquino under pressure over typhoon aid, U.S. carrier to arrive". Reuters. November 14, 2013.
  135. ^ "The World Tonight: Tacloban still reeling 5 years after 'Yolanda'". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube. Retrieved November 9, 2018. Note: Pause at 0:56 for Duterte's caricature.
  136. ^ "Members of Kabataan party-list hold a rally in front of the National Housing Authority to demand for efficient and accessible water supply". The Philippine Star – via Facebook.
  137. ^ "Pagdami ng Chinese workers, isa sa isyu sa Bonifacio Day". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  138. ^ "Activists mark 'Day of Valor' with anti-China protests | ANC". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  139. ^ a b c "Banners welcome visitors to 'Philippines, province of China'". The Philippine Star.
  140. ^ "Duterte jokes about 'Philippines, province of China'". The Philippine Star.
  141. ^ "PH a province of China? 'Not now, not ever,' envoy says". Rappler.
  142. ^ "Chinese envoy: PH will never be a part of China". CNN Philippines.
  143. ^ a b c "'Enemies of gov't' behind 'Philippines, Province of China' banners? Police investigate". CNN Philippines.
  144. ^ a b (from 0:06) Protesters: Mr. Xi Jinping, Zǒu kāi. / Reporter:...Mandarin ang "Zǒu kāi" (走開), ibig sabihin, "lumayas ka".
    (from 0:26) Neri Colmenares: Kino-consumate ng ... ang pagbenta ng ating soberanya. Yan talaga [ang] essential ng pagdalaw [ni Xi] dito. / Reporter: Giit ng mga rallyista, di dapat ipagbunyi ang pagdating ni Xi dahil pinapakita ni Pangulong Duterte ang napakalaking pagta-traidor umano niya sa bansa; naglalakihang pautang kapalit ng pagsuko sa West Philippine Sea.
    "TV Patrol: Pagdating ni Xi Jinping sinalubong ng protesta". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  145. ^ a b Talabong, Rambo (15 June 2019). "Crew of sunken Philippine boat now home". Rappler. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
  146. ^ "Duterte mum on West PH Sea 'collision'". ABS-CBN News. President Rodrigo Duterte made no comment Thursday on the "collision" of a Chinese ship and Filipino fishing boat in the West Philippine Sea.
  147. ^ "'Banggaan lang ng mga barko 'yan': Duterte breaks silence on Reed Bank incident". ABS-CBN News. "You do not send gray ships (Philippine Navy) there. Banggaan lang ng barko 'yan. Do not make it worse because that is a fertile ground for... Alam ninyong mga sundalo, miscommunication 'yan. Patay na. And we are not yet as ready, and we can never be ready in nuclear war, because in nuclear war, kung bitawan lahat 'yan, earth will dry up and we will all be destroyed," he said.
  148. ^ "Fisherfolk group to file impeachment complaint vs Duterte". Rappler. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  149. ^ See the following citations:
  150. ^ (from 0:24) Damay din ang pati watawat ng Amerika, dahil imperyalista rin daw sila.
    Bandila: Ilang estudyante, nagsunog ng watawat ng China sa pagtatapos ng bisita ni Xi Jinping
  151. ^ "Militants protest Trump visit". Manila Bulletin News. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  152. ^ "Motorists told: Avoid Asean dry run routes". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original.
  153. ^ Rey, Aika. "U.S. to fund PH war on drugs anew – rights group".
  154. ^ Fonbuena, Carmela. "Duterte reaffirms EDCA, U.S. ties in meeting with Trump". Rappler. Retrieved 2019-01-13.
  155. ^ "Violence marks ASEAN 2017 protests in Manila". Rappler.
  156. ^ "Schedule: Protest activities during ASEAN Summit 2017". Rappler. Archived from the original.
  157. ^ "'Not welcome in PH': Filipino activists set fire to Trump effigy". Rappler.
  158. ^ a b c "Why groups are protesting Trump's PH visit".
  159. ^ Talabong, Rambo (November 10, 2017). "Philippine Coast Guard to arrest ASEAN Summit protesters at Manila Bay". Rappler. Retrieved January 11, 2018.
  160. ^ "Small group of ASEAN summit protesters reach PICC gate". Rappler.
  161. ^ "'P15-B ASEAN summit budget should have gone to the poor' – Kadamay". Rappler.
  162. ^ "Activists picket US Embassy ahead of Trump visit". The Philippine Star.
  163. ^ "'P15-B ASEAN summit budget should have gone to the poor' – Kadamay". Rappler.
  164. ^ Militant groups clash with police in anti-Trump rally". Archived from the original. CNN Philippines.
  165. ^ a b "In Photos: At least 2,000 attend protests on day one of ASEAN Summit". Rappler.
  166. ^ "Anti-riot cops block protesters". Tempo.
  167. ^ "Update: Anti-Trump protesters, cops clash; militants claim 20 injured". The Manila Times.
  168. ^ "Trump arrives in PH for ASEAN Summit". Rappler.
  169. ^ "SC ‘allows Marcos burial at the Libingan ng mga Bayani’. Manila Bulletin.
  170. ^ "Marcos to be buried at Heroes' Cemetery today". Rappler.
  171. ^ "VP, senators disappointed and sad as Supreme Court allows burial in hero's cemetery for Marcos". CNN Philippines.
  172. ^ "Drilon on Marcos burial: A thief even in death". GMA News.
  173. ^ "CBCP: We can work with administration". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  174. ^ "Philippine Church in 'show of force' against drug killings". GMA News.
  175. ^ "Tens of thousands of Filipino Catholics protest against death penalty and Duterte's drug war".
  176. ^ "Thousands join 'Walk for Life' vs death penalty, summary killings". ABS-CBN News.
  177. ^ a b Jalea, Mary Gleefer (November 5, 2017). "EDSA prayer rally held vs extrajudicial killings". The Manila Times. Retrieved January 12, 2018.
  178. ^ a b "No politics, just prayers for healing in Edsa rally". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  179. ^ "'Lord Heal Our Land' an expression of frustration, not destabilization — organizers". GMA News.
  180. ^ "Senators join Edsa march to push for end to drug killings". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  181. ^ a b "TV Patrol: Ika-31 anibersaryo ng People Power Revolution, ginunita" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  182. ^ "TV Patrol: Simpleng pagdiriwang sa anibersaryo ng 1986 People Power" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  183. ^ "24 Oras: Jim Paredes at Duterte Youth na nagpunta sa rally sa EDSA, nagkainitan". (in Tagalog). GMA News — via YouTube.
  184. ^ "#WalkOutPH trends on Twitter as millennials fight for press freedom, human rights". Rappler.
  185. ^ "Oldest alliance of college editors to stage nationwide protests February 23". Rappler.
  186. ^ "Filipino youth lead nationwide 'walkout' for freedom and democracy". Rappler.
  187. ^ "It's red, blue, white for 32nd anniversary of Edsa People Power". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  188. ^ a b c "Duterte to skip Edsa People Power anniversary rites anew". SunStar.
  189. ^ "In Photos: Protesters mark 32nd anniversary of People Power". Rappler.
  190. ^ a b "Roque: 1986 EDSA Revolution not 'fake news'". Archived from the original. Rappler
  191. ^ a b "'Today's people power is vote power'". The Philippine Star. It (Duterte administration) has denied that the fake charges filed against me were in retaliation for my opposition to Duterte’s bloody drug war. It has denied that the unconstitutional ouster of chief justice Maria Lourdes Sereno was Duterte’s handiwork. It has denied that the revocation of Sen. Sonny Trillanes’ amnesty and the revival of his criminal cases are politically motivated. It has denied that Sister Patricia Fox was deported in order to stop her active involvement in human rights work in the Philippines,” added the senator.
  192. ^ a b "LOOK: Supporters of opposition flock to Edsa to remember People Power". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  193. ^ "Final public screening of 'Citizen Jake' set ahead of People Power anniversary". Rappler.
  194. ^ "Watch Kangkungan on Vimeo".
  195. ^ "WATCH: Mike de Leon hits Duterte in short film 'Kangkungan'". Rappler.
  196. ^ "Mga dumalo sa paggunita ng ika-33 anibersaryo ng EDSA people power revolution, mas kaunti raw" (in Tagalog). GMA News – via YouTube.
  197. ^ a b c "Aquino attends EDSA rally; breaks silence on measles outbreak". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube. Note: Go to 0:32–0:37 for Duterte in the projector.
  198. ^ "Don't be fooled twice, ex-President Aquino warns Filipinos". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  199. ^ "Duterte skips Edsa People Power rites for the third time". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  200. ^ a b "Otso Diretso sets debate vs Hugpong slate on EDSA revolution anniversary". The Philippine Star.
  201. ^ "Hugpong ng Pagbabago bets no show at Otso Diretso's debate invite". The Philippine Star.
  202. ^ "Fewer Labor Day protesters show up than what PNP had expected in Metro". Manila Bulletin.
  203. ^ a b "TV Patrol: Mga protesta sa Labor Day, sumentro sa panawagang wakasan ang 'endo'" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  204. ^ a b c "Labor groups dismayed by signed 'employer-backed' EO vs endo". Rappler.
  205. ^ "Duterte signs EO protecting workers' right to security of tenure". Manila Bulletin. Archived from the original.
  206. ^ "'Walang silbi': Labor groups reject Duterte's EO vs endo". Rappler.
  207. ^ "Labor groups hit Duterte: Where's signed EO vs contractualization?". Rappler.
  208. ^ "Duterte's EO vs 'endo' draws mixed reactions". The Philippine Star.
  209. ^ a b "Labor Day protest ikinakasa ng mga grupo". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  210. ^ a b c "8,000 workers gather for Labor Day rallies". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved May 1, 2019.
  211. ^ a b c d "Aksyon Primetime | May 1, 2019". News5 – via YouTube. Note: Skip at 17:39 for protests and 30:15 for the 2019 senatorial candidates. (30:21) "Ang labor leader na si Leody de Guzman, binatikos ang mga batas na pinasa ng mga nagdaang Senador tungkol sa sahod ng mga manggagawa."
  212. ^ a b "Senate, party-list bets vow to fulfill Duterte's 'broken promises' for workers". ABS-CBN News.
  213. ^ "Duterte heckled as he leads Independence Day rites in Cavite". CNN Philippines. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  214. ^ "Protesters disrupt Duterte's Independence Day speech in Cavite". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  215. ^ "Duterte heckled during Independence Day 2018 rites". Rappler. Retrieved June 12, 2018.
  216. ^ @ABSCBNNews (June 12, 2018). "Bayan Southern Tagalog member Francis Rafael was arrested for "interrupting public order" while Pres Duterte delivered his speech during the 120th Independence Day Celebration at Aguinaldo Shrine in Kawit, Cavite when he shouted "Huwad na Kalayaan!"" (Tweet) – via Twitter.
  217. ^ "Malawakang kilos protesa ihihahanda na ng iba't-ibang grupo sa araw ng SONA" (UNTV News and Rescue via YouTube).
  218. ^ "Protesters hit Duterte's 'wrong regularization'". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  219. ^ "Groups prepare for SONA protests". CNN Philippines.
  220. ^ "NTG: Mga militante, nagkikilos-protesta na vs. administrasyong Duterte; may mga dala ring effigy" (in Tagalog). GMA News — via YouTube.
  221. ^ "Protesters at 2nd Sona not as friendly". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  222. ^ "300 'Lumads' join protest during Duterte's 2nd Sona". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  223. ^ "Anti-Duterte protesters, nagsagawa ng candle lighting vigil sa Batasan Hills, QC" (UNTV).
  224. ^ "Bandila: Duterte, hinarap ang mga raliyista matapos ang SONA" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  225. ^ "Look: Opposition solons to wear 'protest barongs' for People's SONA". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  226. ^ "lang miyembro ng oposisyon, nakiisa sa 'Misa para sa bansa". ABS-CBN News.
  227. ^ "Over 6,000 cops, 600 soldiers to secure 2018 SONA". Rappler.
  228. ^ "Thousands join protests against Duterte's SONA". UNTV News and Rescue. Retrieved July 25, 2018.
  229. ^ "In Photos: Thousands hold SONA 2018 protests around PH". Rappler. Retrieved July 24, 2018.
  230. ^ "List: SONA 2018 activities, protests". Rappler.
  231. ^ "Watch: Bayan Muna southern Tagalog rallyists burn "Dutertemonyo" effigy. | via Mon Jocson". UNTV News and Rescue – via Facebook.
  232. ^ "'Duterte-monyo': Protesters parade effigies depicting Duterte as evil". ABS-CBN News.
  233. ^ "Activists protest killings, rising prices ahead of SONA". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  234. ^ "SONA 2018: Women's groups to protest in thousands against Duterte". UNTV News. Retrieved July 23, 2018.
  235. ^ "Rallies in Bicol mark Duterte's 3rd Sona". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  236. ^ "Look: Pro-Duterte groups from Caloocan City are set to march to Batasan Road for their program. | via Aiko Miguel". UNTV News and Rescue – via Facebook. Archive from the original.
  237. ^ "Palace not threatened by Sereno's call for anti-Duterte protests". Philippine Canadian Inquirer.
  238. ^ "Palace unfazed by Sereno's call for anti-Sona rally". SunStar. Archived from the original on July 16, 2019. Retrieved July 17, 2019 – via Yahoo! News.
  239. ^ "Thousands join national protest to remind Filipinos of Marcos' Martial Law". Rappler.
  240. ^ "In Photos: From Luzon to Mindanao, a day of protest vs return of martial law". Rappler
  241. ^ a b "Palace issues proclamation on National Day of Protest". Manila Bulletin.
  242. ^ "Only gov't work, classes in public schools are suspended on Sept. 21". Manila Bulletin.
  243. ^ "Duterte officially declares September 21 as 'National Day of Protest'". SunStar Philippines.
  244. ^ "Sept. 21 National Day of Protest—Duterte". The Standard.
  245. ^ a b "Watch | National Day of Protest: Activists warn against emergence of dictatorship". News5.
  246. ^ ""Those who do not learn history are doomed to repeat it." Really?". Big Think.
  247. ^ "Update: PH holds 'National Day of Protest'". The Manila Times.
  248. ^ a b "Pro-Duterte, anti-Martial Law groups engage in chant battle on Mendiola". Rappler.
  249. ^ "BT: Mga tagasuporta ni Pres. Duterte, may kilos-protesta rin" (in Tagalog). GMA News — via YouTube.
  250. ^ "Schedule: 46th Martial Law anniversary protests, activities". Rappler. Retrieved September 21, 2018.
  251. ^ "SONA: Paggunita sa ika-46 anibersaryo ng martial law, idinaan ng mga militanteng grupo sa protesta" (in Tagalog). GMA News. Retrieved September 24, 2018 – via YouTube.
  252. ^ a b "Bandila: Anibersaryo ng batas militar ni Marcos, ginunita sa Luneta" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube. Note: View from 0:15–0:27 for the bucket being toppled. (At the start of the video) "Julius, nagsimula ang tensyon ng punahin ang ilang dumalo sa rally ang isang litrato na inilagay sa higanteng tumbang preso. Kinuwestyon ng mga lalaki kung may mukha ni dating Pangulo [Benigno] "Noynoy" Aquino sa mga pinatutumbang timba na may mga mukha rin nina Pangulong Marcos, Arroyo, at Duterte. Hiniling ng mga lalaki na alisin ng timba na may mukha ni Aquino bilang respeto. Ayon sa grupong Dakila, pinaliwanag nila sa mga lalaki na hindi pa rin kasi umano natutugunan ang mga problema sa Pilipinas kahit magbago ang namumuno."
  253. ^ "#OccupyBulacan - Urban poor group vows to continue barricade in gov’t housing projects".
  254. ^ "Urban poor group continues to occupy Bulacan housing projects". UNTV. Yahoo! News. Kadamay said this is to protest against the failure of the Duterte administration and the housing and urban development coordinating council to provide decent shelters for the poor.
  255. ^ "1,000 Kadamay members want rights in Pandi". Manila Standard.
  256. ^ "Bandila: Protesta ng Kadamay sa NHA, naging marahas". ABS-CBN News - YouTube.
  257. ^ "Duterte lets Kadamay have Bulacan homes". ABS-CBN News.
  258. ^ "Kadamay, nag-rally sa ombudsman bago ang Labor day". News5.
  259. ^ "Miyembro ng Kadamay, naaktuhang gumagamit ng droga". News5.
  260. ^ "Bandila: Martial law sa Mindanao, sinalubong ng protesta sa Mendiola". (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube. (At 1:00) "Naniniwala sila na kasabay ng pagpatupad dito, lalong magdaragdagan ang kaso ng human rights violation."
  261. ^ a b (At 0:01-0:22) "Kinalampag ng iba't ibang grupo mula Mindanao ang Gate 2 ng Camp Aguinaldo para kondenahin ang pagdeklara ni Pangulo Rodrigo Duterte ng martial law sa Mindanao... maipahayag lang ang kanilang saloobin, lalo na sa pagkamatay ng mga inosenteng sibilyan dahil sa bakbakan." / (At 1:11) "Tingin ni Rosales, imbes na makatulong, baka lalo pang lumala ang sitwasyon. / Etta Rosales: " testing the popularity... his popularity right now... he will still be supported by the people. Nilalabas niya ang kahayupan sa mga tao para ipagpatuloy yung batas miliatar." – "TV Patrol: Martial law, ipinrotesta ng ilang grupo"
  262. ^ (0:03- ) "Bahagyang naantala ang sesyon kaugnay sa extension ng martial law. Nang makapasok ang walong militante sa plenaryo, agad silang dinakip at dinala sa Camp Karingal. Maliban naman sa haba ng martial law declaration, tinanong din ng mga mambabatas kung wala anumang nangyari paglabag sa karapatang pantao." / Chito Gascon: "We have been receiving some reports that we are now validating from the victims in the evacuation areas... / "Bagay na agad sinagot ni AFP Chief Eduardo Ano." / Eduardo Ano: ...we are very sensitive on the sentiments and feelings of the people of Mindanao particularly Marawi." – "TV Patrol: Sesyon sa martial law extension, binulabog ng protesta"
  263. ^ Viray, Patricia Lourdes. "Congress approves one-year martial law extension in Mindanao".
  264. ^ "Bandila: Pagpapalawig ng batas militar sa Mindanao, inulan ng protesta". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs — via YouTube.
  265. ^ "Bagamat inaasahan na nila lung papaano boboto ang mga Kongresista, di parin makapaniwala ang mga Lumad, magsasaka at manggagawa na pumunta pa sa Maynila para tutukan ang botohan. Matapos na ma-shock sa dami ng bumoto para sa extension halos mapaiyak sa galit si Lilia... – "TV Patrol: Ika-3 extension ng Mindanao martial law sinalubong ng protesta"
  266. ^ "‘Revolutionary government’ meant to establish Duterte dictatorship". UNTV News.
  267. ^ "Watch: Declare revolutionary government, supporters urge Duterte". Rappler.
  268. ^ a b "Palace: Duterte rejects revolutionary gov't but supporters can hold peaceful rally".
  269. ^ "Dalawampu't taong ng empleyadong si Melody (...) sa isang kompanyang na nag-eexport ng prutas mula sa Compostela Valley. Pero, hanggang ngayon, hindi pa rin siya regular na empleyado ng kompanya. ..." / "Elmer Labog: Hindi aalis ang aming kasamahan hangga't hindi magkakaroon ng pag-uusap sa Malakanyang... hindi lamang yung regularisasyon, hindi lamang tataas ang sahod, kundi ang pagtigil sa tumitinding militarisasyon dahil sa kalagayan ng Batas Militar sa Mindanao." "Bandila: Ilang labor groups, magsasagawa ng protesta sa Bonifacio Day". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  270. ^ a b "Itinanghal bilang hari ng bilang hari ng militanteng manggagawa si Pangulong Duterte, pero hari anila ng pagpahirap sa sambayanan. Galit na binitbit ng mga ito ang effigy ni "Haring Duterte" ang iba, hawak ang mga maso, Katipunero't Kapitupera ang asta ng mga ito. Mula España, nagmartsa sila papuntang Mendiola at pagdating doon, inupakan ang Duterte effigy." (Duterte effigy being destroyed at 0:27-0:32) / (At 0:54) " isang kanta naman itinodo ng mga rallyista ang kanilang galit." (Singing to the tune of "Despacito" at 0:58–1:08) (TV Patrol: Pagdami ng Chinese workers, isa sa isyu sa Bonifacio Day)
  271. ^ a b "Press freedom wears black in media rallies". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  272. ^ "Palace: 'Black Friday' protest shows freedom, democracy alive". Philippine Star (January 19, 2018).
  273. ^ "Journos, militant groups join ‘Black Friday’ protest". SunStar Philippines
  274. ^ "Bacolod media, groups join 'Black Friday' call to uphold press freedom". Rappler.
  275. ^ "SEC cancels Rappler's license to do business". CNN Philippines
  276. ^ "Group defends Rappler in online libel case". CNN Philippines. Retrieved January 20, 2018.
  277. ^ "Groups protest 'attacks' on press freedom". CNN Philippines.
  278. ^ "Sociologist: Duterte's media criticism has grave implications on news practice". CNN Philippines.
  279. ^ "Rappler sees Malacañang hand in license revocation". CNN Philippines.
  280. ^ "Watch | Black Friday: ‘Bloggers for Freedom’ blast ‘moves to silence, scare’ media as Palace vows maximum tolerance". News5.
  281. ^ a b Gloria Arellano: "Sinasanay na ang mamamayan sa kalakaran ng karahasan at panunupil (The masses are being trained in the ways of violence and silencing of dissent)."
    Leila de Lima: "Wala na talagang tatalo sa kapal ng mukha ni Duterte at ng kanyang rehimen," she said. "Huwag magwalang kibo o magkibit-balikat lang sa hayagang kasinungalingan, kayabangan, at pag-abuso sa kapangyarihan ng rehimeng Duterte. Dahil kung ngayon, Rappler, malamang bukas, ikaw na." ("Nothing will beat the shamelessness of Duterte and his regime. Let us not brush aside the lies, the boastfulness and the abuses of the Duterte regime. If it's Rappler today, it might be you tomorrow.") (Source from CNN Philippines) (Archived from the original).
  282. ^ "Trillanes calls on Senate to defend De Lima, press freedom, right to life". Rappler.
  283. ^ a b c "TV Patrol: 'Black Friday' protest at concert, isinagawa sa UP" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News — via YouTube.
  284. ^ "After Killing Spree, Is a Free Press Mr. Duterte’s Next Victim?". The New York Times. Archived from the [1].
  285. ^ "Media practitioners, bloggers gear up for Black Friday protest in QC". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  286. ^ See the videos of Gadon:
  287. ^ "DZMM TeleRadyo: Third disbarment case filed vs Gadon for screaming expletives" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  288. ^ "Law profs say quo warranto vs. Sereno unconstitutional". GMA News. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  289. ^ "Point by point: Why Supreme Court granted ouster petition vs Sereno". The Philippine Star. Retrieved May 11, 2018.
  290. ^ "ABS-CBN News Livestream: Sereno supporters gather ahead of SC decision on quo warranto plea" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  291. ^ "Mga opisyal ng gobyerno, hati sa pagpapatalsik kay Sereno" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  292. ^ "Diocese of Bacolod lights candles for ousted Sereno". GMA News.
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