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Progonadotropin

A progonadotropin, or hypergonadotropin, also known as a gonad stimulant, is a type of drug which increases the secretion of one or both of the major gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).[1] This, in turn, results in increased function and maintenance of the gonads and increased gonadal steroidogenesis of sex hormones such as androgens, estrogens, and progestogens. Progonadotropins are the functional opposites of antigonadotropins. They have clinical applications in the treatment of hypogonadism and infertility.[2] Conversely, hypergonadotropic effects can occur as a side effect of some drugs. Examples of progonadotropic drugs include gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists when administered in a pulsatile (as opposed to continuous) manner, antiestrogens such as tamoxifen, clomifene, fulvestrant, and aromatase inhibitors like anastrozole,[2] and, only in men, pure antiandrogens such as flutamide, bicalutamide, enzalutamide, and apalutamide.[3]

Progonadotropin
Drug class
Clomifene.svg
Clomifene, a SERM with progonadotropic effects which is used in the treatment of infertility to induce ovulation.
Class identifiers
SynonymsHypergonadotropin; Gonad stimulant
UseHypogonadism, infertility
Chemical classSteroidal; Nonsteroidal
In Wikidata

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Cole, H. H. (1975). "Studies on Reproduction with Emphasis on Gonadotropins, Antigonadotropins and Progonadotropins". Biology of Reproduction. 12 (2): 194–211. doi:10.1095/biolreprod12.2.194. ISSN 0006-3363.
  2. ^ a b Vandekerckhove P, Lilford R, Vail A, Hughes E (2000). "Clomiphene or tamoxifen for idiopathic oligo/asthenospermia". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (2): CD000151. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000151. PMID 10796497.
  3. ^ Perdonà, Sisto; Autorino, Riccardo; De Placido, Sabino; D'Armiento, Massimo; Gallo, Antonio; Damiano, Rocco; Pingitore, Domenico; Gallo, Luigi; De Sio, Marco; Bianco, Angelo Raffaele; Di Lorenzo, Giuseppe (2005). "Efficacy of tamoxifen and radiotherapy for prevention and treatment of gynaecomastia and breast pain caused by bicalutamide in prostate cancer: a randomised controlled trial". The Lancet Oncology. 6 (5): 295–300. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(05)70103-0. ISSN 1470-2045.