Primorsky District, Arkhangelsk Oblast
Primorsky District (Russian: Примо́рский райо́н) is an administrative district (raion), one of the twenty-one in Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. As a municipal division, it is incorporated as Primorsky Municipal District, and also includes Solovetsky Islands in the White Sea and Franz Josef Land and Victoria Island in the Arctic Ocean (even though within the administrative framework those are incorporated as Solovetsky District and the island territories, respectively). It is located in the north of the oblast and borders with Mezensky District in the northeast, Pinezhsky District in the east, Kholmogorsky District in the southeast, Plesetsky District in the south, and with Onezhsky District in the south. From the north, the district is washed by the White Sea. The area of the district is 46,100 square kilometers (17,800 sq mi). Its administrative center is the city of Arkhangelsk (which is not administratively a part of the district). Population: 25,466 (2010 Census); 29,365 (2002 Census); 31,813 (1989 Census).
St. George Church from Vershiny (Malye Korely), Primorsky District
Location of Primorsky Municipal District in Arkhangelsk Oblast
|Federal subject||Arkhangelsk Oblast|
|Established||July 15, 1929|
|• Total||46,100 km2 (17,800 sq mi)|
| • Estimate |
|• Density||0.55/km2 (1.4/sq mi)|
|• Administrative divisions||17 selsoviet|
|• Inhabited localities||206 Rural localities|
|• Municipally incorporated as||Primorsky Municipal District|
|• Municipal divisions||0 Urban settlements, 19 Rural settlements|
|Time zone||UTC+3 (MSK )|
The district occupies the lower course of the Northern Dvina River and the White Sea coast around the Dvina Bay. The waters of the district drain into the Northern Dvina and the short rivers of the Dvina Bay basin, such as the Shirshema and the Lodma. The eastern part of the district is a plateau which drains into the Soyana, a major tributary of the Kuloy. The source of the Soyana is located within the district limits. Minor areas in the southeast of the district belong to the basins of other tributaries of the Kuloy, such as the Kyolda and the Polta. There are many lakes throughout the district.
The western part of the district is located on the Onega Peninsula, which is shared with Onezhsky District. A national park, Onezhskoye Pomorye National Park, was opened on the peninsula on 26 February 2013.
The area was originally populated by the Finno-Ugric peoples and then colonized by the Novgorod Republic. Novgorod merchants reached the White Sea in the 13th century; the Pomors, who inhabit the White Sea coast now, are the descendants of the original Novgorod population. After the fall of Novgorod, the area became a part of the Grand Duchy of Moscow. Until the 1700s, Arkhangelsk was the main trading harbor for the sea trade of Russia and Western Europe, and the Northern Dvina was the main trading route connecting central Russia with Arkhangelsk. The traditional occupation of the population of the Dvina Bay was fishery and trade. Peter the Great drastically changed the situation, by founding St. Petersburg in 1703, thus opening the way for the Baltic Sea trade.
In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, the area was included into Archangelgorod Governorate. In 1780, the governorate was abolished and transformed into Vologda Viceroyalty, and the area was included into Arkhangelsky Uyezd. In 1796, the area was transferred to Arkhangelsk Governorate.
In 1929, several governorates were merged into Northern Krai. On July 15, 1929, the uyezds were abolished, and Primorsky District was established. It became a part of Arkhangelsk Okrug of Northern Krai. In the following years, the first-level administrative division of Russia kept changing. In 1930, the okrug was abolished, and the district was subordinated to the central administration of Northern Krai. In 1936, the krai was transformed into Northern Oblast. In 1937, Northern Oblast itself was split into Arkhangelsk Oblast and Vologda Oblast. Primorsky District remained in Arkhangelsk Oblast ever since. The location of the administrative center of the district was moved several times until Arkhangelsk finally became the center.
On December 17, 1940, Belomorsky District was established on the Onega Peninsula, in the areas which previously were parts of Primorsky and Onezhsky Districts. The administrative center of the district became the settlement of Pertominsk. On September 30, 1958, Belomorsky District was abolished, and the area of the district was shared between Primorsky and Onezhsky Districts.
Administrative and municipal statusEdit
Within the framework of administrative divisions, Primorsky District is one of the twenty-one in the oblast. The city of Arkhangelsk serves as its administrative center, despite being incorporated separately as a city of oblast significance—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. The district is divided into seventeen selsoviets. One locality which previously had work settlement status (Uyemsky), was downgraded to rural status in 2006. The following selsoviets have been established (the administrative centers are given in parentheses):
- Katuninsky (Katunino)
- Koskogorsky (Bobrovo)
- Lastolsky (Lastola)
- Letne-Zolotitsky (Letnyaya Zolotitsa)
- Lisestrovsky (Okulovo)
- Lopshengsky (Lopshenga)
- Lyavlensky (Khorkovo)
- Patrakeyevsky (Patrakeyevka)
- Pertominsky (Pertominsk)
- Povrakulsky (Povrakulskaya)
- Primorsky (Rikasikha)
- Pustoshinsky (Odinochka)
- Talazhsky (Talagi)
- Uyemsky (Uyemsky)
- Voznesensky (Voznesenye)
- Zaostrovsky (Bolshoye Anisimovo)
- Zimne-Zolotitsky (Verkhnyaya Zolotitsa)
As a municipal division, the district is incorporated as Primorsky Municipal District. The city of oblast significance of Arkhangelsk is incorporated separately from the district as Arkhangelsk Urban Okrug. The territories of both Primorsky and Solovetsky Districts are included into Primorsky Municipal District. Within the framework of municipal divisions, Solovetsky District is incorporated as Solovetskoye Rural Settlement within Primorsky Municipal District. Primorsky Municipal District is divided into nineteen rural settlements (the administrative centers are given in parentheses):
- Katuninskoye Rural Settlement (Katunino)
- Koskogorskoye Rural Settlement (Bobrovo)
- Lastolskoye Rural Settlement (Lastola)
- Letne-Zolotitskoye Rural Settlement (Letnyaya Zolotitsa)
- Lisestrovskoye Rural Settlement (Okulovo)
- Lopshengskoye Rural Settlement (Lopshenga)
- Lyavlenskoye Rural Settlement (Khorkovo)
- Patrakeyevskoye Rural Settlement (Patrakeyevka)
- Pertominskoye Rural Settlement (Pertominsk)
- Povrakulskoye Rural Settlement (Povrakulskaya)
- Primorskoye Rural Settlement (Rikasikha)
- Pustoshinskoye Rural Settlement (Odinochka)
- Solovetskoye Rural Settlement (Solovetsky)
- Talazhskoye Rural Settlement (Talagi)
- Uyemskoye Rural Settlement (Uyemsky)
- Vaskovskoye Rural Settlement (Vaskovo)
- Voznesenskoye Rural Settlement (Voznesenye)
- Zaostrovskoye Rural Settlement (Bolshoye Anisimovo)
- Zimne-Zolotitskoye Rural Settlement (Verkhnyaya Zolotitsa)
The economy of the district is based on timber industry and fishing.
Railroads connect the cities of Arkhangelsk and Severodvinsk with Obozyorskaya railway station, and further with Vologda and Belomorsk. A railway line connecting Arkhangelsk and Karpogory also passes through the district. This line is expected to become a part of the Belkomur project—a railway line connecting Arkhangelsk via the Komi Republic with Perm Krai and the Ural Mountains. The stretch between Arkhangelsk and Karpogory was built in the 1970s. Kholmogorskaya railway station on the railroad between Moscow and Arkhangelsk is located in Plesetsky District.
There are many roads around Arkhangelsk. The Northern Dvina is navigable, and there is regular passenger navigation upstream from Arkhangelsk. There is also regular, albeit infrequent, sea passenger navigation connecting Arkhangelsk with the settlements on the Onega Peninsula (including Pertominsk, Lopshenga, and Letnyaya Zolotitsa) which are not connected to the all-season road network. Arkhangelsk also has air connections with these settlements, as well as with Solovetsky Islands.
Culture and recreationEdit
There are two state museums in the district. The Malye Korely Open Air Museum is located approximately 30 kilometers (19 mi) south of Arkhangelsk. It was created to protect the oeuvres of the Russian wooden architecture, and contains many buildings from various parts of Arkhangelsk Oblast. There is also the Primorye Handicraft Museum, located in the settlement of Uyemsky.
The district contains 151 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage by the Russian Federal law and additionally 49 objects classified as cultural and historical heritage of local importance. Most of these belong to the Malye Korely Museum. Other monuments protected at the federal level include:
- the Izhma Pogost consisting of the Transfiguration Church (1679), the Resurrection Church (1881–1887), and the house of a priest
- the Konetsdvorye Pogost consisting of the St. Nicholas Church (1769) and the bell-tower (1905)
- the Assumption Church in Lyavlenskoye Rural Settlement (1581–1584)
- the Mudyuzhsky Pogost in the village of Patrakeyevka, consisting of the St. Nicolas wooden church (1744) and the Assumption Church (1870–1878)
- the buildings of the former prison camp on Mudyug Island, organized by British and American forces during the Russian Civil War
Russian North and Primorsky District in particular is an area notable for its folklore. Until the mid-20th century, fairy tales and bylinas were still performed on the daily basis by performers who became professionals. Agrafena Kryukova and her daughter Marfa Kryukova from the village of Verkhnyaya Zolotitsa were the best known fairy tale performers in the area. Starting from the 1890s, folkloric expeditions were organized to the White Sea area, and later to other areas of Arkhangelsk Governorate, in order to write down the tales and the bylinas, especially in the Pomor dialects. In the 1920s, mostly due to the efforts of Anna Astakhova, these expeditions became systematic. The results have been published. By the 1960s, the performing art was basically extinct. These folkloric motives and fairy tales inspired the literary works of Stepan Pisakhov, a native of Arkhangelsk. Many fairy tales of Pisakhov are set against the village of Uyma (currently Uyemsky).
- Law #65-5-OZ
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- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 252», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 11 252, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
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- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года [2010 All-Russia Population Census] (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service.
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- Law #258-vneoch.-OZ
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- Государственный комитет Российской Федерации по статистике. Комитет Российской Федерации по стандартизации, метрологии и сертификации. №ОК 019-95 1 января 1997 г. «Общероссийский классификатор объектов административно-территориального деления. Код 11 401», в ред. изменения №278/2015 от 1 января 2016 г.. (State Statistics Committee of the Russian Federation. Committee of the Russian Federation on Standardization, Metrology, and Certification. #OK 019-95 January 1, 1997 Russian Classification of Objects of Administrative Division (OKATO). Code 11 401, as amended by the Amendment #278/2015 of January 1, 2016. ).
- Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian).
- Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года [All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. 1989 – via Demoscope Weekly.
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- See OKATO and Law #258-vneoch.-OZ
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- Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №65-5-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2009 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Архангельской области», в ред. Областного закона №232-13-ОЗ от 16 декабря 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в отдельные Областные Законы в сфере осуществления местного самоуправления и взаимодействия с некоммерческими организациями». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №43, 6 октября 2009 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #65-5-OZ of September 23, 2009 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Arkhangelsk Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #232-13-OZ of December 16, 2014 On Amending Various Oblast Laws Dealing with the Process of Municipal Self-Government and Relations with Non-Profit Organizations. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication.).
- Архангельское областное Собрание депутатов. Областной закон №258-внеоч.-ОЗ от 23 сентября 2004 г. «О статусе и границах территорий муниципальных образований в Архангельской области», в ред. Областного закона №224-13-ОЗ от 16 декабря 2014 г. «Об упразднении отдельных населённых пунктов Соловецкого района Архангельской области и о внесении изменения в статью 46 Областного закона "О статусе и границах территорий муниципальных образований в Архангельской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Волна", №38, 8 октября 2004 г. (Arkhangelsk Oblast Council of Deputies. Oblast Law #258-vneoch.-OZ of September 23, 2004 On the Status and Borders of the Territories of the Municipal Formations in Arkhangelsk Oblast, as amended by the Oblast Law #224-13-OZ of December 16, 2014 On Abolishing Several Inhabited Localities in Solovetsky District of Arkhangelsk Oblast and on Amending Article 46 of the Oblast Law "On the Status and Borders of the Territories of the Municipal Formations in Arkhangelsk Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).