Problem Video Game Playing Questionnaire

The Problem Video Game Playing Questionnaire (or PVP Questionnaire) is a scale measured by using a survey containing nine yes-or-no questions. It is designed to measure the disorder commonly referred to as video game addiction.[1] The creators of the scale and accompanying survey are Dr. Ricardo Tejeiro-Salguero, a researcher at the University of Liverpool, and Dr. Rosa María Bersabé-Moran, a Psychology professor at the University of Málaga.

Problem Video Game Playing Questionnaire
Purposemeasure video game addiction

Scale edit

The scale's survey questions are based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders[2] (DSM) criteria for substance dependence, and for pathological gambling, as well as the literature on addictions. In presenting their article, published in the British journal Addiction in 2002,[1] Tejeiro-Salguero and Bersabé-Moran showed, through psychometric analysis, that the PVP Questionnaire is one-dimensional, and has acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of 0.69. The pattern of associations between scale scores and alternative measures of problem play (r=0.64 with frequency of play; r=0.52 with mean duration of play; r=0.56 with longest time per session; r=0.47 with score on the Severity of Dependence Scale; all p < 0.001) supports its construct validity.

A study by Hart et al.[3] concluded that, while the PVP is a robust measure of addiction, there is no support for the use of a cutoff score of any level with this instrument.

Further, Tejeiro-Salguero[4] suggested that the pattern of problems associated with high PVP scores can be best referred to as abuse, since it is quite similar to the DSM-IV-TR[5] criteria for substance abuse: a maladaptive pattern (of use) leading to clinically significant impairment or distress as manifested by a failure to fulfill major role obligations at school or home, or continued use despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused or exacerbated by behavior (arguments, physical fights).

A 2013 review presented in the Clinical Psychology Review journal by a team of professors from Australia, the Netherlands and the UK found that, among 18 instruments analyzed, the PVP was the only one that demonstrated capacity to assess the proposed DSM-V classification of "Internet Use Disorder". Four instruments (including the PVP) demonstrated strong convergent validity, and the scores in the scale were positively related to those of the other six instruments reviewed. Also, the PVP and three other instruments demonstrated a single-factor structure with the factor termed "addiction". The authors concluded that "on the basis of available evidence, this review suggests that the Problem Video Game Playing scale may provide the best overall measure of Internet Use Disorder".[6]

Research with the PVP edit

The article presenting the PVP questionnaire was also published in 2003 in the Italian journal Personalita/Dipendenze,[7] edited by the Societa di Studio per i Disturbi di Personalitá and in the Greek journal Exartiseis.[8] A short article including the questionnaire's nine items was also published in the American newsletter The Complete Practitioner.[9]

Since 2003, the PVP (in its original version or with minor changes affecting the number of questions or the response format) has been utilized in a variety of studies conducted in several countries:

United States

  • Lyles (2007)[10]
  • Langley (2010)[11]
  • Elliott, Golub, Ream, & Dunlap (2012)[12]
  • Ream, Elliott & Dunlap (2011a)[13]
  • Ream, Elliott & Dunlap (2011b)[14]
  • Tolchinsky & Jefferson (2011)[15]
  • Lewis, Weber & Bowman (2006)[16]
  • Hart et al. (2009)[3]


  • Adlaf, Paglia-Boak, Beitchman & Wolfe (2008)[17]
  • Parker et al. (2008)[18]
  • Taylor (2008)[19]
  • Lafrenière, Vallerand, Donahue & Lavigne (2009)[20]


  • Hróarsson (2004)[21]
  • Einarsdóttir (2008)[22]
  • Skarphédinsson, Pálsdóttir, & Ólason (2008)[23]
  • Arnasson (2011)[24]


  • Bioulac, Arfi & Bouvard (2008)[25]
  • Bioulac, Arfi & Bouvard (2010)[26]


  • Loton (2007)[27]
  • Porter et al. (2010)[28]


  • Hongsanguansri, Silpakit & Ruangkanchanasetr (2006)[29]
  • Supaket, Munsawaengsub, Nanthamongkolchai, & Apinuntavetch (2008)[30]


  • Tejeiro, Angulo, Gómez-Vallecillo, Pelegrina, Wallace & Emberley (2012)[31]


  • Icassati-Suzuki, Vieira, Araujo, & Magallaes (2009)[32]


  • Arab et al. (2007)[33]


  • Vallejos & Capa (2010)[34]

United Kingdom

  • Collins, Freeman, & Chamarro-Premuzic (2012)[35]


  • De-Lin Sun et al. (2008)[36]

References edit

  1. ^ a b Tejeiro Salguero, Ricardo A.; Morán, Rosa M. Bersabé (2002). "Measuring problem video game playing in adolescents". Addiction. 97 (12): 1601–6. doi:10.1046/j.1360-0443.2002.00218.x. PMID 12472644.
  2. ^ DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association, 1994.
  3. ^ a b Hart, Gordon M.; Johnson, Bryan; Stamm, Brian; Angers, Nick; Robinson, Adam; Lally, Tara; Fagley, William H. (2009). "Effects of Video Games on Adolescents and Adults". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 12 (1): 63–65. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0117. PMID 19006462.
  4. ^ "Tejeiro, R. (2002). Los videojuegos, ¿adicción o abuso? Categorización, consideraciones metodológicas y análisis de factores de riesgo". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-08-08.
  5. ^ "American Psychiatric Association (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.)". Archived from the original on 2012-05-01. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  6. ^ King, D. L.; Haagsma, M. C.; Delfabbro, P. H.; Gradisar, M; Griffiths, M. D. (Apr 2013). "King, Haagsma, Delfabbro, Gradisar & Griffiths (2013). Toward a consensus definition of pathological video gaming: a systematic review of psychometric assessment tools". Clin Psychol Rev. 33 (3): 339–340. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2013.01.002. hdl:2440/78779. PMID 23396015.
  7. ^ "Tejeiro (2003). Dipendenza dai videogiocchi". Archived from the original on 2006-09-25. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  8. ^ "Tejeiro (2003). Exartiseis, 3, 146-156" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-03-08. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  9. ^ Choliz, Mariano; Marco, Clara (2011). "Patrón de Uso y Dependencia de Videojuegos en Infancia y Adolescencia". Anales de Psicología. 27 (2).
  10. ^ "Lyles, H. (2007). Video game addiction: truth or fiction" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-06-23. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  11. ^ "Langley, A. (2010). Correlates of video game addiction" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  12. ^ Elliott, Luther; Golub, Andrew; Ream, Geoffrey; Dunlap, Eloise (2012). "Video Game Genre as a Predictor of Problem Use". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 15 (3): 155–161. doi:10.1089/cyber.2011.0387. PMC 3304244. PMID 22242785.
  13. ^ Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise (2011). "Patterns of and Motivations for Concurrent Use of Video Games and Substances". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8 (10): 3999–4012. doi:10.3390/ijerph8103999. PMC 3210593. PMID 22073024.
  14. ^ Ream, Geoffrey L.; Elliott, Luther C.; Dunlap, Eloise (2011). "Playing Video Games While Using or Feeling the Effects of Substances: Associations with Substance Use Problems". International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 8 (10): 3979–98. doi:10.3390/ijerph8103979. PMC 3210592. PMID 22073023.
  15. ^ Tolchinsky, Anatol; Jefferson, Stephen D. (2011). "Problematic Video Game Play in a College Sample and Its Relationship to Time Management Skills and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomology". Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 14 (9): 489–96. doi:10.1089/cyber.2010.0315. PMID 21288135.
  16. ^ Lewis, Melissa L.; Weber, René; Bowman, Nicholas David (2008). "'They May Be Pixels, but They're MY Pixels:' Developing a Metric of Character Attachment in Role-Playing Video Games". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 11 (4): 515–8. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0137. PMID 18721102.
  17. ^ "Adlaf, E.M., Paglia-Boak, A, Beitchman, J.H., & Wolfe, D. (2008). The Mental health and Well-Being of Ontario Students, 1991-2007: Detailed OSDUHS Findings" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  18. ^ Parker, James D.A.; Taylor, Robyn N.; Eastabrook, Jennifer M.; Schell, Stacey L.; Wood, Laura M. (2008). "Problem gambling in adolescence: Relationships with internet misuse, gaming abuse and emotional intelligence". Personality and Individual Differences. 45 (2): 174. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.03.018.
  19. ^ Taylor, R.N. (2008). Adolescent Problem Gambling: Relationship With Affect Regulation, Internet Addiction and Problematic Video Game Playing (Master thesis). Trent University. OCLC 682256367.
  20. ^ Lafrenière, Marc-André K.; Vallerand, Robert J.; Donahue, Eric G.; Lavigne, Geneviève L. (2009). "On the Costs and Benefits of Gaming: The Role of Passion". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 12 (3): 285–90. doi:10.1089/cpb.2008.0234. PMID 19366320. S2CID 19559763.
  21. ^ "Hróarsson, H. (2004). Athugun á hugsanlegum vanda vegna tölvuleikjanotkun medal báttakenda á skjálfta 2004; cited in Arnason, 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  22. ^ "Einarsdóttir, H. (2008). Tölvuleikjaspilun ungmenna, algengi hugsanlegs tölvuleikjavanda og tengsl við áhættuþætti; cited in Arnason, 2011" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  23. ^ "Skarphédinsson, G.A., Pálsdóttir, S.E. y Ólason, D.P. (2008). Mat á tölvuleikjavanda: Próffraedilegir eiginleikar og tengsl vid tölvuleikjategundir" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2009-08-14. Retrieved 2012-05-05.
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  25. ^ Bioulac, Stéphanie; Arfi, Lisa; Bouvard, Manuel P. (2008). "Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and video games: A comparative study of hyperactive and control children". European Psychiatry. 23 (2): 134–41. doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2007.11.002. PMID 18206354. S2CID 8029846.
  26. ^ Bioulac, S.; Arfi, L.; Michel, G.; Bouvard, M.-P. (2010). "Intérêt de l'utilisation du questionnaire des problèmes associés aux jeux vidéo de Tejeiro (Problem Videogame Playing: PVP). Étude exploratoire chez des enfants présentant un TDA/H". Annales médico-psychologiques. 168 (8): 632. doi:10.1016/j.amp.2010.07.001. S2CID 143250760.
  27. ^ "Loton, D. (2007). Problem Video Game Playing, Self Esteem and Social Skills: An Online Study". Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  28. ^ Porter, G; Starcevic, V; Berle, D; Fenech, P (2010). "Recognizing problem video game use". The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry. 44 (2): 120–8. doi:10.3109/00048670903279812. PMID 20113300. S2CID 22562724.
  29. ^ "Hongsanguansri, S., Silpakit, C. & Ruangkanchanasetr, S. (2006). The Development of Problem Video Game Playing (PVP) Questionnaire, Thai version" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-05.
  30. ^ "Supaket, P., Munsawaengsub, Ch, Nanthamongkolchai, S. y Apinuntavetch, S. (2008). Factors Affecting Computer Game Addiction and Mental Health of Male Adolescents in Mueang District, Si Sa Ket Province" (PDF). Retrieved 2012-05-05.[permanent dead link]
  31. ^ Tejeiro-Salguero; Angulo; Gómez-Vallecillo; Romero; Pelegrina; Wallace; Emberley (2012). "The relationship between perceived emotional intelligence and problema video game playing in adolescents". {{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  32. ^ Suzuki, Fernanda Tomie Icassati; Matias, Marcelo Vieira; Silva, Maria Teresa Araujo; Oliveira, Maria Paula Magalhães Tavares de (2009). "O uso de videogames, jogos de computador e internet por uma amostra de universitários da Universidade de São Paulo" [The use of video, computer and internet games by a sample of college students from the University of São Paulo]. Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria (in Portuguese). 58 (3): 162–8. doi:10.1590/S0047-20852009000300004.
  33. ^ Arab, Elías; Sommer, Katerina; Herkovic, Viviana; Sommer, Sandra; Sandoval, Cecilia; Poblete, Catalina (2007). "Evaluación del uso de video juego en escolares de la Región Metropolitana" [Evaluation of the use of video game in school children of Metropolitan Region]. Revista Sociedad de Psiquiatria y Neurologia de la Infancia y Adolescencia (in Spanish). 18 (2): 7–11.
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  36. ^ Sun, De-Lin; Ma, Ning; Bao, Min; Chen, Xang-Chuan; Zhang, Da-Ren (2008). "Computer Games: A Double-Edged Sword?". CyberPsychology & Behavior. 11 (5): 545–8. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0145. hdl:10722/169052. PMID 18817481. S2CID 12824357.