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Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels

Prince Carl (Karl) of Solms-Braunfels (27 July 1812 – 13 November 1875), was a German prince and military officer in both the Austrian army and in the cavalry of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. As Commissioner General of the Adelsverein, he spearheaded the establishment of colonies of German immigrants in Texas. Prince Solms named New Braunfels, Texas in honor of his homeland.

Prince Carl
Carl zu solms.jpg
Born (1812-07-27)27 July 1812
Neustrelitz
Died 13 November 1875(1875-11-13) (aged 63)
Rheingrafenstein
Spouse
  • Luise Auguste Stephanie Beyrich (m. 1834; div. 1841)
  • Princess Sophie of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg (m. 1845; d. 1875)
Issue
  • Marie von Schönau de Solms
  • Karl Louis von Schönau de Solms
  • Melanie von Schönau de Solms
  • Prince Ludwig
  • Princess Eulalia
  • Princess Marie
  • Princess Sophie
  • Prince Alexander
Full name
Friedrich Wilhelm Karl Ludwig Georg Alfred Alexander
Father Prince Frederick William of Solms-Braunfels
Mother Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Religion Lutheranism

Contents

Early years and family lifeEdit

Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Karl Ludwig Georg Alfred Alexander of Solms-Braunfels was born in Neustrelitz. His father was Prince Friedrich Wilhelm of Solms-Braunfels, second husband of Princess Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, who bore thirteen children during the course of her three marriages.[1]

Although he was the landless, younger son of a younger son of a minor German prince whose realm had been mediatized in 1806, Friedrich's 1834 marriage to Luise Auguste Stephanie Beyrich was considered below his princely station and had to be conducted morganatically. In 1837 his mother became queen consort of Hanover. Shortly before her death in 1841 his step-father, King Ernest Augustus I, a member of the British royal family, succeeded in pressuring Friedrich to make a monetary arrangement with his wife and three children for a de facto royal annulment. Luise and Marie (born 1835, married Wilhelm Bähr), Karl Louis (1837-1918, married Wilhelmine Gantenhammer), and Melanie (born 1840, married Karl Heil), were ennobled in the Grand Duchy of Hesse under the name von Schönau on 25 March 1841. The family was further ennobled in 1912 with the surname von Schönau de Solms.[2]

Prince Solms married Maria Josephine Sophie,[3] widow of Prince Franz of Salm-Salm and a princess of Lowenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, on 3 December 1845. The union produced five children:[1]

  • Prince Ludwig (1847–1900)
  • Princess Eulalia (1851–1922), married Edouard, son of Eugène, 8th Prince of Ligne
  • Princess Marie (1852–1882)
  • Princess Sophie (1853–1869)
  • Prince Alexander (1855–1926).

Friedrich was well-educated, well-connected, and handsome. An adventure seeker, he became Captain in the cavalry in the Imperial Army of Austria in 1841.[4]

TexasEdit

It was during his service with the cavalry that Carl read books about Texas and became interested in joining the Adelsverein. Appointed its Commissioner General in 1844,[5] he was the motivating force for the first colony of German emigrants to Texas. He arrived on Texas soil in July 1844, making an exploratory tour as advisor to the Adelsverein, which owned the rights to the Fisher-Miller Land Grant.[6] Subsequently Carl purchased an additional 1,300 acres (5.3 km2) on the Guadalupe River on behalf of the Adelsverein, where he established the colony of New Braunfels, Texas.[7] His vision cleared the path for John O. Meusebach to follow in 1845 as the organizer, negotiator and political force needed for community-building structure in the "New Germany".[8]

In anticipation of his marriage to Maria Josephine Sophie, Prince Solms formed plans to build "Sophie's Castle", laying the cornerstone in New Braunfels in 1845.[9] Sophie refused to leave Germany, and Carl never returned to Texas after his 3 December 1845 marriage to her.

Return to Germany and later yearsEdit

After returning to Germany, he left the Austrian army and became a colonel in the cavalry of the Grand Duchy of Hesse[10] in 1846. He was able to rejoin the Austrian army in 1850, becoming a brigadier in 1859 with command of dragoons on Lake Constance. He took part in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War.[11] He retired as a Feldmarschallleutnant (Lieutenant General) in 1868 to his residence at the estate of Rheingrafenstein near Kreuznach on the Nahe River. Prince Solms died on 13 November 1875 and is interred in the city cemetery of Bad Kreuznach.

TimelineEdit

Timeline of the Life of Prince Carl (Karl) of Solms-Braunfels
Year Event
1812
  • 27 July – Friedrich Wilhelm Karl Ludwig Georg Alfred Alexander[10] is born in Neustrelitz
1834
  • Marries Louise Auguste Stephanie Beyrich, later von Schönau,[12] mother to three of his children
1841
  • Separates from Louise to save his career
1842
1844
  • Commissioner General of the first colony that the society proposed to establish in Texas
  • 1 July – Arrives in Galveston, purchases land on Matagorda Bay to be called Carlshafen, or Indianola
1845
  • Secures title to 1,265 acres (5.12 km2) of the Veramendi grant, including the Comal Springs and River, for the Adelsverein[14]
  • 21 March – Founds New Braunfels[7]
  • 15 May – Returns to Germany
  • 3 December – Marries the widow Maria Josephine Sophie,[3] widow of Prince Franz of Salm-Salm and princess of Lowenstein-Wertheim-Rosenberg, mother to five of Carl's children
1846
  • Leaves the Austrian army – becomes a Colonel in the cavalry of the Grand Duchy of Hesse
1850
  • Rejoins the Austrian army
1859
  • Becomes a brigadier with command of dragoons on Lake Constance
1866
  • Takes part in Austria war against Prussia.
1868
  • Retires as a Feldmarschallleutnant (Lieutenant General) to Rheingrafenstein near Kreuznach on the Nahe River
1875
  • 13 November – dies[1] Is interred in the city cemetery of Bad Kreuznach

AncestryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c "Solms-Braunfels Royalty 1800–1940". RoyaltyGuide=Netherlands. Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
  2. ^ Genealogisches Handbuch des in Bayern immatrikulierten Adels p. 743 Band XXII, Verlag Degener & Co, Neustadt an der Aisch 1998
  3. ^ a b "Solms-Braunfels Princes 1800–1940". RoyaltyGuide=Netherlands. Retrieved 8 May 2010. 
  4. ^ "Imperial Army of Austria". International Napoleonic Wargaming Club. Retrieved 8 May 2010.  International Napoleonic Wargaming Club
  5. ^ "A Guide to the Solms-Braunfels Archives, 1842–1957". Texas Archival Research Online. Retrieved 8 May 2010.  Briscoe Center, UT Austin
  6. ^ Biesele, Rudolph L: Fisher-Miller Land Grant from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 08 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association
  7. ^ a b Carl of Solms, Prince (2000). Voyage to North America, 1844–45: Prince Carl of Solms' Texas Diary of People, Places, and Events. University of North Texas Press. ISBN 978-1-57441-124-9. 
  8. ^ a b Brister, Louis E.: Adelsverein from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 08 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association
  9. ^ "Sophienburg, New Braunfels, Texas". Sophienburg Museum & Archives. Retrieved 14 May 2011.  Sophienburg Museum & Archives
  10. ^ a b Lich, Glen E and Moltmann, Gunter: Prince Karl of Solms-Braunfels from the Handbook of Texas Online. Retrieved 08 May 2010. Texas State Historical Association.
  11. ^ "Austro-Prussian War". Wars of the World. Retrieved 8 May 2010.  OnWar.com
  12. ^ Theroff, Paul. "An Online Gotha – Solms". Retrieved 22 June 2010. 
  13. ^ Geue, Ethel H (2009). New Homes in a New Land German Immigration to Texas, 1847–1861. Clearfield. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-8063-0980-4. 
  14. ^ Block, W T. "The Story of Our Texas German Pilgrims". Texas Escapes – Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved 8 May 2010.  Texas Escapes – Blueprints For Travel, LLC.

External linksEdit