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Propionibacterium

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Propionibacterium
Propionibacterium acnes.tif
Cutibacterium (formerly Propionibacterium) acnes
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Actinobacteria
Class: Actinobacteria
Order: Propionibacteriales[1]
Family: Propionibacteriaceae
Genus: Propionibacterium
Species[3]

P. acidifaciens[2]
P. acidipropionici[2]
P. acnes[2]
P. australiense[2]
P. avidum[2]
P. cyclohexanicum[2]
P. damnosum[2]
P. freudenreichii [2]
P. granulosum[2]
P. jensenii[2]
P. lymphophilum [2]
P. microaerophilu[2]
P. namnetense[2]
P. olivae [2]
P. propionicus[2]
P. thoenii[2]

Propionibacterium is a gram-positive, anaerobic, rod-shaped genus of bacteria named for their unique metabolism: They are able to synthesize propionic acid by using unusual transcarboxylase enzymes.[4]

Its members are primarily facultative parasites and commensals of humans and other animals, living in and around the sweat glands, sebaceous glands, and other areas of the skin. They are virtually ubiquitous and do not cause problems for most people, but propionibacteria have been implicated in acne and other skin conditions.[5] One study found the Propionibacterium was the most prevalent human skin-associated genus of microorganisms.[6]

Members of the genus Propionibacterium are widely used in the production of vitamin B12, tetrapyrrole compounds, and propionic acid, as well as in the probiotics and cheese industries.[7]

The strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii is used in cheesemaking to create CO2 bubbles that become "eyes"—round holes in the cheese.[8]

PathologyEdit

Propionibacterium spp. are commensal bacteria that can occasionally cause infectious diseases. The most studied of all infections is Acne vulgaris caused by Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes).[9] It is a chronic inflammatory disease caused due to blockage of pilosebaceous unit causing inflammatory lesions or non inflammatory lesions, or mixture of both on face, neck and chest.[10][11] Acne vulgaris cannot be defined as a an infectious disease since the bacteria is found on a vast majority of individuals without causing lesions.[10] C. acnes colonize the skin only under certain favorable conditions. In most cases, C. acnes get trapped under the comedones and start to proliferate to form micro-comedones, not visible to naked eye,[12] which can later form structures like closed comedones (white heads) and open comedone.[10] Such comedones rupture releasing the follicular material inside the dermis. The cause of rupture was thought to be indirect effect of fat metabolism by the bacteria, but was later found that bacteria directly involve in comedome rupturing by producing factors such as: proteases, hyaluronidases, neuraminidases which might be involved in thinning of epithelium.[13] C. acnes can also produce immune factors such as proinfalmmatory cytokine inducing-factors,[14] chemotactic factors[15] and can induce host compliment pathways.[16]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Madigan, Michael T (2012). Brock: Biology of microorganisms (13th ed.). p. Apendix 2 page 12. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Parte, A.C. "Propionibacterium". www.bacterio.net. 
  3. ^ "Propionibacterium". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). 
  4. ^ Cheung, Y.F., Fung, C., and Walsh, C. "Stereochemistry of propionyl-coenzyme A and pyruvate carboxylations catalyzed by transcarboxylase." 1975. Biochemistry 14(13), pg 2981.
  5. ^ Bojar, R., and Holland, K. "Acne and propionibacterium acnes." 2004. Clinics in Dermatology 22(5), pg. 375-379.
  6. ^ Rust, Susanne (4 February 2012). "UC Berkeley Bacteria Study: Research Shows Humans A Major Source Of Germs". Huffington Post. San Francisco. Retrieved 2012-04-06. 
  7. ^ Kiatpapan P., Murooka Y. Genetic manipulation system in propionibacteria. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering. 93 (1) (pp 1-8), 2002
  8. ^ Making Swiss Cheese - David B. Fankhauser, Ph.D.
  9. ^ Zeller, Valérie A.; Letembet, Valérie-Anne; Meyssonnier, Vanina A.; Heym, Beate; Ziza, Jean-Marc; Marmor, Simon D. (2018-02-12). "Cutibacterium (Formerly Propionibacterium) avidum: A Rare but Avid Agent of Prosthetic Hip Infection". The Journal of Arthroplasty. doi:10.1016/j.arth.2018.02.008. ISSN 1532-8406. PMID 29544969. 
  10. ^ a b c Bhatia, Ajay; Maisonneuve, Jean-Francoise; Persing, David H. (2004). PROPIONIBACTERIUM ACNES AND CHRONIC DISEASES. National Academies Press (US). 
  11. ^ "Acne Vulgaris: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology". 2017-12-15. 
  12. ^ ACNE and ROSACEA | G. Plewig | Springer. 
  13. ^ Noble, W. C. (February 1984). "Skin microbiology: coming of age". Journal of Medical Microbiology. 17 (1): 1–12. doi:10.1099/00222615-17-1-1. ISSN 0022-2615. PMID 6229637. 
  14. ^ Vowels, B R; Yang, S; Leyden, J J (August 1995). "Induction of proinflammatory cytokines by a soluble factor of Propionibacterium acnes: implications for chronic inflammatory acne". Infection and Immunity. 63 (8): 3158–3165. ISSN 0019-9567. PMID 7542639. 
  15. ^ Majeski, J. A.; Stinnett, J. D. (March 1977). "Chemoattractant properties of Corynebacterium parvum and pyran copolymer for human monocytes and neutrophils". Journal of the National Cancer Institute. 58 (3): 781–783. ISSN 0027-8874. PMID 839571. 
  16. ^ Webster, G F; Leyden, J J; Norman, M E; Nilsson, U R (November 1978). "Complement activation in acne vulgaris: in vitro studies with Propionibacterium acnes and Propionibacterium granulosum". Infection and Immunity. 22 (2): 523–529. ISSN 0019-9567. PMID 153333.