Primary isolate is a pure microbial or viral sample that has been obtained from an infected individual, rather than grown in a laboratory. In chemistry and bacteriology, the verb isolate means to obtain a pure chemical, bacteriological or viral sample. The noun 'isolate' refers to the sample itself.
Primary isolate is also used to describe functions available with certain pipeline valves used in the petroleum and natural gas industries: "DFB Series Integral Block & Bleed Ball Valve...A range of flanged ball valves with the option of Primary Isolate, Primary Isolate & Vent & Primary & Secondary Isolate & Vent."
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