Protests against Rodrigo Duterte

Protests against President Rodrigo Duterte began on November 18, 2016, following Duterte's support of the burial of the late president Ferdinand Marcos.[2] These series of protests are mostly conducted by progressive groups and other opposing figures mainly due to the ongoing war on drugs, the declaration of martial law in Mindanao, and employment issues such as contractual terms being applied by companies and inflation which occurred due to the passage of the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Law. Other causes of the protests include the government's response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the country, the passage of the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2020, and the shutdown and franchise denial of ABS-CBN.

Protests against Rodrigo Duterte
Student Rally Protest March 1 Manila.jpg
Protest Mobilization Bonifacio Day 2018.jpg
Defend Press Freedom.jpg
Labor Day May 1 2019 Protest Manila 3.jpg
Water Crisis Rally at MWSS March 15, 2019.jpg
Labor Day May 1 2019 Protest Manila.jpg
12-10-20 International Human Rights Day Protest Manila 2.jpg
EDSA People Power Anniversary Rally 2019.jpg
February 21 Joint Ateneo-UP Student Protests 2.jpg
Congresswomen Sarah Elago, France Castro, Arlene Brosasː Global Day of Action to Free Political Prisoners, December 21, 2020 Commission on Human Rights, QC 4.jpg
Montage of demonstrations and protests against Rodrigo Duterte
DateNovember 18, 2016 – present[note 1]
(5 years, 2 months and 10 days)
Caused byanti-Government




Parties to the civil conflict

(centralized and non-centralized authority)

Main anti-Government protesters:


Other figures:

  • Religious groups
  • Journalists
  • Human rights groups
  • Opposition politicians
  • Peasants
  • Health workers

Passive or joining figures:

  • Fisherfolk (fishermen group)[5]
  • Bahaghari (LGBT group)[6]
  • Celebrities (from February 2020)

Supported by:


Main pro-government protesters:

  • League of Parents of the Philippines[7]
  • Liga Independencia Pilipinas
  • League of Youth for Peace Advancement[8]
  • Hands Off Our Children
  • Former NPA rebels[9]
  • Duterte Youth[10]
  • Yakap ng Magulang[11]
Lead figures
No centralized leadership
Leni Robredo
  • 20,000-100,000 (organizers and media estimate)[12][13]
  • 7,000 (police estimate)
15,000 (2021 peak)[14]
Injuries and arrests
Injuries65+ (both sides)[note 2]
Arrested189+[note 2]

Causes of the protestsEdit

Rodrigo Duterte, the President of the Philippines (2016–incumbent)

War on drugs, extrajudicial killings, and other police-related controversiesEdit

Relatives of drug war and alleged extrajudicial killings victims light the candles to remember the victims.

Duterte began the war against illegal drugs in the country the moment he began his presidency, promising to kill thousands of people involved in the drug trade.[15][16] Human rights violations and the high number of killings have sparked condemnation among local politicians and international human rights and news organizations.[17][18] During the course of the drug war, authorities have mainly targeted drug users from poor communities, but have never caught high-profile drug lords.[19] Despite the deaths in the campaign, Duterte's popularity in opinion polls has remained high.[20]

A coalition named "Manlaban sa EJK" (Manananggol Laban sa Extra Judicial Killings) was formed by lawyers, teachers, and law students in November 2017.[21]

Aside from the war on drugs and extrajudicial killings, there have been forced disappearances under the Duterte administration.[22] with at least 50 cases of enforced disappearance as of August 30, 2020.[note 3] Forced disappearances are commemorated every All Saints' Day by relatives – many of whom have been grieving since the Arroyo administration (as in the case of Sherlyn Cadapan and Karen Empeño in 2006).[22] According to the Asian Federation Against Involuntary Disappearances (AFAD), there have been 1,993 cases of forced disappearances since Marcos regime.[25]

The death toll from war on drugs varies: officials claim that the number of those killed have reached 5,779,[note 4][26] but opposition leaders and human rights workers assert that more than 27,000 have been killed.[note 5][27]

Killings of delos Santos, Arnaiz and de GuzmanEdit

The most notable case of youth casualties during the campaign is the killing of 17-year-old student, Kian Loyd delos Santos, from Caloocan, on August 16, 2017, at the hands of the police.[28] The incident sparked controversy among local politicians and militant groups and triggered massive protest in the country.[29][30] Within two days, two more teenagers, Carl Angelo Arnaiz and Reynaldo de Guzman, were killed. Arnaiz, a 19-year-old teenager, last found in Cainta, Rizal, was tortured and shot dead on August 17 by police after allegedly robbing a taxi in Caloocan.[31] His 14-year-old friend, Reynaldo "Kulot" de Guzman was stabbed to death 30 times and thrown into a creek in Gapan, Nueva Ecija.[32] Along with the deaths of Kian delos Santos, the deaths of the two teenagers also triggered public outrage and condemnation.[33]

Death of River NasinoEdit

River Nasino (July 1, 2020 – October 9, 2020) died in a Manila hospital after suffering from acute respiratory distress syndrome while her mother Reina Mae Nasino was detained for illegal possession of firearms and explosives.[34] A 23-year-old human rights worker, Nasino and two other activists were arrested in Tondo, Manila, on November 5, 2019, and they were detained at the Manila City Jail for illegal possession of firearms and explosives, a non-bailable offense.[35][36] After the court gave the detainee only six hours of furlough (three hours for the wake and another three hours for the burial) to allow her to visit her daughter's wake, a funeral for the baby River was laid on October 14, 2020, in Pandacan, Manila and she was buried on October 16, 2020, at Manila North Cemetery, with the police forces being deployed at the area.[37][38] The baby's death sparked sympathy while the condemnation targeted towards the treatment of Reina Nasino during the baby's funeral and burial, ranging from activists to local celebrities.[39] A simple protest was held on October 17, 2020, to condemn the circumstances of the mother-and-daughter.[40][41]

Paniqui, Tarlac, shooting incidentEdit

Indignation rally in response to Tarlac shooting incident, December 21, 2020, Boy Scout Circle, Quezon City.

Police Senior Master Sergeant Jonel Nuezca shot to death his two unarmed neighbors, Sonya Gregorio and her son Frank, in Paniqui, Tarlac, on December 20, 2020, at 5:10 pm (PST).[42] The incident was reported to the police 20 minutes later and, at 6:19 pm, Nuezca surrendered at the police station in Pangasinan.[42]

The incident started when Nuezca went to investigate the Gregorios who were shooting a boga–an improvised bamboo cannon used as a noisemaker every December. Nuezca tried to arrest Frank, who appeared to be drunk. This led to a heated argument with Sonya, which culminated in Nuezca killing the two by shooting them at close range.[42][43] According to Police Colonel Renante Cabico, director of the Tarlac Provincial Police Office, Nuezca was "off duty" at the time of the incident.[42] The police called the incident an "isolated case."[43]

The incident was captured on video and spread online. Several netizens and celebrities condemned the killings on social media with the hashtags #StopTheKillingsPH, #EndPoliceBrutality, #PulisAngTerorista, and #JusticeForSonyaGregorio dominating on Twitter in the Philippines, as well as in Singapore and Dubai.[44][45] Some critics also pointed at the government over the acts of impunity and human rights abuses in recent years.[46]

An indignation rally was done by numerous groups on December 21, 2020, at the Boy Scout Circle, Quezon City.[47]

Burial of Ferdinand MarcosEdit

Protesters opposing the burial of Marcos.

During his 2016 presidential campaign, Duterte supported the burial of late President Ferdinand Marcos at the Libingan ng mga Bayani in Taguig.[48] On November 8, 2016, the Supreme Court permitted Marcos' burial in a 9–5–1 vote.[49] Marcos was buried at the Libingan ng mga Bayani on November 18.[50]

Phasing out of jeepneysEdit

Jeepney drivers staged a series of protest and strike actions nationwide to oppose the government's plan to phase out the old and dilapidated jeepneys. On October 18, 2017, Duterte said that on January 1, next year, "If you can't modernize that, leave. You're poor? Son of a bitch, go ahead, suffer in poverty and hunger, I don't care."[51] However, Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board (LTFRB) chair Martin Delgra said the next day that Duterte's call was only his "expression of urgency."[52] Its proposal of jeepney modernization will affect 240,000 jeepneys and 80,000 UV Express.[53]

In January 2018, the Inter-Agency Council for Traffic (I-ACT) began apprehending dilapidated and smoke-belching jeepneys in an operation called "Tanggal Usok, Tanggal Bulok".[54][55] This made getting a ride home difficult for commuters,[54] especially students.[56] Commuters expressed on social media their frustration getting stranded due to the apprehension of jeepneys.[56]

The total phaseout of jeepneys was set to be implemented on July 1, 2020.[57][58]

Declaration of martial law in Mindanao and the subsequent extensionEdit

Anti-martial law, anti-imperialist calls by indigenous peoples and Moro people during the Lakbayan 2017

Duterte declared martial law in the whole Mindanao on May 23, 2017, following the crisis in Marawi between Philippine government security forces and militants affiliated with the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), including the Maute and Abu Sayyaf Salafi jihadist groups.[59][60][61] Martial law was extended three times.[62]

Proposed revolutionary governmentEdit

In October 2017, Duterte said that he would declare a revolutionary government against the supposed conspirator of destabilizing the government made by the communist rebels, Liberals and other factions.[63][64] He said to the media that "'Pag ang (if the) destablization ninyo patagilid na at medyo magulo na (would be shaky and more trouble), I will not hesitate to declare a revolutionary government until the end of my term."[64] The next month, he clarified that he would only declare a revolutionary government if "things go out of control."[65] Should the revolutionary government declared, "he would order the security forces to arrest all destabilizers and go on a full-scale war against communist rebels."[63] Duterte draws criticism from the opposition, stating that the declaration is a beginning of the stage towards his dictatorship.[66]

On the last week of August 2020, several Duterte supporters revived the calls for revolutionary government amid the rising cases of COVID-19 pandemic in the country.[67] President Duterte himself denied the involvement of pushing the revolutionary government.[68]

Planned revocation of RapplerEdit

On January 11, 2018, the Securities and Exchange Commission of the Philippines (SEC) revoked Rappler's certificate of incorporation over Rappler's use of Philippine Depository Receipts (PDRs). It said that the provisions of the PDR issued to Omidyar Network by Rappler gave the American investment firm control over the local media firms' other PDR holders as well as its corporate policies, which the SEC says is a violation of the Constitution's provisions on foreign ownership and control.[69] Rappler claimed that it was 100% Filipino owned and that Omidyar only invests in the media firm.[70] Despite the certificate revocation, SEC stated that Rappler could still operate since their decision was not final, pointing out that the media firm could also challenge the decision before the Court of Appeals within 15 days.[71] Malacañang Palace also suggested that Rappler authors can still continue to publish on their website as bloggers.[72] On February 28, Omidyar Network donated its Rappler PDRs to the editors and executives of Rappler.[73]

On February 13, 2019, Rappler CEO Maria Ressa was arrested by National Bureau Investigation (NBI) for cyber libel upon the orders of the Manila Regional Trial Court Branch 46, "alleged that her right to due process was violated."[74] Ressa is known for her criticism against Duterte's war on drugs.[75] The arrest of Ressa sparked condemnations from the international journalists and local groups, who slammed the Duterte administration by saying that the action is "clearly part of the administration's attack on press freedom."[76] Duterte denied his involvement of her arrest.[77]

Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Law (TRAIN law) and the subsequent inflationEdit

Duterte signed the Tax Reform for Acceleration and Inclusion Law, also known as TRAIN law, on December 19, 2017, that lowers personal income taxes while increases the price of fuel, cars, coal and sugar-sweetened drinks.[78] On the first half of 2018, several groups staged the protests against TRAIN LAW, which the group blamed it for increasing basic goods and oil prices.[79] TRAIN law also had the impact to the store owners due to increasing prices.[80] On May 24, 2018, a coalition called "Stop Train Coalition" launched the signature that needed at least a million signatures to junk the TRAIN law.[80] Since the passage of TRAIN law, the country's inflation dramatically increased with the peak of 6.2% in October 2018,[81] the highest rate since nine years.[82]

Charter ChangeEdit

Constitutional reform in the Philippines, also known as Charter Change (colloquially Cha-Cha),[83] refers to the political and legal processes needed to amend the current 1987 Constitution of the Philippines. Under the common interpretation of the Constitution, amendments can be proposed by one of three methods: a People's Initiative, a Constituent Assembly or a Constitutional Convention.[84][85][86]

The efforts to attempt the amend the 1987 Constitution was done since the administrations of Ramos, Estrada, and Arroyo.[87] In Duterte administration, the attempts was done in early 2018 but it failed due to strong opposition from the Senate.[88] In early January 2021, the discussion about charter change was revived.[89]

Employment issuesEdit

Labor Day 2018 mobilization

Several militant groups have mainly concerned over the contractualization being applied to the workers in the country. Contractualization defines "a practice where a company hires contractual workers only when is necessary" while "endo" (end of contract) "refers to the scheme that corrupt companies exercise to abuse their workers."[90][91] The above-mentioned was heavily opposed by the labor groups as they urged Duterte to sign executive order (EO) that will regulate contractualization.[92] According to Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque, the EO will be possibly signed on May 1, Labor Day.[93] However, on April 19, Labor Secretary Silvestre Bello III confirmed that there will be no longer an executive order, and, instead, the Congress will be the one to pass it.[94]

Removal of Sereno by the Supreme CourtEdit

Ousted Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno (left) addresses her crowd of supporters after her peers in the Supreme Court voted to oust her based on the solicitor general's quo warranto petition on May 11, 2018

Demonstrations[95] staged by the supporters of Supreme Court Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno occurred, following her impeachment process filed against her[96][97] and her subsequent indefinite leave.[98][99] The main reasons for the impeachment proceedings, according to the complainant, lawyer Larry Gadon, was that Sereno allegedly failed to declare her Statement of Assets, Liabilities and Net worth (SALN) and was also responsible for tax misdeclarations and unauthorized expenses.[100]

Shootings of Marcelito Paez, Mark Ventura, and Richmond NiloEdit

On December 4, 2017, Marcelito Paez was killed by unidentified assailant while driving his Toyota Innova in Jaen-Zaragoza Road in Jaen, Nueva Ecija. Human rights organization Karapatan condemned the killing of Paez.[101] Before his death, Paez helped for the release of the political prisoner Rommel Tucay, who was detained in Cagayan jail.[102]

On April 29, 2018, a 37-year-old priest Mark Ventura was shot dead by riding-in-tandem assailants after saying Sunday mass in Gattaran, Cagayan. Authorities said that Ventura was blessing the children and talking to the choir members when the assailants shot him.[103] The CBCP, Senator Francis Pangilinan, and Anakbayan condemned the murder of Ventura, with Anakbayan calling it "fascistic, tyrannical, and mafia-style rule" by the Duterte administration.[104] On May 1, Manila Archbishop Luis Antonio Tagle denounced the killing, saying in Tagalog, "Isn't he a gift from God? Is it that easy now to kill and throw a person away?"[105] On May 3, the Ventura's family and the Cagayan Valley police announced a P300,000 reward for information on the suspected killers.[106]

On June 10, a priest, Richmond Nilo of the Diocese of Cabanatuan, was gunned down by unknown assailants as he was preparing for evening mass at a small chapel in Zaragoza, Nueva Ecija on June 10, 2018, at 6:05 pm.[107][108] Following the murder, the Philippine National Police said that they tagged at least five suspects in connection with the killing of Nilo. One of the suspects linked to the murder, Adell Roll Milan—an altar boy at the church,[109] was arrested by the police on June 14.[110] PNP chief Oscar Albayalde identified him as a resident of Barangy Malapit, San Isidro, Nueva Ecija.[111] The police retrieved surveillance cameras; one showing the two men riding in the motorcycle in a road near the chapel moments before the crime, and another one showing a third suspect who served as lookout while two others were seen in a getaway vehicle.[112] Another CCTV footage, timestamped 5:09 pm, shows Milan is seen riding his motorcycle outside T. Ador Dionisio National High School, roughly 25 kilometres (16 mi) from the church.[113] However, Elena Matias, grandmother of Milan, during the interview with Rappler, said that the police (wearing only civilian clothes) wrongly arrested him as they did not introduce themselves, and did not present any warrant of arrest.[113][114] The distance between Milan's house and the small chapel is just at least 25 kilometers away. Matias also said that neither she nor her grandson had knowledge of the killing.[114]

Larry Gadon, Milan's lawyer, believes that he is a fall guy. Milan's childhood friend, Nelson John Oreo, claimed that he was with Milan 4:00 to 8:30 p.m. on the day when the priest was killed.[109]

Several members from religious sectors, such as CBCP, and opposition politicians, have directly pointed the finger at Duterte,[115][111][116] who is known for his attacks against the church—whom are critical of the administration.[117][118][119]

Another alleged perpetrator of Nilo's murder identified as Omar Mallari, who was arrested by the police on July 2. According to the police, they traced Mallari's whereabouts using the plate number of vehicle which was caught in a CCTV footage when Nilo was killed. Aside from Mallari, they also apprehended the suspect Manuel Torres, while two other suspects, Rolando Garcia and Marius Albis Torres, surrendered. However, some of the suspects remain at large. The police said that, in their affidavits, Mallari and Garcia said that they were paid by Torres a P100,000 to kill the priest.[120] On October 5, another suspect named Bernie Limpio, 36, was arrested during the nighttime buy-bust operation in Maddela, Quirino. During the investigation by the police, they found out that Limpio has an arrest warrant for the Nilo case.[121]

Oplan TambayEdit

In mid-June 2018, Duterte launched the Oplan Tambay campaign against loiterers (Tagalog: tambays) who violate city ordinances against smoking in public places, drinking liquor on the streets, and going shirtless in public.[122] Within the first week of the campaign, at least 8,000 residents had either been accosted or apprehended for violating the rules.[123] By July 29, 2018, the police had arrested 78,359 loiterers in Metro Manila alone.[124]

However, this campaign stirred controversy, notably the case of Genesis "Tisoy" Argoncillo who was allegedly killed by fellow detainees inside the Novaliches Police Station on June 19 after spending 4-days in the detention.[125][126][127]

Protesters rallied against peasant killings under Duterte, including the Sagay massacre

Peasants and activists death/killingEdit

August 16, 2019 protest inside UP Diliman against Negros massacres.

Farmer protesters are among of the opposition figures due to their claim that the military has allegedly killed farmers under the Duterte administration.[128] According to peasant group Unyon ng Manggagawa sa Agrikultura, 213 farmers have been killed under the Duterte regime as of July 2019.[129] The killing of farmers gained national attention when, on October 20, 2018, armed gunmen killed nine farmers inside the sugarcane plantation in Sagay, Negros Occidental.[130] Initially, the police stated that the New People's Army may be "behind" the massacre.[131] However, opposition groups said that the Duterte administration and the military "should be held responsible" for the killings,[132] and another group also condemned Duterte for the killings.[133]

Farmers and other groups protested the continued killing of farmers under Duterte on the anniversary of the 1987 Mendiola massacre that occurred during the Corazon Aquino administration.[134][135]

The Human Rights Watch recorded at least 13 activists who have been killed since Duterte became president as of August 17, 2020.[136] Notable activists who were killed or have died during the Duterte administration include Joseph Canlas – who was arrested on March 30, 2021, for allegedly possessing illegal firearms and explosives and subsequently died from COVID-19 complications on May 11, 2021,[137][138] the 3-month old daughter of Reina Mae Nasino on October 10, 2020,[39] Randy Echanis – who was tortured and killed inside his home in Quezon City on August 10, 2020,[139][140] Zara Alvarez – who was killed in Bacolod on August 17, 2020,[136] Jevilyn Cullamat (daughter of Bayan Muna Representative Eufemia Cullamat),[141] and the nine activists killed during what was called the "Bloody Sunday" police raids on March 7, 2021, in Calabarzon.[142]

Lowering of the age of criminal responsibilityEdit

Students from Ateneo de Manila University protested against the lowering of the minimum age of criminal responsibility

On January 21, 2019, the House committee bill was issued, stating that the age of criminal responsibility will be lowered from 15 to nine years of age.[143][144] However, it was opposed by some advocates including UNICEF and Save the Children,[145][146] local politicians, artists, and celebrities[147] who used the hashtag #ChildrenNotCriminals as the condemnation.[148] Prior to this, it had been planned by congressmen, which was then echoed by President Duterte,[149] to lower the age of criminal responsibility in 2016.[150]

Government action to the South China Sea and West Philippine Sea territorial disputesEdit

The incident at the Reed Bank occurred on June 9, 2019, when a Chinese vessel rammed the Philippine fishing boat, F/B Gem-Ver, which carried 22 fishermen, causing the latter to sink.[151] All of the fishermen were rescued by the Philippine Navy.[151] Several days after incident, Duterte was kept silent about the incident until June 17 when he eventually made a statement, saying that the incident was just the "maritime incident."[152][153] Because of this, it generated public controversy and several militant groups including the fishermen's relatives have desired to impeach Duterte for allowing "China to fish in the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in the West Philippine Sea."[154][5]

In April 2021, the discussions over the issue on West Philippine Sea were revived. Initially, on his 2016 presidential campaign, Duterte vows to "ride a jetski" and "plant" the Philippine flag at the airport built by China in the Spratlys" but on 2017, Duterte said that he would no longer plant the Philippine flag in the Spratly out of respect for China. In July 2016, after Duterte was elected, an arbitral tribunal ruled in The Hague, Netherlands that China's claim to almost the entire South China Sea, of which the West Philippine Sea is part of, was unfounded.[155] On May 9, 2021, Duterte revealed that he was only joking and called those who believed in it "stupid."[156] This triggered criticism from the fishermen and on Twitter, trending the hashtag #DuterteDuwag (#DuterteCoward).[156][157] The issue was criticized throughout by retired Supreme Court Senior Associate Justice Antonio Carpio.[158][159] Senator Manny Pacquiao also joined to criticize Duterte personally, stating that the latter must fulfill his promise to "ride a jetski" and flag the country's flag there.[160]

Good conduct time allowance controversyEdit

In August 2019, the news reports of impending release of former Calauan, Laguna mayor Antonio Sanchez, who was the prime suspect of murders of Eileen Sarmenta and Allan Gomez in 1993 and was convicted in March 1995, was met by outrage across the country.[161][162] After weeks of controversy, the Duterte administration denied the role in releasing of Sanchez and ordered Justice Secretary Menardo Guevarra and Bureau of Corrections chief Nicanor Faeldon not to release him.[163][164] Sanchez remained in prison until his death on March 27, 2021.[165]

The GCTA controversy sparked again in September 2020 when Duterte granted an absolute pardon to Joseph Scott Pemberton,[166] which was justified by his spokesman Harry Roque, who was once a legal counsel for the Laude family.[167] Pemberton killed trans woman Jennifer Laude inside the Olongapo motel in October 2014.[168] On December 1, 2015, Pemberton was convicted of murder, sentenced him to 6 to 12 years in jail.[169] The pardon, which was condemned by the Laude family,[170] sparked outrage in the LGBT community,[171] as well as high-profile personalities from senators[172] to celebrities.[173] The hashtag #JusticeForJenniferLaude landed on the top trending spot in social media, where majority of the posts were critical of Duterte.[174] On September 11, 2020, several LGBT communities held a rally to protest Duterte's absolute of pardon of Joseph Scott Pemberton.[175]

Government response to the COVID-19 pandemic in the PhilippinesEdit

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the first case of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Philippines was confirmed on 30 January. The patient was a 38-year-old Chinese woman from Wuhan, who had arrived in Manila from Hong Kong on 21 January.[176] This triggered social media outrage. The hashtag #OustDuterte trended on Twitter, where some groups blamed the government for "criminal negligence" for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 in the country and the "lack of action" to prevent the coronavirus from spreading.[177][178]

The government's handling of the COVID-19 pandemic was criticized on social media platforms, especially on Twitter: for instance, the NBI's attempt to investigate Pasig Mayor Vico Sotto for allegedly violating the quarantine policy,[179][180][181] the arrest in Quezon City on April 1, 2020, of 20 protesters looking for aid from the local government,[182] Duterte's remarks of ordering to "shoot" the person who violated the quarantine protocols on April 2, 2020,[183][184] the shooting of Philippine Army veteran Winston Ragos by the police at a checkpoint on April 21, 2020,[185] and the controversial birthday party of National Capital Region Police Office Regional Director Maj. Gen. Debold Sinas on May 8, 2020, despite the enhanced community quarantine (ECQ) being implemented at the time.[186][187] The delay in the arrival in the Philippines of vaccines has also been condemned.[188]

ABS-CBN franchise renewal controversy, shutdown and franchise denialEdit

The shutdown of ABS-CBN, the Philippines' largest and leading television network, was met with massive criticism and outcry among local celebrities and television viewers, as well as politicians and militant groups.[189][190] The franchise controversy mainly focuses on the disputes between the Duterte administration and ABS-CBN, which Duterte has criticized for their "alleged biased and unfavorable news coverage" against Duterte, beginning with his presidential campaign in the 2016 Philippine presidential election.[191] Duterte voiced his opposition to the network's renewal of congressional franchise, stating that "I will see to it that you're out."[192] After the National Telecommunications Commission (NTC) and Solicitor General Jose Calida issued a cease and desist order against ABS-CBN,[193][194] the network effectively ceased broadcasting on May 5, 2020.[195][196][197]

Congressional hearings for the new franchise began on May 26, 2020.[198][199] On June 30, the NTC and Calida issued two alias cease and desist orders (ACDO) demanding ABS-CBN TV Plus (and all of its digital channels like Yey! and Asianovela Channel) and Sky Direct to immediately cease all of its operations.[200][201][202] On July 10, members of the House of Representatives, particularly the Committee on Legislative Franchises, voted 70–11 to reject the franchise application of ABS-CBN citing political reasons and several issues on the network's franchise.[203][204] In response, supporters, employees, and personalities of ABS-CBN held a noise barrage in solidarity with the network since July 13, 2020.[205][206]

Anti-Terrorism ActEdit

International Human Rights Day Protest 2020 included calls to junk the Anti-Terrorism Act, dubbed as "Terror Law".

On June 3, 2020, the House of Representatives approved the HB No. 6875 or known as Anti-Terrorism Act.[207] The bill was certified as "urgent" by President Rodrigo Duterte and the aim of passage of the bill is to response to the threat in the country.[208] On the bill, it states that "any law enforcer to arrest and detain without warrant 'a person suspected of committing any of the acts' punishable under the measure for 14 calendar days, extendable by 10 days and "the suspected 'terrorist' can also be placed under surveillance for 60 days, extendable by up to 30 more days, by the police or the military."[209]

However, it was met by massive criticism among politicians, religious organizations, and as well as celebrities: Catholic and Protestant organizations condemned the anti-terror law, stating that "we believe that the anti-terrorism bill will insidiously strip away respect for human rights and other civil liberties".[210] Several lawmakers from Mindanao expressed their alarm over the bill, saying that the bill will only incite violence, instead of ending the terrorism.[211] The Commission of Human Rights (CHR) also expressed concerns over the bill.[212] Vice President Leni Robredo questioned the timing of the passage of the Anti-Terrorism Act of 2020.[213] Various groups held a rally to protest the bill on June 3 and 4, citing that the government will use it to harass, abduct, and silence the critics of the Duterte administration and also arresting the citizens without the warrant.[213][214] Outside the Philippines, American singer Taylor Swift expressed her opposition to the bill through her Instagram story.[215][216] Swedish environmental activist teenager Greta Thunberg also joined the petition against anti-terrorism law.[217]


Red-tagging refers to the malicious blacklisting of individuals or organizations critical or not fully supportive of the actions of a sitting government administration. This blacklisting takes the form of being "tagged" as either a Communist or terrorist or both, regardless of one's actual political beliefs or group affiliations.[218] Such blacklisting is a form of incitement and has pernicious effects on its targets.[219]

The red-tagging, under the Duterte administration, came into light in October 2020 when local celebrities Angel Locsin, Liza Soberano, and Catriona Gray were being "red-tagged" by the military. Locsin, after merely criticizing Congress, was accused of being a terrorist and a member of the NPA.[220] Lt. Gen. Antonio Parlarde Jr. of the National Task Force to End Local Communist Armed Conflict (NTF-ELCAC) urged supporters of the government to refrain from “red tagging” actress Liza Soberano after she appeared on a webinar of GABRIELA, but appeared to have done it himself anyway. Parlarde warned her that engaging with activist groups like GABRIELA would make her end up like activist Josephine Lapira, who allegedly joined the NPA and was killed in an armed encounter with government troops. He also red-tagged several other celebrities who are vocal against the government, such as beauty queen Catriona Gray and actress Angel Locsin.[221] Soberano's camp denounced the "red tagging" of the actress.[222] GABRIELA, with senators Risa Hontiveros and Francis Pangilinan defended Soberano and criticized Parlarde's "red tagging," while the Concerned Artists of the Philippines (CAP) urged the general to retract his statement and apologize to the actress.[223][224]

Duterte's absence from the public eye / #NasaanAngPanguloEdit

Duterte's absence from the public eye during the press briefings in preparation for incoming typhoons (recently typhoons Goni (Rolly) and Vamco (Ulysses)) drew uproar on social media and the hashtag #NasaanAngPangulo (#WhereisthePresident) trended on Twitter.[225][226] As a result, several youths staged a protest to condemn the government's lack of response to the recent calamities and also calling Duterte to step down if he did not heed the demands of the strike.[227][228] Duterte defended his absence, stating that he visited his parents' grave in Davao.[229]

Ironically, the hashtag #NasaanAngBisePresidente (#WhereistheVicePresident) was dominated on Twitter, asking the whereabouts of Vice President Leni Robredo during the onslaught of Tropical Storm Krovanh (Vicky) on December 19, 2020, that brought massive flooding in parts of Mindanao.[230][231]

The hashtag trended once again on April 7, 2021, following Duterte's cancellation of his weekly national address, in which netizens aired their speculations over the president's health and whereabouts.[232] On the same day, Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that Duterte would not deliver his public address due to the rising number of COVID-19 cases.[233]

Termination of 1989 UP-DND accordEdit

The 1989 University of the Philippines–Department of National Defense accord was a bilateral agreement between the Department of National Defense (DND) and the University of the Philippines (UP) that restricted military and police access and operations inside the university.[234][235] The agreement was signed by then-UP President Jose V. Abueva and then-Defense Secretary Fidel V. Ramos following the arrest of Donato Continente, a staffer of The Philippine Collegian and an alleged communist, who was arrested within the premises of the university for his involvement in the killing of US Army Col. James Nicholas Rowe on April 21, 1989.[236][235] As a response, the University of the Philippines held a rally to condemn the termination of the agreement.[237][238]

Other causesEdit

Protests of students along the gates of the Commission on Higher Education.
Different sectors rallied on the issue of water shortage.

Aside from above-mentioned issues, demonstrators also protested other issues such as:

  • Implementation of the K–12 program[note 6][240]
  • Lack of a permanent solution for the rice crisis and the impending rice tariffication law[241][242]
  • Education-related issues such as public universities collecting miscellaneous and tuition fees despite the signing on August 3, 2017, of Republic Act No. 10931 mandating free education in public schools,[243][244] the application for tuition hikes by private schools,[245] and the government's "negligence" to education amid the COVID-19 pandemic.[246][247]
  • Slow response on rehabilitation of Typhoon Yolanda in Tacloban: Typhoon Haiyan, locally known in the country as "Yolanda", made landfall in the country on November 8, 2013, leaving more than 6,300 people dead. Despite the disaster happening during the Benigno Aquino III administration, they displayed caricatures of both Aquino and Duterte, as Duterte promised in the first year of his presidency to fast-track Tacloban's rehabilitation for Yolanda survivors.[248] Five years after the disaster, the survivors protested the government's failed rehabilitation efforts.[249][250]
  • Water shortages and interruptions across Metro Manila: Several households in Metro Manila suffered a major water crisis in 2019. In response to the crisis, few Kabataan members held a rally in front of the National Housing Authority (Philippines) to demand efficient water supply. While the group held Maynilad and Manila Water responsible for the water shortage, protesters also blamed the Duterte government for allowing public services to be operated for corporate profits.[251][252] Duterte would addressed the issue by threatening to terminate the contract with Manila Water and Maynilad amid the water crisis.[253]

Protests against overseas ties with DuterteEdit

Ties with ChinaEdit

Duterte and Xi in July 2018.

Most militant groups decried the ties between President Duterte and China over the occupation of Chinese vessels and the reported harassment of Filipino fisherfolk amid territorial disputes in the South China Sea.[254][255]

On July 12, 2018, tarpaulin banners read "WELCOME TO THE PHILIPPINES, PROVINCE OF CHINA" (with a Chinese translation below the text) were hung on several footbridges in Metro Manila, coinciding with the two-year anniversary of winning the Philippines on its arbitration case against China.[256] It is possible that the tarpaulins were a reference to a "joke" made by Duterte that "the country can be a province of the Asian giant," five months earlier.[256][257] Chinese Ambassador Zhao Jianhua slammed the banners, calling it a "vicious attack" on the "independent foreign policy" pursued by Duterte.[258] Zhao also said that the Philippines "can never be any part of China."[259] The Philippine National Police were investigating the person behind the tarpaulins,[260] but the person was never known.[256] Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that the banners were "absurd" and were made by "enemies" of the government.[260] Opposition lawmakers Bayan Muna Rep. Carlos Zarate and Alliance of Concerned Teachers Rep. Antonio Tinio denied that leftist groups were behind the tarpaulins.[260]

Student-activists from University of the Philippines and Ateneo de Manila University burn the flags of China and US to protest against their encroachment of Philippine sovereignty.

The state visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping on November 19–21, 2018, triggered protests by militant groups, who called him to "go away" in Mandarin.[261] The reason they held a protest was that the Philippines "sold" its territories to China.[261]

Ties with the United StatesEdit

The United States is one of the countries critical to Philippine drug war campaign, in which then-President Barack Obama and U.S. senators condemned and denounced the human rights abuses amid the campaign. Nevertheless, the United States Senate discussed the drug war in late 2016, noting the possibility that U.S. State Department assistance to the Philippines might be used to commit gross human rights violations.[262][263][264] Regardless of the sitting U.S. president, most of the militant groups – particularly left-wing groups – aimed protests at the United States through placards and streamers denouncing "imperialism"[265] and neoliberal policies,[266] with Trump-Duterte effigies displayed on some occasions.[267] Rights groups, activists, and academics have claimed that despite the condemnation, the U.S. continues to fund the war on drugs and Duterte's anti-insurgency program.[268][269] Moreover, they cite the continuation and upholding of such treaties as the Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement (EDCA) as examples of the US breaching Philippine sovereignty.[270] Anti-imperalist group League of Filipino Students also accused Duterte of allowing the entry of American warships and other military equipment as part of the Balikatan exercises in the country.[271]

Amid escalating tension between Iran and the U.S. following the killing of Qasem Soleimani in a drone strike conducted by the United States on January 3, 2020,[272][273] the Philippine government planned to send Philippine military to the Middle East, triggering condemnation and protests by various militant groups on January 10, 2020. According protesters, this plan will put overseas Filipino workers there at risk should the Philippines ally with the U.S.[274]

Donald Trump's visit to the PhilippinesEdit

Activists burn rotating Trump effigy, dubbed as "Fascist Spinner," inspired by the fidget spinner.

Numerous militant groups staged a series of protests from November 9 to 14, 2017, against the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Summit hosted by the Philippines.[275][276] Their call was to ban the visit of U.S. President Donald Trump, who was scheduled to attend ASEAN-related summits as a dialogue partner.[277] According to student leader Elijah San Pedro, this was because Trump seems "to have dragged the Philippines into his war rhetorics against North Korea."[278] Atty. Aaron Pedrosa of SANLAKAS also said that the Mamasapano massacre and the war in Marawi were created by the U.S.-led War on Terror.[278] Karapatan Alliance for the Advancement of People's Rights slammed the Trump administration for "'funding' the administration's war on drugs."[278] The Philippine Coast Guard alleged that protesters attempted to bribe fisherfolk to get them close to the United States Embassy.[279] A group of protesters led by Anakbayan managed to reach the gate of Philippine International Convention Center, despite tight security.[280]

Militant group Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap (Kadamay) also staged protests against Trump.[281][282] A group said that the ₱15.5-billion ($292 million) budget of the ASEAN Summit could have been used for the poor.[281] In addition to images of Trump, protesters also burned images of Australian Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull, Japanese Prime Minister Shinzō Abe, Russian President Vladimir Putin, and Chinese Premier Li Keqiang, whom "protesters said are responsible for the anti-Filipino and imperialistic agenda allegedly promoted by the Duterte administration."[283]

Anti-riot police used water cannons and a sonic alarm to repel activists.[284] Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, led by Renato Reyes, have the Trump's effigy — with four rotating hands shaped into the swastika symbol and President Rodrigo Duterte can be seen behind — burned.[284] Despite being fired at with water cannons, protesters continued to push forward against the blocking police.[285] Twenty members of militant groups were reportedly injured after the clash with the police.[286] Trump arrived in the country on November 12.[287]


Following the burial of Ferdinand MarcosEdit

The protests against Rodrigo Duterte started when late dictator Ferdinand Marcos was buried on November 18, 2016, at the Libingan ng mga Bayani, which was described by the media as a "surprise burial". Remembering the Marcos dictatorship era, thousands of protesters, including well-known personalities and politicians, staged the protests.[288][289][290][291]

Protests organized by religious groupsEdit

The "Walk for Life" was a mass demonstration organized by the Catholic Bishops' Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) protesting the reintroduction of the death penalty and call for an end to killings amid the country's ongoing war on drugs. The event was first announced on late January 2017 by former CBCP President Socrates Villegas, who encourages the Filipino people to join in a said event.[292]

On February 18, 2017, the march gathered approximately 20,000 Filipino Catholics in Manila. The church had led the revolutions that successfully toppled former Presidents Ferdinand Marcos in 1986 and Joseph Estrada in 2001, all of which were held on EDSA.[293] Among those who joined the rally was Senator Leila de Lima, a critic of Duterte who opposes the war on drugs.[294] On February 24, 2018, thousands of people joined at the Quirino Grandstand.[295]

On November 5, 2017, the Catholic Church held a prayer rally and healing mass, dubbed as "Lord, Heal Our Land", held on EDSA, the site of the People Power Revolution, to oppose the extrajudicial killings. The procession was attended by around 3,500 people.[296] CBCP president and Lingayen-Dagupan Archbishop Socrates Villegas said:

Let us ask that our prayers for the country's healing be answered. The November 5 activity has no colors. It will stand for transparency, clarity of vision, purity of heart. We won't be there to shout and hold a rally. We will pray and whisper to Jesus' heart to ask for forgiveness, forgiveness for the country that sinned."[297]

Administration opponent groups such as Movement Against Tyranny and Tindig Pilipinas were present at the event.[297] They clarified that the event was to only express frustration, not the "destabilization."[298] Opposition politicians such as Senators Bam Aquino, Franklin Drilon, Risa Hontiveros[299] and Antonio Trillanes were also present.[296]

People Power Revolution anniversaryEdit

On February 25, 2017, demonstrators celebrated the 31st anniversary of People Power Revolution, an event that led to the downfall of Ferdinand Marcos on the same day of 1986. Opposition figures such as Senators Bam Aquino, Risa Hontiveros, Francis Pangilinan and Franklin Drilon and former President Benigno Aquino III—whom being cheered upon his arrival.[300] Block Marcos Movement arrived at People Power Monument at 9pm and they put a white shovel at the People Power Monument, a goal to exhume Marcos from the grave at the Libingan ng mga Bayani.[300] Former President Fidel V. Ramos expressed his disappointment over Duterte's absence at the event.[301] There was a heated confrontation within the event in which involving the APO Hiking Society member Jim Paredes and some members of Duterte Youth where the former mocked them by raising the Duterte's signature fist. The event was recorded on the phone.[302]

Demonstrators commemorated the 32nd anniversary of People Power Revolution (also dubbed as "People Werpa")[303] on February 25, 2018.[304] According to Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque, Duterte will not attend the event but instead "the President will be in his home province in Davao City".[304] Last year, Duterte also did attend the event.[304] As the day approached, several groups including students, activists, and other opponents held protests against Duterte administration actions.[305] An online poll conducted by Communications Assistant Secretary Mocha Uson, stating "Naniniwala ba kayo na ang 1986 EDSA PEOPLE POWER ay isang produkto ng FAKE NEWS???" ("Do you think the 1986 EDSA People Power is a product of fake news?"), which garnered 84% voted "yes" out of 61,800 respondents.[306] However, Harry Roque said that the event is not 'fake news'.[306]

On February 23, 2019, more than 1,300 supporters of the opposition gathered at the People Power Monument in White Plains to commemorate the 33rd anniversary of People Power Revolution.[307][308] There, they denounced, through the placards, the administration-backed senatorial candidates for 2019 including former presidential aide Bong Go and former Ilocos Norte Governor Imee Marcos.[308] UP Diliman screened the film, Citizen Jake, directed by Mike de Leon and starring Atom Araullo as the title character Jake Herrera, which follows "a journalist whose principles clash with the political interests of his estranged father, a powerful senator."[309] A 5-minute short film entitled Kangkungan,[310] also directed by Mike de Leon, was uploaded on Vimeo, slamming the policies of Duterte.[311]

Opposition figures issued statement ahead of the event: Senator Bam Aquino called on the Filipino people "to air their grievances through the ballot in the May elections." Senator Leila de Lima denounced the persecution of prominent critics of the administration such as her arrest, voiding of the amnesty of Senator Antonio Trillanes, removal of Supreme Court Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno, and the deportation of Sister Patricia Fox "in order to stop her active involvement in human rights work."[307] Vice President Leni Robredo called on the people to break the misconception that the event is merely about the "dilawans" (transl. "yellows", a derogatory term for Liberal Party supporters and other government critics) and instead remember the anniversary.[312] It was reported that the number of people participated are fewer than the last year.[313]

On February 24, about 600 people gathered at the People Power Monument.[314] Among the attendees were former President Benigno Aquino III and supporters of opposition senatorial candidates from Otso Diretso. Footage of Duterte's expletive speeches were projected on stage.[314] In his speech, Aquino broke the silence on the Dengvaxia controversy and the measles outbreak.[314][315]

On February 25, Duterte, as in previous years, again did not attend the event.[316] Otso Diretso had challenged Hugpong ng Pagbabago candidates to a debate on this date.[317] Davao City Mayor Sara Duterte said that the Hugpong candidates agreed to attend the debates.[317] However, none of the Hugpong candidates were present at the event.[318]

On February 22, 2020, ahead of 34th anniversary, demonstrators gathered at the People Power Monument to protest how Duterte is allegedly "allowing China to breach Philippine sovereignty" and called for Duterte to resign from office.[319] On February 24, a group of artists projected their graffiti depicting a wanted poster of Duterte on the walls of Philippine National Police.[320] The PNP condemned the digital graffiti, stating that the People Power Revolution "makes it totally deplorable."[321] On February 25, on the day of the anniversary, several people attended the event, including former Vice President Jejomar Binay and former Senators Rene Saguisag and Serge Osmeña.[322] Nevertheless, organizers had projected fewer attendees due to the outbreak of COVID-19 in the country.[323] Attendees expressed their resentment at how the country seems to have forgotten the historical significance of the event, such as the restoration of rights and freedoms after the revolution.[324] At the EDSA Shrine, members of Tindig Pilipinas wore yellow face masks at the event.[324] In Dagupan City, yellow ribbons were tied to utility poles, bridges, and fences.[324]

On the anniversary of the People Power Revolution in 2021, several demonstrators marched toward the People Power Monument. Police arrested a member of Migrante International, who allegedly ran to evade a bag inspection. The protester's bag merely contained vegetables. His arrest was condemned by Migrante Philippines.[325] Demonstrators who encouraged Davao City Mayor Sara Duterte to run in the 2022 presidential election held a motorcade at EDSA and stopped at the Shrine.[326][327]

Labor Day protestsEdit

Labor Day 2019 protest

On May 1, 2018, about 20,000 protesters[note 7] clad in red shirts gathered at Mendiola for the much awaited of "endo" termination, featuring Duterte's effigies.[329][330] Duterte signed the executive order about ending of end-of-contract scheme or "endo".[331] However, what Duterte signed about is for the employers not the workers — not the EO they had drafted,[332] much to the dismay of the labor groups.[330] Before that, Duterte promised on February to signed the EO but it was postponed to March 15[333] and then on April 16.[94][330] The signed EO garnered mixed reception from various groups.[334] Therefore, labor groups vowed to hold a larger protest until the contractualization is ended.[329]

On April 30, 2019, few members of Tindig Pilipinas gathered at the headquarters of Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) to protests the "increasing" Chinese workers in the country.[335]

On May 1, 2019, several militant groups held the rally on Labor Day, condemning the government's failure of "endo", TRAIN Law and demanding the salary increase and the minimum wage increase to Php 750.[335][336][337] According to the Philippine National Police, about 8,000 people attended the rally.[336] Like the previous events, the groups featured an effigy of Duterte.[337] Some labor groups have gathered at the Mendiola Bridge as early as 6 a.m. and then marched across the streets in Metro Manila; the program ended at 5 p.m.[336] Other figures such as 2019 senatorial candidates Leody de Guzman, Sonny Matula, Allan Montaño, Lawin Arellano, and Neri Colmenares also there at the rally; de Guzman criticized the way of passing the workers' salary law by the previous seated Senators.[337] Colmenares and Matula urged the Filipino people to "elect someone like them in the Senate who would push for pay hike and put an end to contractualization."[338] Otso Diretso candidates Bam Aquino, Chel Diokno and Erin Tañada also attended the rally at the Welcome Rotonda.[338] Two Australian tourists also joined the rally, though the joining of the foreigners at the political rally is a violation of Immigration law in the country.[337]

In 2020, due to COVID-19 pandemic, the militant did not held the rally on the streets; instead the groups held a rally via online.[339]

The pamphlets, criticizing Duterte and encouraging to join the Labor Day protest to oust Duterte from office, were distributed by the labor groups on April 20, 2021, at the community pantries.[340] On May 1, 2021, several groups were prevented by the police to reach Mendiola Street, reminding them that they must follow the minimum health standards amidst the implementation of Modified Enhance Community Quarantine (MECQ) in Metro Manila.[341] According to the Kilusang Mayo Uno, the police barricaded Liwasang Bonifacio early, thereby the group did not held the program there. Instead, the groups held a rally at the Welcome Rotonda. There, they called for wage increase and P10,000 (approximately US$207 in 2021) aid for those who affected by the pandemic.[341] Some protesters, including Bishop Broderick Pabillo, held a rally via online.[341] They also featured Duterte's effigy with the mock flags of China and United States; the effigy was then destroyed by the protesters with their wooden sledgehammer.[342]

Independence Day (June 12) protestsEdit

On June 12, 2018, President Duterte's speech in Kawit, Cavite was interrupted when 10 demonstrators chanted "Hunyo 12, huwad na kalayaan! Duterte patalsikin, pasista biguin!" (transl. "12th of June, a false independence! Duterte must be ousted, the fascist must be defeated!") Duterte remained calm and saying that "the protesters' right to express their thoughts and feelings."[343][344][345] One of the demonstrators was arrested for “interrupting public order”.[346]

Duterte's State of the Nation AddressEdit

The protests during the State of the Nation Addresses of Rodrigo Duterte were held every 4th of Monday of June.

Anniversary of the 1972 martial law declarationEdit

Supporters of Duterte gathered at the front of the Quiapo Church during the National Day of Protest. They claimed that 12,000 had attended the event.[347]

On September 21, 2017, nationwide protests — also known as the "National Day of Protest" — were conducted by various groups against the government's implementation of the war on drugs and the ongoing state of martial law in the whole of Mindanao under the Duterte administration, as part of the commemoration of the 45th anniversary of the declaration of martial law in 1972 by the late President Marcos.[348][349] As the day of protest approaching, Malacañang Palace released Duterte's Proclamation No. 319 and Memorandum Circular no. 26 on this day.[350] A Memorandum Circular no. 26 states that government offices and public schools at all levels are suspended.[350] Duterte said that he will not condone any means of violence which is committed by protesters.[351][352] Duterte even dared the communist New People's Army "to bring the protests to Manila, because he vowed not to arrest them."[353]

Protesters at Mendiola

Left-wing activists and opposition of Duterte accused him of abuses and authoritarianism similar to that of Marcos.[354] Vice President Leni Robredo states that "If we do not remember the past, we are condemned to repeat it. Sadly those who are deceived do not even know that they are walking a doomed path."[note 8][354] In Plaza Miranda, about 500 pro-Duterte rallyists occupied in front of the Quiapo Church.[356] Teddy Casiño said to Duterte that "he is the subject of the protest," after the latter declares September 21 a day of protest.[357] Pro and anti-Duterte rallyists also engaged in chant battle.[357] A group of pro-Duterte supporters are seen elsewhere in the city, calling to stop the "destabilization," which is rumored to be made by the opposition.[358] The protesters also adapted the Tagalog version of "Do You Hear the People Sing?".[359]

On September 21, 2018, nationwide protests were conducted, marking the 46th anniversary of Martial Law. These protests were mainly conducted by several groups such as Youth Act Now Against Tyranny and Bagong Alyansang Makabayan.[360] They also featured the caricatures of Duterte, along with former president and newly installed House Speaker Gloria Macapagal Arroyo and Ferdinand and Bongbong Marcos. Also, removed Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno also present at the event. Liberal Party members held the event by mass. Meanwhile, pro-Duterte supporters also held the demonstration.[361] Other groups featured a stack of buckets with the pictures of Duterte, the Marcoses, newly appointed Chief Justice Teresita de Castro and other Duterte's cabinet and allies — parodying the milk brand Alaska, which was then being toppled by the slippers.[362] Some protesters had questioned the inclusion of former President Benigno Aquino III's face in the bucket, to which the organizers said that because of unsolved problems in the country. They later removed Aquino's face in the bucket as a respect.[362]

On September 21, 2019, various groups staged the protests to commemorate the anniversary of martial law.[363] Also present are the victims of martial law.[364] Vice President Leni Robredo said that "day should remind Filipinos of their duty to protect the Philippines from regressing into despotic rule."[365] The Liberal Party made a statement that every martial law anniversary "should be a moment to spread the truth."[366] Senator Leila de Lima said that the public and the modern-day youths should be reminded of the difficulties suffered under the martial law during the Marcos rule.[367]

Walkout protest at the University of the Philippines Diliman commemorating the 47th anniversary of the declaration of martial law.

On its anniversary in 2020, several groups held a rally in the streets of Metro Manila with the pictures of Ferdinand Marcos being used as a social distance marker.[368] On September 21, 2021, several groups held a rally to mark the 49th anniversary of the declaration with the confrontation by the police.[369] They were blocked by the police to reach their destination such as Liwasang Bonifacio and Welcome Rotonda.[370]

Pandi housing project protestsEdit

An urban group Kadamay (Kalipunan ng Damayang Mahihirap) started their protests on March 8, 2017, when they occupied the idle houses in Pandi, Bulacan.[371] During the course of the occupation, they slammed the National Housing Authority (Philippines), as well as President Duterte, for not providing decent housing for the poor people.[372] Other groups such as Kilusang Mayo Uno, Bagong Alyansang Makabayan, Makabayan, Gabriela and Anakpawis joined the protests.[373] On March 24, Kadamay protests turns violent when they attempt to break the gate of NHA. One person is injured after breaking the logo of NHA.[374] The protests ended on April 4 when Duterte announced that members of Kadamay may now live in the occupied units, as long as they do not oust police officers and soldiers who currently reside there.[375]

In the aftermath of Pandi occupation, Kadamay gathered at the headquarters of the Office of the Ombudsman, demanding livelihood so that they can pay for the occupied houses.[376] One member of Kadamay was arrested for allegedly using illegal drugs.[377]

Martial law in MindanaoEdit

Following the declaration of martial law in Mindanao on May 23, 2017, protests were held on Mendiola Street, calling for the revocation of the declaration. The groups cited the increase of human rights violation cases because of the course of martial law and they added that martial law is not the solution to the situation happening in Mindanao.[378] On May 29, various groups including Lumad and Moro people and farmers from Mindanao gathered in separate places in Metro Manila to condemn the declaration of martial law and killing of innocent civilians amid the Marawi crisis.[379] Meanwhile, demonstrators from Southern Tagalog marched to Mendiola, and some groups gathered at the Senate. Former Commission on Human Rights (CHR) chairperson Etta Rosales and Albay Representative Edcel Lagman condemned the declaration.[379]

On July 21, 2017, a Senate session on martial law extension was interrupted by eight militant groups, who were immediately arrested. At the session, the lawmakers asked about reports of human rights violations, which were denied by the Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP).[380] On December 13, 2017, Congress granted Duterte's request to extend martial law with a vote of 240–27 (14–4 from the Senate, 226–23 from the House),[381] causing another batch of protests.[382] On December 13, 2018, for the third time, the Senate and the House of Representatives approved President Duterte's request to extend martial law in Mindanao until 2019.[62] This approval triggered the protests, whose participants were from Mindanao; many of whom were shocked and saddened the result.[383]

Bonifacio Day protestsEdit

On November 30, 2017, as part of the celebration of Bonifacio Day, a protest was held, condemning the revolutionary government threat.[384] On the other side, around thousands of Duterte supporters gathered at Mendiola, urging Duterte to declare a revolutionary government.[385] Presidential spokesperson Harry Roque advised the pro-revolutionary government supporters "to conduct their rallies in a peaceful, orderly manner."[386] Harry Roque also said that "The president has earlier said that he does not want a revolutionary government. This, however, does not mean he would prevent citizens from expressing their support for a revolutionary government."[386]

On November 28, 2018, labor groups — some of them are still working as an "irregular" employee at the company for 20 years — staged a protests in Mendiola and they will stay until November 30, Bonifacio Day. Kilusang Mayo Uno chairperson Elmer Labog said that they will not stop demonstrating until Malacañang entertain them about not only regularization and wage increase but also stopping the military presence in Mindanao amidst ongoing martial law.[387] On November 30, 2018, demonstrators marched at Mendiola bringing the effigy of Duterte depicted as king, which was then destroyed by using shovel and dummy sledgehammer.[388] Other groups expressed their anger by singing to the tune of "Despacito."[388]

Bonifacio Day 2018 protest.

On its anniversary of 2019, various groups nationwide staged the protests on Bonifacio Day[389] with the caricatures of Duterte, along with President Donald Trump and Chinese President Xi Jinping, were shown.[390] In 2020, demonstrations was held in the streets of Manila to condemn the red-tagging, anti-terror law and others.[391] They also condemned the death of Jevilyn Cullamat — the daughter of Bayan Muna Representative Eufemia Cullamat, who was killed in a clash in Marihatag, Surigao del Sur with Philippine Army’s 3rd Special Forces Battalion on November 28, 2020.[391][392] Meanwhile, five protesters in Cebu were arrested.[393]

Revocation of RapplerEdit

National Union of Journalists of the Philippines staged a protest, dubbed as "Black Friday Protest for Freedom," in Quezon City and other parts of the country such as Bacolod and Zamboanga City[394] on the evening of January 19, 2018,[395][396][397] following the revocation of online news site Rappler by Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) eight days prior.[398] At the same time, National Bureau of Investigation has issued a subpoena against CEO Maria Ressa, former reporter Reynaldo Santos, and businessman Benjamin Bitanga for violating the anti-cybercrime act.[399] The protest was attended by 300 people, wearing black T-shirts, against the attacks on press freedom by the government.[394][400] Rappler is known to be critical of the Duterte administration.[401] Presidential Spokesperson Harry Roque said that Duterte has no involvement in the SEC's decision.[402] Roque said that the Friday protest "is a testament that freedom is alive and democracy is alive in the Philippines."[403] Nevertheless, the revocation was widely condemned by the opposition figures such as Kadamay chairperson Gloria Arellano,[404] Senators Leila de Lima[404] and Antonio Trillanes — who said that the decision is similar to Duterte's strategy against De Lima's imprisonment for drug charges,[405] National Union of Journalists of the Philippines,[406] Anakbayan,[406] UP Diliman,[406] and the anonymous critic from The New York Times.[407] Other bloggers and journalists were also present at the protest.[408]

Quo warranto petition against SerenoEdit

On April 10, a video showing lawyer Larry Gadon approaches in front of the supporters of Supreme Court Chief Justic Maria Lourders Sereno — who is facing the quo warranto petition — and the blocking police officers several meters away, raises his middle finger and shouts "Mga bobo" (transl. Idiots),[409] prompting the supporters to filed the complaint against Gadon nine days later.[410]

After Solicitor General Jose Calida filed a quo warranto petition against her,[411] the Supreme Court voted for the removal of Sereno from the high court on May 11, 2018, with the votes of 8–6.[412] At the same time, supporters of Sereno gathered at the streets near the Supreme Court.[413] Politicians expressed condemnation of ousting Sereno.[414] In the aftermath of ousting Sereno, a prayer rally and protests was conducted in Bacolod,[415] Katipunan Ave, Quezon City,[416] and even displaying a makeshift coffin that, according to the protesters, symbolizes and mourns the "death of democracy" and the "death of judiciary."[417] Among those who joined the rally were former CHR Chairperson Etta Rosales and Archdiocese of Manila Broderick Pabillo.[418] On May 12, church groups' members announced that they will held the 10-day vigil in front of the Supreme Court.[419]

Members of the religious sectors protested against church persecution on January 25, 2019. They were joined by allied groups.

Transport strikesEdit

Transports groups held a series of strikes on February 6 and 27, leaving hundreds of commuters stranded.[420][421] As a result of protests, classes in the country were suspended, as well as the government work.[422][423][424] Transport groups resumed the protests on September 24[425] and October 14 to 16.[426]

On September 30, transport groups held a nationwide strike, leaving around 95% of routes in Metro Manila paralyzed.[427][428] According to Jun Magno, president of the Stop & GO Coalition, 87% drivers and operators have participated a strike in Metro Manila.[429] The transport groups claimed success of protesting against the jeepney modernization program countering the claim of MMDA Spokesperson Celine Pialago that their strike was "unsuccessful".[430][431]

Manila underpass vandalismEdit

On the third week of November 2019, the Lagusnilad underpass in Metro Manila was vandalized with the messages of the protest written in a red-colored spray can.[432] This angers Manila Mayor Isko Moreno, who warns that if they caught the person behind this, they have them "lick" on the wall and "you will clean this using your tongue."[433] Moreno lamented that the process of cleaning the writings on the wall will take 15 years before the local government will be able to clean it.[433] The youth group, Panday Sining, a cultural arm of Anakbayan, took responsibility of the vandalism and apologized to the public for "inconvenience", but remains concerned over the ongoing martial law in Mindanao.[434] They added that the group are willing to talk with Mayor Moreno about the matter.[435] The Manila City Hall personnel shortly re-painted in grey over the messages.[434] ACT-CIS Rep. Niña Taduran condemned the vandalism, stating that it is still a crime and the person behind this "deserve to be punished" regardless of the statement by Panday Sining.[436] The Manila Tourism and Cultural Affairs Bureau expressed disappointment over the writings on the wall, stating that the vandalism is not the answer for the amendment of the issues.[432]

Other eventsEdit

Farmer groups celebrated the 32nd anniversary of 1987 Mendiola massacre on January 22, 2019, appealing for land reform. Despite the massacre happened during the Corazon Aquino administration, most militant groups aimed at Duterte through their placards.[134] Opposing the lowering of age of criminal responsibility, a prayer rally was held on January 25, 2019, at Malate, Manila. Among those were present are formers Chief Justice Maria Lourdes Sereno and Social Welfare and Development Secretary Dinky Soliman. The attendees demonstrate through air horn (pump), candle lighting and writing in the freedom wall.[437]

Outside the PhilippinesEdit

Protest against the Philippine war on drugs in front of the Philippine Consulate General in New York City. The protesters are holding placards which urge Duterte to stop killing drug users.

While the protests are mainly held within the country, there are, yet occasionally, protests being held overseas. The first known documented protests aimed directly against Duterte was held in Philippine consulate in New York City on October 11, 2016, condemning the war on drugs.[1] Following the shooting of 17-year-old student Kian delos Santos on August 16, 2017, a massive protests were held in several countries.[438] The state visit of Duterte in Israel was met by the protests on September 4, 2018.[439]


Youth Strike, November 17, 2020, in front of Ateneo de Manila University.

Several students from various universities walked out of their classes to protest the planned jeepney phaseout and ongoing martial law in the Mindanao on February 23, 2018.[440][441] The hashtag #WalkOutPH reached more than 3,000 tweets and at least 2.6 million impressions on Twitter.[442]

On August 20, 2019, students and staff from the University of the Philippines walked out of their classes to protest the military intervention in their campuses.[443]

Because of the continuous clamor regarding government response on COVID-19, negligence over disaster response after Typhoon Ulysses, and concerns regarding the educational situation, students from Ateneo de Manila University, on November 14, 2020, initiated an academic "Youth Strike" demanding Duterte to step down if he did not heed the demands of the strike.[444] Many students from various universities and colleges followed, and was translated into a physical protest on November 17.[227]

Health workers protestEdit

On July 16, 2021, health workers held a protest in front of the headquarters of Department of Health (DOH) where they throw tomatoes at the logo of the DOH.[445] On August 30, September 1 and November 24, 2021,[446] health workers from various hospitals in Metro Manila held a protest at the DOH headquarters over nonpayment salary to their benefits and demanding Duque (and Duterte) to resign over the handling of the COVID-19 pandemic in the country.[447][448][449]

List of protest hashtagsEdit

Aside from in-person protests, critics and opposition of the government also used their social media as a form of protests especially on Twitter, which the critics of the government uses the platform to lambast Duterte for various issues happened in the country.

Hashtag Issues
#OustDuterte / #OustDuterteNow
#StopTheKillingsPH 2020 Tarlac shooting[44][45]
#JunkTerrorBill Anti-Terrorism Act of 2020[452]
#NasaanAngPangulo Typhoons Goni (Rolly)[232] and Vamco (Ulysses)[226]
#DutertePalpak COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines[453]
#DuterteDuwag Territorial disputes in the South China Sea[454]
#DuterteWakasan Goals to oust Duterte from the office[455]

Injuries and arrestsEdit

Date Number of injuries Ref.
March 24, 2017 1 (protester) [374]
November 12, 2017 9 (protesters) [456]
November 15, 2017 50 (police) [457]
July 4, 2021 5 (protesters) [458]
Total 65
Date Number
of arrests
April 3, 2017 80 [459]
July 21, 2017 8 [460]
June 12, 2018 1 [461]
April 1, 2020 21 [462]
June 4, 2020 8 [463]
June 26, 2020 20 [464]
July 4, 2020 11 [465]
July 27, 2020 34 [466]
November 30, 2020 5 [393]
February 25, 2021 1 [325]
Total 189

Opposition accoladesEdit

Recipient Category Year Ref.
Shibby de Guzman 30 Most Influential Teens (Time) 2017 [467]
#BabaeAko movement 25 Most Influential People on the Internet (Time) 2018 [468]

See alsoEdit


Protest against other presidentsEdit


  1. ^ The first known protests occurred at the Philippine Consulate in New York City on October 11, 2016.[1] November 18 is the beginning of massive protests in the Philippines, some directly aim to Duterte.[2]
  2. ^ a b This total number were compiled from various news sources. See the Injuries and arrests section.
  3. ^ Various number of disappearances under Duterte administration differs; Karapatan reported 13 as of August 30, 2020[23] while human rights group Families of Victims of Involuntary Disappearance (FIND) reported 47 as of November 2, 2018.[24]
  4. ^ As of August 31, 2019.
  5. ^ As of December 2018.
  6. ^ K-12 program, officially known as Republic Act (RA) 10533, was approved by then-President Benigno Aquino III on May 15, 2013.[239]
  7. ^ Another source said 6,920 from the police estimate.[328]
  8. ^ Robredo's quote appeared to be derived from the writer and philosopher George Santayana's original quote.[355]


  1. ^ a b "Duterte Shakes Up East Asia's Diplomacy: Is This The Beginning Of A Tectonic Realignment?". The Huffington Post.
  2. ^ a b "Millennials lead protests vs Marcos burial". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 20, 2016.
  3. ^ "Groups ask Makabayan bloc solons to resign; end youth recruitment". Philippine News Agency. December 1, 2020. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  4. ^ "Activists' parents, orgs urge Dutch gov't anew to send Joma home". Maharlika News. September 7, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Fisherfolk group to file impeachment complaint vs Duterte". Rappler. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
  6. ^ See the protests:
  7. ^ "These parents say left-leaning groups kidnapped their kids. Here's the rub". Interaksyon. September 6, 2019. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  8. ^ "Rights body urged to act on communist recruitment of minors". Philippine News Agency. February 29, 2020. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  9. ^ "WATCH: Anti-leftist groups rally as Senate's red-tagging hearing resumes". Philippine Daily Inquirer. November 24, 2020. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  10. ^ "Duterte Youth attempts to rally inside UP; students, school officials block them". Philippine Daily Inquirer. January 26, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  11. ^ "LOOK: Parents make a stand". Manila Bulletin. November 22, 2021. Retrieved January 13, 2022.
  12. ^ "Fact or Fake with Joseph Morong: SONA 2018 Protest Rally, Dinumog o Nilangaw?". GMA News – via YouTube. Note: Pause at 0:20
  13. ^ "Labor Day protest draws close to 100,000". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved May 19, 2021 – via YouTube.
  14. ^ "PNP to deploy 15,000 cops to secure Duterte's final SONA on July 26". UNTV News. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  15. ^ "Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte urged people to kill drug addicts". Associated Press. July 1, 2016. Retrieved July 8, 2016 – via The Guardian.
  16. ^ "Obama throws planned meeting with Philippines leader into doubt…". Reuters.
  17. ^ "European Parliament urges PH: End wave of killings". Rappler.
  18. ^ "Philippines president Rodrigo Duterte tells the EU 'F***you' over his war on drugs". The Independent.
  19. ^ "Philippine leader Rodrigo Duterte says war on drugs 'trivialised' by human rights concerns". ABC News. July 25, 2017. Retrieved July 19, 2019. The crackdown on drugs is the signature campaign that has defined Mr Duterte's presidency and caused an international outcry, with rights groups condemning his administration for a campaign that has overwhelmingly targeted drug users from poor communities, and left narcotics kingpins untouched.
  20. ^ "Duterte to deliver state of the nation address amid protests". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved October 27, 2019. Mr. Duterte took office in June 2016 and has remained hugely popular in opinion polling despite drug war deaths that have sparked international alarm and other controversial policies.
  21. ^ "'MANLABAN SA EJK' | Mga abugado, bumuo ng grupong tumutuligsa sa EJK kaugnay ng war on drugs". News5. Archived from the original on November 5, 2017.
  22. ^ a b See the following reports of desaparecidos:
  23. ^ "OPINION: Disappeared but not forgotten". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved June 16, 2021.
  24. ^ "47 cases of enforced disappearances under Duterte —FIND". GMA News. November 2, 2018. Retrieved September 11, 2021.
  25. ^ "Dateline Philippines: 1,993 'desaparecidos' since Marcos: human rights federation". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  26. ^ "Pamilya ng mga umano'y EJK victim, sigaw pa rin ang hustisya | Bandila" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News. Retrieved November 3, 2019 – via YouTube. Note: Pause at 2:10.
  27. ^ "Duterte's Philippines drug war death toll rises above 5,000". The Guardian. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  28. ^ "Murder, torture raps filed vs. police over Kian's death". CNN Philippines.
  29. ^ "17-year-old student gunned down by cops in anti-drug operations". CNN Philippines.
  30. ^ "17-year-old's death jolts senators to speak vs killings". The Philippine Star.
  31. ^ Placido, Dharel (September 6, 2017). "Duterte to pursue raps vs. cops in Carl Angelo's killing". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  32. ^ Talabong, Rambo (September 6, 2017). "Missing teen last found with Carl Arnaiz found dead with 30 stab wounds". Rappler. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
  33. ^ See the following protests:
  34. ^ "CHR looking into Nasino case, 'deeply concerned' on how gov't is handling it". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  35. ^ "As SC justices debated prisoner release, a baby was born, then died". Rappler. Retrieved October 17, 2020. River Nasino, 3 months old, died on October 9 because of pneumonia. River was born underweight at the Dr Jose Fabella Memorial Hospital on July 1. Her mother, 23-year-old activist Reina Mae Nasino, carried the baby in her womb while detained at the Manila City Jail.
  36. ^ "Arrested in 2019 crackdown, jailed activist gives birth in a pandemic". Rappler. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  37. ^ "Baby River, who died in 'cracks' of justice system, laid to rest under tight police watch". Rappler. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  38. ^ "Activist Reina Mae Nasino attends child's burial at Manila cemetery". The Manila Times. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  39. ^ a b c "Calls to free Reina Mae Nasino, justice for Baby River dominate Twitter trends after funeral tension". News5. Retrieved October 17, 2020.
  40. ^ "Protests". Facebook. Archived from the original on October 20, 2020. Retrieved October 19, 2020.
  41. ^ @manilabulletin (October 16, 2020). "LOOK: Activists call for justice for Nasino and River in a rally outside the Manila North Cemetery. (Camera with flash: Kapatid) | via @MBMinkaTiangco" (Tweet). Retrieved October 19, 2020 – via Twitter.
  42. ^ a b c d "Cop shoots unarmed mother, son over 'boga' in Tarlac". Rappler. Retrieved December 21, 2020. The shooting happened at 5:10 pm then was reported to the Paniqui police station at 5:30 pm. Nearly an hour later, at 6:19 pm, Nuezca surrendered to the Rosales police station in Pangasinan province. Paniqui police picked up Nuezca and now have him in their custody.
  43. ^ a b "Pulis na viral sa pamamaril ng 2 dahil sa 'boga' sumuko; kasong double murder inihahanda". The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  44. ^ a b "Rage and fury over cop's killing of mother and son: 'No license to kill'". Rappler. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  45. ^ a b "Maine Mendoza, Agot Isidro other celebrities concerned over cop's slaying of mother, son". Manila Bulletin. Retrieved December 21, 2020.
  46. ^ Gutierrez, Jason. "A Brazen Police Shooting Caught on Video Sparks Anger in the Philippines". The New York Times. Retrieved December 22, 2020. MANILA — A video of a police officer shooting a woman and her adult son at close range on Sunday has spread rapidly across social media in the Philippines, provoking a wave of outrage directed at the government and a police force that many say acts with impunity.
  47. ^ @altermidya (December 21, 2020). "#StopTheKillingsPH: Activists & concerned citizens cry justice for Sonya & Frank Gregorio and all victims of police brutality and state violence. The groups held an indignation rally at the Boy Scout Circle in QC after a police officer killed the 2 unarmed residents in Tarlac" (Tweet). Retrieved January 7, 2021 – via Twitter.
  48. ^ "Duterte in Ilocos Norte: I will allow Marcos' burial in Heroes' Cemetery". Rappler
  49. ^ Cabacungan, Gil (November 9, 2016). "SC votes, 9-5, for burial of Marcos at Libingan". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  50. ^ Guinto, Joel (November 18, 2016). "Late dictator Marcos buried at Libingan ng mga Bayani". ABS-CBN News and Current Affairs. Retrieved January 8, 2018.
  51. ^ "Duterte to jeepney drivers: Modernize or else…". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  52. ^ "Duterte's deadline to upgrade jeepneys only ‘an expression of urgency,’ Delgra says". Archive from the original. GMA News.
  53. ^ "LOOK: Hordes of commuters wait for a ride as jeepney drivers hold strike". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  54. ^ a b "LTFRB readies city buses for backup amid "Tanggal Usok, Tanggal Bulok" campaign". UNTV News.
  55. ^ "250 PUVs flagged down in campaign vs old vehicles, smoke belchers". Philippine Daily Inquirer — via YouTube.
  56. ^ a b "Bandila: Mga pasahero, walang masakyan dahil sa pagtatanggal ng bulok na PUV" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News — via YouTube.
    Interviews at 0:25-35.
    Student 1: "Medyo, mahirap talaga tapos sumakay talaga."
    Student 2: "..., pasehero yung naapektuhan, at syempre pati yung [mga] drivers."
    Student 3: "Masyado... Konti yung kasi mga jeep."
  57. ^ "Jeepney drivers, operators hold transport strike". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  58. ^ "Transport groups set Black Monday strike". “The way I see it, they’ll be taking away our franchises on July 1 anyway. What's the difference? There is nothing that can stop us,” Magno said.
  59. ^ "Marawi crisis: What we know so far". The Philippine Star. May 25, 2017. Retrieved May 25, 2017.
  60. ^ "Marawi: City destroyed in Philippines' longest urban war". Inquirer News. October 19, 2017. Retrieved October 19, 2017.
  61. ^ "Duterte declares martial law in Mindanao". CNN.
  62. ^ a b "Congress extends martial law in Mindanao to end of 2019". The Philippine Star. Retrieved December 13, 2018.
  63. ^ a b "Can Duterte declare a revolutionary government?".
  64. ^ a b "Rody threatens to declare revolutionary gov't if..." The Philippine Star.
  65. ^ "Revolutionary gov't remark not an outright statement, Duterte insists". The Philippine Star.
  66. ^ "Duterte: What revolutionary govt?". The Manila Times.
  67. ^ Bondoc, Jarius. "RevGov being revived amid queries on Duterte isolation". The Philippine Star. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
  68. ^ "Duterte denies hand in calls for RevGov". Philippine News Agency. Retrieved August 30, 2020.
  69. ^ "SEC revokes Rappler's certificate of incorporation". GMA News. January 15, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  70. ^ "Rappler's incorporation papers revoked by SEC". ABS-CBN News. January 15, 2018. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  71. ^ Cabuenas, John Viktor (January 15, 2018). "Rappler can still continue operating, says SEC". GMA News. Retrieved January 17, 2018.
  72. ^ "Rappler reporters may continue to cover beats as 'bloggers' - Palace …". January 18, 2018. Archived from the original on January 18, 2018.
  73. ^ "Omidyar Network donates investment to Rappler's Filipino managers". CNN. March 1, 2018. Retrieved March 2, 2018.
  74. ^ "Maria Ressa posts P100,000 bail, hits 'weaponization of law'". The Philippine Star. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  75. ^ "Ressa arrest sparks int'l outrage". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved February 15, 2019. Rappler and Ressa, 55, have been hit with tax evasion charges and now a cyberlibel case after clashing repeatedly with Duterte over the President's war on illegal drugs that has killed thousands of suspects.
  76. ^ "'Persecution by a bully government': Journalists, advocates slam arrest of Maria Ressa". Rappler. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  77. ^ "Duterte denies involvement in Maria Ressa cyber libel case". Rappler. Retrieved February 15, 2019.
  78. ^ "Duterte signs tax reform, 2018 budget into law". ABS-CBN News.
  79. ^ "Ito ang hinaing ng mga raliyista, tila unli na daw kasi ang pahirap na dinaranas ngayon ng masa. Triple whamming ang tawag nila sa linguhang pagtaas ng presyo ng langis na mitsa ng pagtaas din ng mga bilihin. Samantala, nakapako pa rin ang napakababang sahod bunsod ng kontraktwalisasyon. Bigornia, Doris. "'Wag lang puro papogi': Mga opisyal ng gobyerno, kinastigo ng labor group". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  80. ^ a b (0:01–0:14) Umaaray ang mga may-ari ng sari-sari store. Apektado na kasi ng pagmamahal ng bilihin ang kanilang negosyo. Bukod sa malaking puhunang pambili sa paninda gaya ng softdrinks at matatamis na inumin, tumumal din ang benta nito. / (0:44) Umento sa sahod naman ang hiling ng minimum wage earners dahil sa kaliwa't kanan pagtaas ng presyo ng mga bilihin. / (1:22) Naglunsad naman ang Stop Train Coalition ng kampanya para makakalap ng isang milyong pirma sa hiling na ibasura ang tax reform law. – "Bandila: Ilang negosyante, umaaray sa pagtaas ng presyo ng mga bilihin"
  81. ^ "Inflation rises to 6.2% in Q3 2018". Rappler.
  82. ^ "FAST FACTS: Philippine inflation rate over the years". Rappler.
  83. ^ Gavilan, Jodesz (January 16, 2018). "What You Need to Know about Charter Change". Rappler. Archived from the original on July 4, 2018. Retrieved July 4, 2018.
  84. ^ Article XVII of the Constitution of the Philippines (1987)
  85. ^ "A Torrent of Cha-cha Measures". Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism. December 1, 2008. Archived from the original on August 26, 2018. Retrieved October 25, 2018.
  86. ^ Cabacungan, Gil C. (December 10, 2008). "Con-ass or Con-con? Arroyo Stand Sought". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Archived from the original on April 17, 2015. Retrieved April 18, 2015.
  87. ^ "LOOK BACK: Past Charter Change attempts and why they failed". Rappler. Retrieved February 2, 2021.
  88. ^ "What you need to know about the pre-2022 push for charter change". Retrieved January 14, 2021.
  89. ^ "Charter change talks being revived in Congress". Retrieved January 14, 2021.
  90. ^ "'Endo' in the Philippines". Asia Pro. Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  91. ^ "All You Need to Know About Contractualization". Asia Pro.
  92. ^ "Landmark EO on 'endo' awaits Duterte's signature". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  93. ^ Pia Ranada. "Malacañang: Duterte EO on 'endo' to 'side with labor forces'". Rappler. Retrieved April 18, 2018.
  94. ^ a b "Palace sides with Bello: No EO vs contractrualization, up to Congress to pass law". Rappler.
  95. ^ See the demonstrations:
  96. ^ "Palace: Quo warranto petition vs Sereno 'unprecedented'". ABS-CBN News.
  97. ^ "Gadon complaint over SALN shows desperation: Sereno lawyer". ABS-CBN News.
  98. ^ "Sereno asserts 'indefinite leave is not a resignation'". ABS-CBN News.
  99. ^ "Sereno to go on 'indefinite leave'". ABS-CBN News.
  100. ^ "25 lawmakers endorse impeachment complaint vs Sereno". Rappler.
  101. ^ "Activist priest killed in Ecija gun attack". The Philippine Star.
  102. ^ "Bishop blasts 'unjust and brutal' killing of elderly priest". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  103. ^ "Priest shot dead after Sunday Mass in Cagayan". Rappler. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  104. ^ "CBCP condemns murder of Cagayan priest Mark Ventura". Rappler. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  105. ^ "Cardinal Tagle hits murder of Cagayan's Fr Mark Ventura". Rappler. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  106. ^ "Family of Fr Mark Ventura, PNP offer cash reward for info on his killers". Rappler. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
  107. ^ "Priest shot dead in Nueva Ecija — CBCP". GMA News.
  108. ^ "Another priest in Nueva Ecija gunned down". The Philippine Star.
  109. ^ a b "Alleged gunman in Fr. Nilo slay 'a fall guy' —lawyer". GMA News.
  110. ^ "PNP nabs suspect in Fr. Richmond Nilo slay". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  111. ^ a b "Suspect in Father Nilo's killing arrested – Nueva Ecija police". Rappler.
  112. ^ "5 suspects tagged in Ecija priest's killing". ABS-CBN News.
  113. ^ a b "CCTV footage shows arrested suspect in Fr Nilo slay far from crime scene". Rappler.
  114. ^ a b "PNP got the wrong guy – grandma of accused in Fr Nilo murder". Rappler.
  115. ^ "CBCP condemns 'outrageously evil' murder of Fr Richmond Nilo". Rappler.
  116. ^ "They are killing our flock. They are killing us shepherds". Rappler. Retrieved June 29, 2018.
  117. ^ Punzalan, Jamaine (May 22, 2016). "Duterte calls Catholic Church 'most hypocritical institution'". ABS-CBN Corporation. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  118. ^ "Duterte slams Church as hypocritical institution". May 23, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  119. ^ "Duterte makes fun of Catholic Church's practices". June 27, 2016. Retrieved November 6, 2016.
  120. ^ "Cops arrest 'self-confessed' gunman in Nueva Ecija priest's slay". ABS-CBN News.
  121. ^ "Suspek sa pagpatay ng pari sa Nueva Ecija, arestado". ABS-CBN News.
  122. ^ "The cost of loitering: Rundown of penalties for 'Oplan Tambay'". ABS-CBN News.
  123. ^ "QC Police chief expects more suspects to be charged in Genesis Argoncillo's death".
  124. ^ Talabong, Rambo (July 30, 2021). "Tambay by the thousands: The war on loiterers in numbers". Rappler. Retrieved May 18, 2021.
  125. ^ "Murder charges filed vs 2 inmates for the death of 'Tisoy'". Philippine Daily Inquirer.
  126. ^ "TV Patrol: Hinuling 'tambay,' nakitang patay sa kulungan; 'Oplan Tambay,' nais ipatigil". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube.
  127. ^ "Genesis Argoncillo killed by fellow detainees – QC police". Rappler.
  128. ^ Rafales, April. "TV Patrol: Ilang magsasaka, nangalampag sa DAR". ABS-CBN News – via YouTube. (0:36– ) Rafales: "Kinondena nila ang pagkontrol, pang-aabuso at pananakot umano ng militar sa kanilang lugar para imonopulyo ang mga lupa. Tinukoy din nila ang mga militar na pasimuno sa mga pagpatay sa mga magsasaka at kanilang mga kaanak." / Enrique Tumampil, Vice Chair of Kilusang Magbubukid of Masbate: Umaabot na po sa 10 ang bilang sa extrajudicial killing kasama na 'yon mga inosenteng bata / Eljohn Tumampil: "Ang bahay na mapasukan namin na walang tao, pinag-uutusan po ako na papasukin doon. Pag hindi ako sinusunod, binubugbog po nila ako."
  129. ^ "Grupo: Mga naulila ng EJK 'susuporta sa impeachment ni Duterte'". The Philippine Star.
  130. ^ "PNP eyes 4 groups in killing of 9 sugar farmers in Sagay". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  131. ^ "NPA may be behind Negros Occidental attack — PNP". CNN Philippines. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  132. ^ "Lorenzana hits Bayan Muna chair Colmenares for linking military to Sagay massacre". GMA News. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
  133. ^ "Palace condemns killing of 9 Negros sugar workers". GMA News. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  134. ^ a b "TV Patrol: Ika-32 anibersaryo ng Mendiola massacre ginunita" (in Tagalog). ABS-CBN News. Retrieved January 23, 2019 – via YouTube.
  135. ^ @News5PH (January 22, 2021). "Ilang larawan sa protesta ng ilang grupo sa Mendiola ngayong anibersaryo ng Mendiola Massacre. Ang sigaw nila, hustisya at karapatan sa sariling lupa" (Tweet). Retrieved January 22, 2021 – via Twitter.
  136. ^ a b "Human rights leader killed in Philippine 'war against dissent'". Al Jazeera. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  137. ^ "Kin of activist who died in jail of COVID-19 sues cops, officials". Rappler. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  138. ^ "Groups press gov't to free activists after farmer leader's death in jail". BusinessWorld. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  139. ^ "Killing of Philippines Peace Consultant Sparks Scrutiny of Government Investigations". The Diplomat. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  140. ^ "Randy Echanis autopsy shows torture signs, doctor says". CNN. August 21, 2020. Retrieved July 15, 2021.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  141. ^ "Makabayan lawmakers hit 'desecration' of Jevilyn Cullamat's remains". Rappler. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  142. ^ "Leaders lost: The 9 activists killed by Duterte gov't on 'Bloody Sunday'". Rappler. Retrieved July 12, 2021.
  143. ^ "House Bill (HB) 8858" (PDF).
  144. ^ "House changes proposed minimum criminal liability age from 9 to 12 years old". Rappler.
  145. ^ "UNICEF, Save the Children oppose lowering age of criminal responsibility". GMA News.
  146. ^ "Philippine artists' group opposes lowering of age of criminal responsibility". Rappler.
  147. ^ "PH artists, celebrities react to bill that lowers age of criminal liability". Rappler.
  148. ^ "Celebrities react to bill on lowering age of criminal liability". The Philippine Star.
  149. ^ "Children in conflict with the law: Cracks in Juvenile Justice Act". Rappler. Duterte, echoed by his allies in the House of Representatives, wants to lower the minimum age of criminal liability from 15 years old down to 9. He believes it should be done because syndicates are using more children to commit crimes.
  150. ^ "Congressmen want 9-year-old kids charged for crimes". Rappler.
  151. ^ a b Talabong, Rambo (June 15, 2019). "Crew of sunken Philippine boat now home". Rappler. Retrieved June 16, 2019.
  152. ^ "Duterte mum on West PH Sea 'collision'". ABS-CBN News. President Rodrigo Duterte made no comment Thursday on the "collision" of a Chinese ship and Filipino fishing boat in the West Philippine Sea.
  153. ^ "'Banggaan lang ng mga barko 'yan': Duterte breaks silence on Reed Bank incident". ABS-CBN News. "You do not send gray ships (Philippine Navy) there. Banggaan lang ng barko 'yan. Do not make it worse because that is a fertile ground for... Alam ninyong mga sundalo, miscommunication 'yan. Patay na. And we are not yet as ready, and we can never be ready in nuclear war, because in nuclear war, kung bitawan lahat 'yan, earth will dry up and we will all be destroyed," he said.
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  155. ^ "Filipino fisherman feels betrayed after Duterte says West PH Sea jetski remark only a 'joke'". ABS-CBN News. Retrieved May 13, 2021.
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    Bandila: Ilang estudyante, nagsunog ng watawat ng China sa pagtatapos ng bisita ni Xi Jinping
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External linksEdit