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Prospect Park (Brooklyn)

Prospect Park is a 526-acre (213 ha)[5] public park in the New York City borough of Brooklyn. Prospect Park is run and operated by the Prospect Park Alliance and New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. The park is situated between the neighborhoods of Park Slope, Prospect Lefferts Gardens, Flatbush and Windsor Terrace, and abuts Eastern Parkway, Flatbush Avenue, Grand Army Plaza and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. It is part of the Brooklyn-Queens Greenway, and is the second largest public park in Brooklyn, behind Marine Park.

Prospect Park
Prospect Park New York October 2015 003.jpg
Interactive map showing location of Prospect Park
TypeUrban park
LocationBrooklyn, New York City, United States
Coordinates40°39′42″N 73°58′15″W / 40.66167°N 73.97083°W / 40.66167; -73.97083Coordinates: 40°39′42″N 73°58′15″W / 40.66167°N 73.97083°W / 40.66167; -73.97083
Area526 acres (2.13 km2)
CreatedOctober 19, 1867[1]
Operated byProspect Park Alliance
Visitorsabout 8 million annually[2]
StatusOpen all year
Prospect Park
LocationBrooklyn, New York City, United States
ArchitectFrederick Law Olmsted, Calvert Vaux
NRHP reference #80002637[3]
Significant dates
Added to NRHPSeptember 17, 1980
Designated NYCLNovember 25, 1975[4]

Opened in 1867, Prospect Park was designed by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux after their completion of Manhattan's Central Park. The park subsequently underwent numerous modifications and expansions to its facilities. Prospect Park was made a New York City Historic Landmark on November 25, 1975, and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on September 17, 1980.

Main attractions of the park include the 90-acre (36 ha) Long Meadow; the Picnic House; Litchfield Villa; Prospect Park Zoo; the Boathouse; Brooklyn's only lake, covering 60 acres (24 ha); and the Prospect Park Bandshell that hosts free outdoor concerts in the summertime. The park also has sports facilities, including seven baseball fields in the Long Meadow, the Prospect Park Tennis Center, basketball courts, baseball fields, soccer fields, and the New York Pétanque Club in the Parade Ground. There is also a private Society of Friends cemetery on Quaker Hill near the ball fields.



Before the parkEdit

The Battle Pass area from the 1776 Battle of Brooklyn in the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), an etching circa 1792

Approximately 17,000 years ago the terminal moraine of the receding Wisconsin Glacier that formed Long Island established a string of hills and kettles in the northern part of the park and a lower lying outwash plain in the southern part.[6][7] Mount Prospect, or Prospect Hill, near the intersection of Flatbush Avenue and Eastern Parkway, rises 200 feet (61 m) above sea level.[8] It is the highest among a string of hills that extends into the park, including Sullivan, Breeze, and Lookout hills. The area was originally forested, but became open pasture after two centuries of European colonization. Significant stands of trees remained only in the peat bogs centered south of Ninth and Flatbush Avenues, as well as in a large bog north of Ninth Street, and contained chestnut, white poplar, and oak.[9] Some of these stands were preserved in the modern-day Prospect Park Ravine and nicknamed "The Last Forest of Brooklyn".[10]

During the American Revolutionary War (1775-1783), the park was a site of the Battle of Long Island (aka Battle of Brooklyn). American forces attempted to hold Battle Pass, an opening in the terminal moraine where the old Flatbush Road passed from the villages of Brooklyn to Flatbush. It fell after some of the heaviest fighting in the engagement, and its loss contributed to George Washington's decision to retreat. Even though the Continental Army lost the battle, they were able to hold the British back long enough for Washington's army to escape across the East River to Manhattan. There are plaques north of the zoo that honor this event.[11]

The City of Brooklyn built a reservoir on Prospect Hill in 1856. Preserving the Battle Pass area and keeping the lots around the reservoir free of buildings were two reasons for establishing a large park in the area.[12]

Planning and constructionEdit

The original impetus to build Prospect Park stemmed from an April 18, 1859, act of the New York State Legislature, empowering a twelve-member commission to recommend sites for parks in the City of Brooklyn.[13][14] At the time, Brooklyn was the world's first commuter suburb; it would later become the third largest city in the country after New York and Philadelphia. During this time, concepts concerning public parks gained popularity. In 1858, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux had created Central Park in Manhattan, which became the first landscaped park in the United States.[11][12] James Stranahan believed that a park in Brooklyn "would become a favorite resort for all classes of our community, enabling thousands to enjoy pure air, with healthful exercise, at all seasons of the year..." He also thought a public park would attract wealthy residents.[11]

In February 1860. a group of fifteen commissioners submitted suggestions for locations of four large parks and three small parks in Brooklyn.[12][14] The largest of these proposed parks was a 320-acre (1.3 km2) plot centered on Mount Prospect and bounded by Warren Street to the north; Vanderbilt, Ninth, and Tenth Avenues to the west; Third and Ninth Streets to the south; and Washington Avenue to the east.[12][15] Egbert Viele began drawing plans for "Mount Prospect Park", as the space was initially called, and published his proposal in 1861. The park was to straddle Flatbush Avenue and include Prospect Hill, as well as the land now occupied by the Brooklyn Public Library, Brooklyn Botanic Garden, and Brooklyn Museum.[12]

By late 1860, land had been purchased for Viele's plan, but the Civil War stopped further activity. The delay prompted some reflection; James S. T. Stranahan, then President of the Brooklyn Board of Park Commissioners, invited Calvert Vaux to review Viele's plans early in 1865.[12][16] Vaux took issue with Flatbush Avenue's division of the park, thought that the park should have a lake, and urged for southward expansion beyond the city limits and into the then independent town of Flatbush.[17] Vaux's February 1865 proposal reflected the present layout of the park: three distinctive regions, meadow in the north and west, a wooded ravine in the east, and a lake in the south, without being divided by Flatbush Avenue. Vaux included an oval plaza at the northern end of the park, which would later become Grand Army Plaza. The revised plan called for purchase of additional parcels to the south and west to accommodate Prospect Lake, but it left outside of park boundaries parcels already purchased east of Flatbush Avenue, including Prospect Hill itself.[12] Prospect Hill would be incorporated as Mount Prospect Park in 1940.

Prospect Park in 1880

By then, land speculation was underway. The plot bounded by Ninth and Tenth Avenues between Third and Fifteenth Streets was held by real estate developer Edwin Clarke Litchfield, who had erected his home, Litchfield Manor, on the east side of Ninth Avenue in 1857.[18] The Parks Commission ultimately acquired the Litchfield plot in 1868 for $1.7 million, forty-two percent of the overall expenditure for land, even though the plot constituted just over five percent of the park's acreage. Much of this very expensive acreage houses the maintenance yards and is rarely seen by the public.[19] By contrast, the Quaker cemetery was accommodated by an agreement under which the Society of Friends deeded their unused acreage on favorable terms so as to retain the 10-acre remainder as their private cemetery in perpetuity.[12]

Despite the repercussions of Vaux's revisions, Stranahan championed the plan. Vaux recruited Olmsted and formally presented their proposal in January 1866 and it was accepted in May,[12] with work commencing in June. The park commissioners opened the park to the public on October 19, 1867, while it was still under construction.[1] Work continued for another six years until it was substantially complete in 1873, though certain facets of the original design were never undertaken. With the financial panic of 1873, Olmsted and Vaux ceased significant operations in the park and dissolved their partnership.[12] Overall, the city of Brooklyn spent more than $4 million to acquire the parkland. The actual cost of construction of Prospect Park amounted to more than $5 million.[12]

Stranahan was regarded by his 19th-century peers as the true "Father of Prospect Park", a reputation established through his 22-year reign as Park Commission president (1860–1882), engagement of Olmsted and Vaux, overseeing complex, politically charged land acquisitions,[20] securing funding to build the park, and, after its completion, defending its design against unwanted changes, leaving Brooklyn perhaps its greatest legacy. His statue appears just inside the Grand Army Plaza entrance, sculpted by Frederick MacMonnies and presented to Stranahan in June 1891.[21]

Neoclassical phaseEdit

1901 map of Prospect Park (Parks Department 1902 Annual Report)

In 1882, Brooklyn mayor Seth Low did not reappoint Stranahan or the other commissioners, a change that neither Stranahan nor the other commissioners actively opposed. Stranahan, for his part, was becoming more engaged in other Brooklyn concerns.[22] The action, however, did signal a change in the style of park management, which grew to embrace neoclassicism.[16] With construction of the Memorial Arch at Grand Army Plaza, the park commissioners engaged the McKim, Mead, and White architectural firm to redesign the Plaza in a complementary, neo-classical way. By 1896, Grand Army Plaza sported four towering granite columns adorned with carved fasces and eagles at the base. (The bronze eagles on top of the columns would be installed in 1902.) Granite fencing with decorative bronze urns replaced simple wooden fencing, and polygonal granite pavilions on the east and west corners of the park supplanted earlier rustic shelters. All the major entrances of the park gained similar neoclassical treatments. By the turn of the twentieth century, sculptures by Frederick MacMonnies graced the Arch and works by MacMonnies and Alexander Proctor graced many of the entrances.[16]

Neoclassical structures appeared within the park as well. In 1893 and 1894, the Children's Playground and Pools in the northeast quadrant of the park were transformed by McKim, Mead and White into the Rose Garden and the Vale of Cashmere, each a formally arranged space. Stanford White's 1895 Maryland Monument, near the Terrace Bridge, was dedicated to the Maryland 400, valiant defenders in the Revolution's Battle of Brooklyn (aka Long Island) on the slopes of Lookout Hill. The 1904 Peristyle, 1905 Boathouse, 1910 Tennis House, and 1912 Willink Comfort Station, all designed by Helmle, Hudswell and Huberty, alumni and proteges of McKim, Mead, and White, spread neo-classical examples throughout the park.[23]

The city of Brooklyn's merger with New York City on Manhattan Island with other outlying boroughs in 1898, creating the City of Greater New York aligned the fortunes of Prospect Park with a larger more developed park system. From World War I to the administration of Fiorello La Guardia in the 1930s, investment in park infrastructure declined. New structures were limited to the Picnic House, (1927) which replaced an earlier rustic structure that had burned down in 1926, and a small comfort station at the Ocean Avenue entrance (1930), both designed by J. Sarsfield Kennedy.[12][24]

New memorials were limited to the 9th Street memorial to Marquis de la Fayette (1917) and the Honor Roll Memorial (1920), near the present day skating rink. Prospect Park was in stasis, and it was run, year after year, with declining budgets, a malaise affecting all city parks. "By the 1930s," the New York Times observed, "generations of Parks Department officials had lived well and got rich by diverting maintenance funds, and the park showed the result of a half century of abuse and neglect."[25]

In 1932, a faux Mount Vernon was built in the park to commemorate the bicentennial of George Washington's birthday. A reconstruction of Federal Hall, at one point on Wall Street was built in Bryant Park also as part of the celebrations.[26]

Robert Moses eraEdit

Friends Cemetery

In January 1934, newly elected Mayor Fiorello La Guardia appointed Robert Moses commissioner of a unified parks department, a new organization that eliminated borough park commissioners. Moses would remain Park Commissioner for the next twenty-six years, leaving distinctive and controversial marks on all the city parks. Moses readily tapped federal monies made available to relieve Depression era unemployment. Prospect Park experienced a building boom during Moses's tenure, as the Bandshell, the Prospect Park Zoo, and five playgrounds were constructed.[16][27]

In 1959, the southern third of the Long Meadow was graded and fenced off for ballfields. The following year the Kate Wollman Skating Rink was built on a filled-in portion of Prospect Lake. The playgrounds, ballfields, and the skating rink reflected Moses' commitment to modernity and athletic recreation, coupled with only a limited appreciation of the park as a work of landscape architecture. The construction of the Wollman Rink caused the removal of Music Island and the panoramic view of the lake created by Olmsted and Vaux.[12] Many Moses era projects entailed the destruction of Olmsted and Vaux or neoclassical designs. The Dairy Farmhouse, Concert Grove House, Music Island, the Old Fashioned Flower Garden, many of the original rustic structures, the Thatched Shelter, the Model Yacht Club, and the Greenhouse Conservatories had all been lost to either accident or deliberate demolition by the time Moses left his Park Commission post in May 1960.

The Prospect Park Boathouse

No park commissioner since Moses has been able to exercise the same degree of power, nor did the Park Commission remain as stable a position in the aftermath of his departure, with eight commissioners holding the office in the twenty years following. This instability, coupled with the 1970s city fiscal crisis, devastated the Parks department. Staffed by 6,000 personnel in 1960, the Parks department consisted of just 2,800 permanent and 1,500 temporary workers by 1980. Much of Prospect Park suffered soil erosion and lack of maintenance caused the landscape to deteriorate. By 1979, park attendance dropped to two million, the lowest recorded level in the history of the park.[16]


In September 1964 the Parks Department was within forty-eight hours of demolishing the Boathouse on the Lullwater.[12][28] At the time the structure was underutilized; the boat concession only operated on weekends and the Boathouse was visited by fewer than ten people an hour, even on the busiest summer weekends.[29]

The Dairy Farmhouse, c. 1870, stood near the crest of Sullivan Hill, adjacent to Boulder Bridge and the Ravine. It was demolished in 1935.

It was not unusual in the Moses years and the decade after his departure, to quietly remove underutilized or redundant structures; to do so was regarded as economical and prudent management. In the previous decade, the greenhouses on the western edge of the park were considered redundant, given the nearby Brooklyn Botanical Garden, and were demolished without much protest.[30] With the opening of the new zoo in 1935, The Dairy Farmhouse had been demolished along with the rest of the Menagerie, though it had predated the original zoo. The Concert Grove House had been demolished in 1949. Once the park's restaurant, it was replaced with a snack bar under the Oriental Pavilion.[31] But the late-1963 demolition of Pennsylvania Station in Manhattan had spawned a nascent historic preservation movement,[32] and the 1905 Boathouse shared many architectural design features with the famous station. A preservation group, The Friends of Prospect Park, including in its membership, poet Marianne Moore,[33] built public awareness over disappearing historical structures and threatened flora within the park. Public pressure induced Park Commissioner Newbold Morris to rescind the decision to demolish the Boathouse in December 1964.[34] The Boathouse would later host the nation's first Audubon society.[35]

The Koch administration formed plans in 1980 to turn over the administration of the troubled Prospect Park Zoo to the Wildlife Conservation Society.[36] In the 1980s the Parks Department began entering into restoration projects with the Prospect Park Alliance, a local non-profit organization. In 1987, this organization secured funding for and oversaw the restoration of the 1952 Carousel. Through the 1990s, the Alliance oversaw the restoration of the Ravine, the 150-acre (0.61 km2) region which contains the headwaters of the park water system.

The Alliance remains active in restoration projects and takes a balanced approach between historical preservation and patterns of modern use. Though disliked by some preservationists, Moses era playgrounds and the Bandshell are being retained because their venues are popular. Original rustic summer houses have been restored or recreated on the shores of Prospect Park Lake, along the Lullwater and in the Ravine. The Kate Wollman skating rink, unpopular with park preservationists but enjoyed by the public at large, was replaced by two rinks in the new LeFrak Center at Lakeside, completed in 2013 at a cost of 74 million dollars. It enjoys over 200,000 visitors annually.[37] These plans include restoring Music Island and the original shoreline, both obliterated by the construction of the original rink in 1960.[38][39] The Alliance managed a $9.8 million budget in 2007, with financial support largely coming from foundations, sales, rentals and fees, corporate and individual donations. Over 80% of the Alliance's expenditures were in support of park development projects.[40][41]


Location on a map of Brooklyn


As a work of engineering and landscaping, Prospect Park was so revolutionary in its time that many considered the park a work of art in itself. Others were critical of the idea of building a single, large park in the wealthiest section of Brooklyn rather than several smaller parks at different locations to serve a wider public. The idea of a single, large park won out, and its backers overcame their opponents in Brooklyn politics by having the park built by a state-appointed commission.

Olmsted and Vaux engineered the Park to recreate in real space the pastoral, picturesque, and aesthetic ideals expressed in hundreds of paintings.[citation needed] They created the large Long Meadow out of hilly upland pasture interspersed with peat bogs, they moved and planted trees, hauled topsoil and created a vast unfolding turf with trees placed singly and in groups to approximate the English pastoral style of landscape which had emerged in England in the previous century. Prospect Park's designers had recent precedents in the pastoral style in this country, notably Mount Auburn Cemetery near Boston and Green-Wood Cemetery a few blocks away in Brooklyn. By the 1850s and '60s, pastoralism was very popular in landscape design in eastern North America. Both Central and Prospect Parks are considered by some landscape historians to be among the best examples of the type. The designers themselves felt they had greater success in Brooklyn than in New York because the Prospect Park site presented fewer obstacles than the Central Park site, where they had to contend with two reservoirs, a relatively narrow, rectangular site, and a requirement that four city streets cross over the site. The design formula at Prospect Park included elements of both the picturesque and the sublime ideals, the picturesque being represented by the Ravine and its series of pools, waterfalls, and defiles.

Although the sublime ideal would be difficult to realize in the gentle Long Island topography, the designers wanted Lookout Hill to be a place of broad views out over Prospect Lake, the farmland beyond, and the bay and ocean in the distance. Trees have been allowed to obscure the view, however. The design also created a visual screen consisting of earth forms and trees around the perimeter to heighten the effect of seemingly limitless rural scenery by screening out views of buildings, traffic, and other aspects of the growing city around the park, but the designers did not foresee the high-rise buildings built in the twentieth century.

In designing the watercourse Olmsted and Vaux also took advantage of the pre-existing glacier-formed kettle ponds and lowland outwash plains. A winding naturalistic stream channel with several ponds feeds a sixty-acre (24 ha) lake. They crafted the watercourse to include a steep, forested Ravine – perhaps their greatest masterpiece of landscape architecture – all with significant river edge flora and fauna habitats. This was all done to give the urban dweller a "sub-conscious" experience of nature within the city as Olmsted believed it was possible and necessary to provide such nourishment for the general public in the overwhelming urban environments of his time.


Prospect Park lake
Boathouse at the Lullwater
A bridge in the park
View of buildings from inside the park

One of the most noteworthy features of Olmsted and Vaux's creations is the Prospect Park watercourse. All the waterways and lakes in Prospect Park are man-made. Originally engineered by Olmsted and Vaux to be a series of picturesque tableaux as an oasis for urban residents, by the mid-twentieth century nature had taken its course and these artificial waterways and the steep slopes around them had lost their original design character. In 1994 the Prospect Park Alliance launched a 25-year $43-million restoration project for the watercourse.[10]

If one follows the water from its source, the water in Prospect Park takes us on a course starting at the top of Fallkill Falls into Fallkill Pool past the Fallkill Bridge through the recently restored Upper Pool and Lower Pool, where migratory birds rest and marsh and other water plants can be found. Past the Esdale Bridge through Ambergill Pond one enters into a tree-covered area, then on to the smaller Ambergill Falls through Rock Arch Bridge, past the gorge area called The Ravine. The design called for the trickle of water to be heard throughout the forest and this effect lasts on to the through the where a variety of waterlilies can be found. The watercourse then moves on to the where performances of music were often given.

The waters then cascade beneath the Binnen Bridge to the Lullwater, upon the east bank of which stands the Boathouse, the current Audubon Center & Visitor Center. It then flows under the Lullwater and Terrace bridges to the Peninsula – an area managed both as bird sanctuary and recreational field. It flows past the Wollman Rink and enters the sixty-acre (24 ha) artificially built Prospect Lake that includes several islands. Prospect Lake is home to over 20 species of fish and hosts an annual fishing contest; visitors may explore the lake in pedal boats, available at the Wollman rink, or the Independence, a replica of the original electric launch which took day-trippers around the lake a century ago.

Ice skating, popularized in Central Park, was a key reason for including Prospect Lake in the design of the park's watercourse. Prospect Lake was much larger than any lake in its New York City predecessor, but very shallow, so as to develop an ideal skating surface.[citation needed] In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, red balls raised high on trollies signified that the ice was at least four inches thick in the Lullwater.[42] Since then, safety concerns have ended skating on the lake. The venue moved to the Kate Wollman rink in 1960, and moved again to the Lakeside Center around 2010.[37]

Olmsted and Vaux not only planted a variety of trees, bushes and other plants, but also moved rocks, boulders and earth to simulate a variety of natural environments for the pleasure and stimulation of Brooklyn's nineteenth century urban dwellers.

The RavineEdit

With the watercourse moving through it, a 146-acre (59 ha) section of the Park's interior at the center of Brooklyn's only forest is known as the Ravine District. Olmsted and Vaux saw the Ravine as the heart of Prospect Park and the centerpiece of mountainous tableaux similar to the Adirondack Mountains.[43] The perimeter of the area is a steep, narrow 100 feet (30 m) gorge. The watercourse goes through the Ravine en route to the Boathouse. Still recovering from decades of overuse that caused soil compaction and erosion, the Ravine and surrounding woodlands have been undergoing restoration since 1996; in 1998 the Ravine District was opened for tours.[44] In 2002 the Ravine had been partially restored with the restored section opened to the public.[44] In March 2012, the Ravine was the site of a fire, which was quickly extinguished.[45]


Seven baseball fields span 9th–15th Streets in the park. Two are major league-sized fields serving older age groups. The other five are slightly smaller, for younger children; typically 8–12 years old. The youngest children do not have a dedicated field, and play on the grass.

The Prospect Park Track Club, formed in the early 1970s, organizes regular training runs and races in and around the park. (The park has a 3.35 miles (5 km)-long loop.)[46] The Prospect Park Women's Softball League has been playing softball games on summer evenings in Prospect Park for 35 years.[47] Circle rules football has been played every weekend from spring through fall at the tip of the Long Meadow nearest Grand Army Plaza since 2007. Horseback riders from Kensington Stables are often seen on paths in the park.[48] Pedalboating is open to the public on the lake. In the winter, ice skating, cross-country skiing and sledding are popular pastimes. A popular sledding hill is just inside the 10th Avenue entrance, off Prospect Park Southwest. The Bandshell hosts frequent concerts, most notably the "Celebrate Brooklyn!" Performing Arts Festival, a series of summer concerts founded in 1979 that draws performing artists from around the world. The festival is produced by BRIC Arts Media Bklyn.[49]

Olmsted and Vaux set aside a 40 acres (16 ha) rectangular area just south of Parkside Avenue to be used for sports and military drills. It was set apart from the main section of the park in fear that the high level of activity would damage the grass and plants and disrupt the park's pastoral feel. The militia no longer uses the Parade Ground, but it is still one of the most active athletic fields in the city, encompassing the Prospect Park Tennis Center, four baseball diamonds, two softball fields, a football field, a soccer field, basketball and volleyball courts, the Paul Ricard Pétanque Court and three giant multi-use fields. Many Major League Baseball stars got their start at the Parade Ground, including Joe Torre and Sandy Koufax. In 2004 the Parade Ground underwent a $12.4 million restoration.


There are four nearby New York City Subway stations.[50] The eastern side of Prospect Park is served by its eponymous station (B, ​Q, and ​S trains) and Parkside Avenue (Q train). The western side is served by 15th Street–Prospect Park (F and ​G trains). The 2​ and ​3 trains serve the park's northernmost point, Grand Army Plaza, at the plaza's eponymous station.[51] Bus service is provided on the western side by the B61, B67 and B69 buses, the southwestern side by the B68 bus; the eastern side by the B16, B41 and B48 buses; and the southern side by the B16 bus.[52][51]



In May 1987, an 11-year-old boy climbed into the polar bear enclosure after hours at the Prospect Park Zoo and was subsequently mauled by two of the bears. Police officers shot and killed both bears.[53] The incident contributed to the Wildlife Conservation Society's decision to redesign the zoo to emphasize species more appropriate to its small size and to visitor interactions. In July 2010, federal authorities captured 400 Canada geese in the park and gassed them to death due to air safety concerns following the US Airways Flight 1549 incident in January 2009.[54]


Additionally, a few murders have occurred over the past several decades. In June 1993, a 42-year-old man was shot to death while resisting a group of teenagers trying to steal his bicycle; the shooter received a maximum 25-year prison term.[55] In April 2006, a 61-year-old man was found stabbed to death in a thickly wooded area of the park known as the Vale of Cashmere.[56] In July 2008, a 41-year-old homeless man was found beaten to death in a wooded area near a jogging path.[57] In March 2011, a 23-year-old man, Julio Locarno, was shot and killed at the Parade Ground. He had recently been jailed on charges of being an accomplice in another man's murder.[58]

Automobile trafficEdit

Prospect Park opened before the advent of the automobile. Its main loop was paved with asphalt and opened to automobiles in 1918. Over the following decades, the hours at which vehicles could use the park were slowly restricted.[59] Supporters of a car ban argued that the park should be a haven from the type of city stress that automobiles represent, and that having them use the park sacrifices the safety of those using the park for recreation,[60][59] while opponents worried that banning traffic in the park would increase traffic outside.[61] The park's West Drive was closed to traffic in 2015. Following a trial run in which the park was car-free during summer 2017, the city determined that there were no major effects on nearby routes, and cars were barred completely from the park beginning in January 2018.[62][63]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Prospect Park". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. I. Van Anden. October 21, 1867. p. 2. Archived from the original on September 30, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2006.
  2. ^ "Prospect Park Timeline". Archived from the original on May 30, 2014. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  3. ^ National Park Service (2006-03-15). "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service.
  4. ^ "Prospect Park" (PDF). Landmarks Preservation Commission. November 25, 1975.
  5. ^ "Prospect Park" NYC Parks retrieved June 18, 2017
  6. ^ "Prospect Park: Wetlands of New York City". New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. December 7, 2001. Retrieved November 20, 2007.
  7. ^ "NYC Regional Geology: 62 Prospect Park". United States Geological Survey. 2004. Retrieved November 20, 2007.
  8. ^ Brooklyn (NY) Topographical Map (PDF) (Map). USGS. 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2019.
  9. ^ The large peat bog north of Ninth Street, running east of Prospect Park West, was called the Pigeon Ground and occupied much of the area that was to become the Long Meadow. Levison, Wallace Goold (1909). Louis Pope Gratacap, ed. "The Peat Beds of Prospect Park, Brooklyn, New York" in Geology of the City of New York. New York: H. Holt and Company. pp. 224–225.
  10. ^ a b Martin, Douglas (April 9, 1995). "Urban Backyard To Be Revitalized". The New York Times. New York Times and Company. Retrieved December 10, 2007.
  11. ^ a b c "History timeline". Archived from the original on December 31, 2008. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Lancaster, Clay (1972). Prospect Park Handbook (2nd ed.). New York: Long Island University Press. pp. 51–52, 66. ISBN 0-913252-06-9.
  13. ^ Anderson, J.A. (1887). Laws Relating to the Public Parks, Parkways, and Other Property Under the Care and Control of the Brooklyn Park Commissioners. p. 1. Retrieved January 20, 2019.
  14. ^ a b "Public Parks and Promenades". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. May 29, 1860. p. 2. Retrieved January 19, 2019 – via  
  15. ^ "Prospect Park". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. May 19, 1861. p. 2. Retrieved January 19, 2019 – via  
  16. ^ a b c d e "History and Nature: History of the Park". Prospect Park Alliance. 2007. Retrieved November 23, 2007.
  17. ^ Berenson, Richard J.; deMause, Neil (2001). The Complete Illustrated Guidebook to Prospect Park and the Brooklyn Botanic Garden. New York: Silver Lining Books. pp. 86–91. ISBN 0-7607-2213-7.
  18. ^ "Litchfield Villa". Prospect Park Alliance: Official WebSite of Prospect Park. Prospect Park Alliance. 2008. Archived from the original on October 29, 2008.
  19. ^ Morrone, Francis (2001). An Architectural Guidebook to Brooklyn. Salt Lake City: Gibbs-Smith. ISBN 1-58685-047-4.
  20. ^ "The Park "Magician": Is He Cornered At Last?". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn Eagle Inc. June 7, 1882. pp. Page 2, Column 3. Retrieved November 20, 2007.
  21. ^ "The Father of the Park". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn Eagle Inc. June 7, 1891. pp. Page 20, Column 3. Retrieved November 20, 2007.
  22. ^ "Municipal: Interesting Happenings at City Hall Today". The Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn Eagle Inc. June 7, 1882. pp. Page 4, Column 3.
  23. ^ "Olmsted and Vaux". Prospect Park Alliance. 2008. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
  24. ^ "Picnic House Razed by Fire in Brooklyn". The New York Times. New York Times Company. April 26, 1926. p. 7. Retrieved November 24, 2007.
  25. ^ "Olmsted and Moses Were the Key Figures in Development of City Parks". The New York Times. New York Times Company. October 13, 1980. pp. Section: Metropolitan Report, Page B4. Retrieved November 23, 2007.
  26. ^ "Permanent Revolution". New York magazine. September 10, 2012.
  27. ^ "Smith Decries 'Back-Alley Politics' of La Guardia in Row With Moses; At Opening of New Prospect Park Zoo Former Governor Extols Park Commissioner, Who Joins Mayor in Shunning Ceremony – 3,000 View Glittering $500,000 Centre.". The New York Times. New York Times Company. July 4, 1935. pp. 1, 17. Retrieved January 12, 2007.
  28. ^ "Audubon Center – History". Prospect Park Alliance. 2008. Archived from the original on March 21, 2009. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
  29. ^ Tolchin, Martin (September 14, 1964). "A GASLIGHT RELIC AWAITS VERDICT; Prospect Park Boathouse May Face Demolition". The New York Times. New York Times Company. pp. food fashions family furnishings, Page 29. Retrieved September 11, 2007.
  30. ^ "City to Discard 17 Greenhouses". The New York Times. New York Times Company. May 23, 1955. pp. Page 39. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
  31. ^ "Concert Grove History". Prospect Park Alliance. 2008. Retrieved March 21, 2009.
  32. ^ "Laying the Preservation Framework: 1960-1980". Cultural Landscapes (U.S. National Park Service). April 24, 1962. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
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