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The problem of other minds is a philosophical problem traditionally stated as the following epistemological question: Given that I can only observe the behavior of others, how can I know that others have minds? The problem is that knowledge of other minds is always indirect. The problem of other minds does not negatively impact social interactions due to people having a "theory of mind" - the ability to spontaneously infer the mental states of others - supported by innate mirror neurons, a theory of mind mechanism, or a tacit theory. There has also been an increase in evidence that behavior results from cognition which in turn requires consciousness and the brain.
It is a problem of the philosophical idea known as solipsism: the notion that for any person only one's own mind is known to exist. The problem of other minds maintains that no matter how sophisticated someone's behavior is, that does not reasonably guarantee that someone has the presence of thought occurring within them as when oneself engages in behavior.
See also edit
- Animal consciousness
- Binding problem
- Boltzmann brain
- Brain in a vat
- Chinese room
- Dream argument
- Ethics of uncertain sentience
- Explanatory gap
- Hard problem of consciousness
- Mind–body problem
- Open individualism
- Philosophical skepticism
- Philosophical zombie
- Philosophy of mind
- Turing test
- Theory of mind
- Vertiginous question
- Hyslop, Alec (14 January 2014). Zalta, Edward N.; Nodelman, Uri (eds.). "Other minds". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information, Stanford University. ISSN 1095-5054. Retrieved May 26, 2015.
- Colle, Livia; Becchio, Cristina; Bara, Bruno (2008). "The Non-Problem of the Other Minds: A Neurodevelopmental Perspective on Shared Intentionality". Human Development. 51 (5/6): 336–348. doi:10.1159/000170896. JSTOR 26764876. S2CID 143370747. Retrieved 29 April 2021.
- Leslie, Alan; Friedman, Ori; German, Tim (2004). "Core mechanisms in 'theory of mind'". Trends in Cognitive Sciences. 8 (12): 528–533. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2004.10.001. PMID 15556021. S2CID 17591514.
- Gopnik, Alison; Wellman, Henry (2012). "Reconstructing constructivism: causal models, Bayesian learning mechanisms, and the theory theory". Psychological Bulletin. 138 (6): 1085–1108. doi:10.1037/a0028044. PMC 3422420. PMID 22582739.
- Thornton, Stephen. "Solipsism and the Problem of Other Minds". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. ISSN 2161-0002. Retrieved 2021-06-02.
Further reading edit
- Godfrey-Smith, Peter (2016). Other minds: the octopus, the sea, and the deep origins of consciousness. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux. ISBN 9780374227760. OCLC 957696590.
- Inami, Masahiro (August 2001). "The problem of other minds in the Buddhist epistemological tradition". Journal of Indian Philosophy. 29 (4): 465–483. doi:10.1023/A:1013151011789. JSTOR 23496930. S2CID 169112249.
- Avramides, Anita (2001). Other minds. The problems of philosophy. London; New York: Routledge. doi:10.4324/9780203870174. ISBN 0415033365. OCLC 44613007. S2CID 240744968.
- Dennett, Daniel C. (2017) . Brainstorms: philosophical essays on mind and psychology. A Bradford book (40th anniversary ed.). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. doi:10.7551/mitpress/11146.001.0001. ISBN 9780262534383. OCLC 988171852.
- Buford, Thomas O., ed. (1970). Essays on other minds. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252001230. OCLC 133061.
- Plantinga, Alvin (1967). God and other minds: a study of the rational justification of belief in God. Contemporary philosophy. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press. OCLC 383698.
- Wisdom, John (1966) . Other minds (2nd ed.). Oxford: Blackwell. OCLC 1076880.
- Problem of other minds at PhilPapers
- Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). "Other minds". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
- Problem of other minds at the Indiana Philosophy Ontology Project
- "Problem of other minds". Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.