Prostaglandin H2 is a type of prostaglandin and a precursor for many other biologically significant molecules. It is synthesized from arachidonic acid in a reaction catalyzed by a cyclooxygenase enzyme. The conversion from Arachidonic acid to Prostaglandin H2 is a two step process. First, COX-1 catalyzes the addition of two free oxygens to form the 1,2-Dioxane bridge and a peroxide functional group to form Prostaglandin G2. Second, COX-2 reduces the peroxide functional group to a Secondary alcohol, forming Prostaglandin H2. Other peroxidases like Hydroquinone have been observed to reduce PGG2 to PGH2. PGH2 is unstable at room temperature, with a half life of 90-100 seconds, so it is often converted into a different prostaglandin.
PGH2, Endoperoxide H2, Prostaglandin R2
3D model (JSmol)
CompTox Dashboard (EPA)
|Molar mass||352.465 g/mol|
|Density||1.129 ± 0.06 g/mL|
|Boiling point||490 ± 40.0 °C|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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It is acted upon by:
- Prostacyclin synthase to create prostacyclin
- Thromboxane-A synthase to create thromboxane A2 and 12-(S)-hydroxy-5Z,8E,10E-heptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) (see 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid)
- Prostaglandin D2 synthase to create prostaglandin D2
- Prostaglandin E synthase to create prostaglandin E2
It rearranges non-enzymatically to:
- A mixture of 12-(S)-hydroxy-5Z,8E,10E-heptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) and 12-(S)-hydroxy-5Z,8Z,10E-heptadecatrienoic acid (see 12-Hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid)
Use of prostaglandin H2:
- regulating the constriction and dilation of blood vessels
- stimulating platelet aggregation
Effects of Aspirin on prostaglandin H2:
- Aspirin has been hypothesized to block the conversion of arachidonic acid to prostaglandin
- "Prostaglandin H2". HMDB. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- van der Donk WA, Tsai AL, Kulmacz RJ (December 2002). "The cyclooxygenase reaction mechanism". Biochemistry. 41 (52): 15451–8. doi:10.1021/bi026938h. PMID 12501173.
- Salomon RG, Miller DB, Zagorski MG, Coughlin DJ (October 1984). "Prostaglandin endoperoxides. 14. Solvent-induced fragmentation of prostaglandin endoperoxides. New aldehyde products from PGH2 and a novel intramolecular 1,2-hydride shift during endoperoxide fragmentation in aqueous solution". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 106 (20): 6049–6060. doi:10.1021/ja00332a049. ISSN 0002-7863.
- Hla T, Neilson K (August 1992). "Human cyclooxygenase-2 cDNA". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 89 (16): 7384–8. Bibcode:1992PNAS...89.7384H. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.16.7384. PMC 49714. PMID 1380156.
- "Human Metabolome Database: Showing metabocard for Prostaglandin H2 (HMDB0001381)". www.hmdb.ca. Retrieved 2019-11-19.
- Woodward DF, Jones RL, Narumiya S (September 2011). "International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. LXXXIII: classification of prostanoid receptors, updating 15 years of progress". Pharmacological Reviews. 63 (3): 471–538. doi:10.1124/pr.110.003517. PMID 21752876.
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