President of Paraguay
The President of Paraguay (Spanish: Presidente del Paraguay), officially known as the President of the Republic of Paraguay (Spanish: Presidente de la República del Paraguay), is according to the Constitution of Paraguay the head of the executive branch of the Government of Paraguay, both head of state and head of government. His honorific title is Su Excelencia.
|President of the|
Republic of Paraguay
Presidente de la República del Paraguay
Standard of the President of the Republic
|Seat||Palacio de los López|
|Appointer||Direct popular election|
|Term length||Five years, non-renewable|
|Inaugural holder||Carlos Antonio López|
|Formation||March 13, 1844|
|Deputy||Vice President of Paraguay|
Under the 1992 constitution, the President is limited to a single five-year term. An attempt by the Senate to abolish term limits on 1 April 2017 resulted in protests; it was ultimately rejected.
The current President of Paraguay is Mario Abdo Benítez, since 15 August 2018.
List of heads of state of Paraguay (1811–present)Edit
Non-presidential heads of state (1811–1844)Edit
|Term of office||Notes|
|1 2 3||Bernardo de Velasco
José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
Juan Valeriano de Zevallos
|16 May 1811||17 June 1811||Governor Intendants.|
|17 June 1811||12 October 1813||President of the Superior Governing Junta.|
|5||José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
|12 October 1813||12 February 1814||Consul of the Republic.|
|12 February 1814||12 June 1814||Consul of the Republic.|
|6||José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia
|12 June 1814||3 October 1814||Consul of the Republic.|
|3 October 1814||30 May 1816||Supreme Dictator.|
|30 May 1816||20 September 1840||Perpetual Dictator. Died in office.|
|7||Manuel Antonio Ortiz
|20 September 1840||21 January 1841||President of the Provisional Junta.|
|8 9 10||Juan José Medina
José Gabriel Benítez
|21 January 1841||9 February 1841||Triumvirate.|
|11||Mariano Roque Alonzo
|9 February 1841||12 March 1841||General Commander of Arms.|
|12||Carlos Antonio López
Mariano Roque Alonzo
|12 March 1841||13 March 1844||Consuls of the Republic.|
|Term of office||Party||Election||Notes||Vice President|
|13||Carlos Antonio López
|13 March 1844||13 March 1854||—||—||Elected by the Congress for a term of ten years.||Post not established|
|13 March 1854||13 March 1857||—||Elected by the Congress for a term of three years.|
|13 March 1857||10 September 1862||—||Elected by the Congress for a term of ten years. Died in office.|
|14||Francisco Solano López
|10 September 1862||16 October 1862||—||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress.|
|16 October 1862||1 March 1870||—||Elected by the Congress for a term of ten years. Killed in the Paraguayan War.|
|15 16 17||Cirilo Antonio Rivarola
José Díaz de Bedoya
|15 August 1869||31 August 1870||—||—||Triumvirate proclaimed by the occupying forces of the Triple Alliance.|
|31 August 1870||1 September 1870||—||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Deposed in a coup.|
|19||Cirilo Antonio Rivarola
|1 September 1870||25 November 1870||—||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress after a coup.|
|25 November 1870||18 December 1871||1870||Resigned.||Cayo Miltos[a]|
|18 December 1871||25 November 1874||—||—||Vice President under Cirilo Antonio Rivarola, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Finished the presidential period 1870-1874.||Vacant|
|21||Juan Bautista Gill
|25 November 1874||12 April 1877||—||1874||Assassinated.||Higinio Uriarte|
|12 April 1877||25 November 1878||—||—||Vice President under Juan Bautista Gill, assumed the presidency after his assassination. Finished the presidential period 1874-1878.||Vacant|
|25 November 1878||4 September 1880||—||1878||Died in office.||Adolfo Saguier|
|4 September 1880||25 November 1882||—||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress after the Vice President under Bareiro, Adolfo Saguier, and next president in the succession line, was forced to resign by the military. Finished the presidential period 1878-1882.||Vacant|
|25 November 1882||25 November 1886||1882||Juan Antonio Jara|
|25 November 1886||25 November 1890||ANR-Colorado||1886||José del Rosario Miranda|
|26||Juan Gualberto González
|25 November 1890||9 June 1894||ANR-Colorado||1890||Forced to resign by a coup.||Marcos Morínigo|
|9 June 1894||25 November 1894||ANR-Colorado||—||Vice President under Juan Gualberto González, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Finished the presidential period 1890-1894.||Vacant|
|28||Juan Bautista Egusquiza
|25 November 1894||25 November 1898||ANR-Colorado||1894||Facundo Ynsfrán Caballero|
|25 November 1898||9 January 1902||ANR-Colorado||1898||Forced to resign by a coup.||Andrés Héctor Carvallo|
|30||Andrés Héctor Carvallo
|9 January 1902||25 November 1902||ANR-Colorado||—||Vice President under Emilio Aceval, assumed the presidency after his resignation. Finished the presidential period 1898-1902.||Vacant|
|31||Juan Antonio Escurra
|25 November 1902||19 December 1904||ANR-Colorado||1902||Deposed in a coup.||Manuel Domínguez|
|32||Juan Bautista Gaona
|19 December 1904||9 December 1905||Liberal||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress after Escurra and his Vice President, Manuel Domínguez, resigned in the coup. Deposed in a coup.||Vacant|
|9 December 1905||25 November 1906||Liberal||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1902-1906.|
|25 November 1906||4 July 1908||Liberal||1906||Deposed in a coup.||Emiliano González Navero|
|35||Emiliano González Navero
|4 July 1908||25 November 1910||Liberal||—||Vice President under Benigno Ferreira, assumed the presidency after the coup. Finished the presidential period 1906-1910. First term.||Vacant|
|25 November 1910||17 January 1911||Liberal||1910||First term. Deposed in a coup.||Juan Bautista Gaona|
|17 January 1911||5 July 1911||Liberal||—||De facto president after a coup. Resigned.||Vacant|
|38||Liberato Marcial Rojas
|5 July 1911||14 January 1912||Liberal||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Deposed in a coup.|
|39 40 41||
||Marcos Caballero Codas
|14 January 1912||17 January 1912||—||—||De facto triumvirate after a coup.|
|38||Liberato Marcial Rojas
|17 January 1912||28 February 1912||Liberal||—||Restoration of its original mandate. Deposed in a coup.|
|42||Pedro Pablo Peña
|28 February 1912||22 March 1912||ANR-Colorado||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Deposed in a coup.|
|35||Emiliano González Navero
|22 March 1912||15 August 1912||Liberal||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Second term.|
|15 August 1912||15 August 1916||Liberal||1912||Pedro Bobadilla|
|15 August 1916||5 June 1919||Liberal||1916||Died in office.||José Pedro Montero|
|45||José Pedro Montero
|5 June 1919||15 August 1920||Liberal||—||Vice President under Manuel Franco, assumed the presidency after his death. Finished the presidential period 1916-1920.||Vacant|
|15 August 1920||29 October 1921||Liberal||1920||Second term. Resigned.||Félix Paiva|
|29 October 1921||7 November 1921||Liberal||—||Vice President under Manuel Gondra, assumed the presidency after his resignation. First term. Resigned.||Vacant|
|7 November 1921||12 April 1923||Liberal||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. First term. Resigned during in the Civil War of 1922.|
|12 April 1923||17 March 1924||Liberal||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. First term. Resigned.|
|49||Luis Alberto Riart
|17 March 1924||15 August 1924||Liberal||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1920-1924.|
|15 August 1924||15 August 1928||Liberal||1924||Second term.||Manuel Burgos|
|50||José Patricio Guggiari
|15 August 1928||25 October 1931||Liberal||1928||Resigned to stand an impeachment.||Emiliano González Navero|
|35||Emiliano González Navero
|25 October 1931||27 January 1932||Liberal||—||Vice President under José Patricio Guggiari, assumed the presidency during his impeachment. Third term.||Vacant|
|50||José Patricio Guggiari
|27 January 1932||15 August 1932||Liberal||—||Restoration of its original mandate after being absolved from impeachment.||Emiliano González Navero|
|15 August 1932||17 February 1936||Liberal||1932||Second term. Paraguayan victory in the Chaco War. Deposed after the Febrerista Revolution.||Raúl Casal Ribeiro|
|17 February 1936||13 August 1937||Military||—||De facto president after a coup. Deposed after a coup.||Vacant|
|13 August 1937||11 October 1938||Liberal||—||De facto president after a coup. Second term.|
|11 October 1938||15 August 1939||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress.|
|52||José Félix Estigarribia
|15 August 1939||18 February 1940||Liberal||1939||Luis Alberto Riart|
|18 February 1940||7 September 1940||—||De facto president after a self-coup. The new Constitution of 1940 increased the presidential term from 4 to 5 years, allowed a single consecutive reelection, removed the Electoral College and the Vice President post. Died in a plane crash.||Vacant[d]|
|7 September 1940||15 August 1943||—||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1939-1943.|
|15 August 1943||3 June 1948||1943||Deposed in a coup.|
|54||Juan Manuel Frutos
|3 June 1948||15 August 1948||ANR-Colorado||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1943-1948.|
|55||Juan Natalicio González
|15 August 1948||30 January 1949||ANR-Colorado||1948||Deposed in a coup.|
|30 January 1949||26 February 1949||ANR-Colorado||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Deposed in a coup.|
|57||Felipe Molas López
|26 February 1949||14 May 1949||ANR-Colorado||—||De facto president after a coup.|
|14 May 1949||11 September 1949||1949||Elected to finish the presidential period 1948-1953. Deposed in a coup.|
|11 September 1949||15 August 1953||ANR-Colorado||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress. Finished the presidential period 1948-1953.|
|15 August 1953||4 May 1954||1953||Deposed in a coup d'état.|
4 May 1954 – 8 May 1954
|There was no president in this period.|
|59||Tomás Romero Pereira
|8 May 1954||15 August 1954||ANR-Colorado||—||Interim President appointed by the Congress.|
|15 August 1954||15 August 1958||ANR-Colorado||1954||Elected to finish the presidential period 1953-1958.|
|15 August 1958||15 August 1963||1958|
|15 August 1963||15 August 1968||1963||The new Constitution of 1967 allowed Stroessner to run for two more elections.|
|15 August 1968||15 August 1973||1968|
|15 August 1973||15 August 1978||1973||The Constitutional Amendment of 1977 allowed indefinite reelections.|
|15 August 1978||15 August 1983||1978|
|15 August 1983||15 August 1988||1983|
|15 August 1988||3 February 1989||1988||Deposed in a coup d'état.|
|3 February 1989||15 May 1989||ANR-Colorado||—||De facto president after a coup.|
|15 May 1989||15 August 1993||1989||The new Constitution of 1992 removed the possibility of reelection and reinstated the Vice President post. Elected to finish the presidential period 1988-1993.|
|62||Juan Carlos Wasmosy
|15 August 1993||15 August 1998||ANR-Colorado||1993||Ángel Seifart|
|15 August 1998||28 March 1999||ANR-Colorado||1998||Resigned as a result of the Marzo paraguayo.||Luis María Argaña[f]|
|64||Luis Ángel González Macchi
|28 March 1999||15 August 2003||ANR-Colorado||—||President of the Senate, as the Vice President, Luis María Argaña, was assassinated 5 days before. Finished the presidential period 1998-2003.|
|Julio César Franco[h]|
|15 August 2003||15 August 2008||ANR-Colorado||2003||Luis Alberto Castiglioni[j]|
|15 August 2008||22 June 2012||Christian Democratic||2008||Impeached.||Federico Franco|
|22 June 2012||15 August 2013||Authentic Radical Liberal||—||Vice President under Fernando Lugo, assumed the presidency after his impeachment. Finished the presidential period 2008-2013.||Vacant[m]|
|15 August 2013||15 August 2018||ANR-Colorado||2013||Juan Afara[o]|
|69||Mario Abdo Benítez
|15 August 2018||Incumbent
(Term ends on 15 August 2023)
|ANR-Colorado||2018||Hugo Velázquez Moreno|
|Mario Abdo Benítez||Colorado Party||1,206,067||48.96|
|Juan Bautista Ybáñez||Paraguay Green Party||84,045||3.41|
|Jaro Anzoátegui||National Artists' Movement||15,490||0.63|
|Atanasio Galeano||Popular Patriotic Movement Party||9,908||0.40|
|Ramón Ernesto Benítez||Patriotic Reserve Movement||9,361||0.38|
|Pedro Almada||Broad Front||8,590||0.35|
|Efraín Enríquez||National Sovereign Movement||7,291||0.30|
|Celino Ferreira||Movimiento Civico Nacional Unamonos||6,295||0.26|
|Justo Germán Ortega||Heirs Democratic Socialist Party||5,930||0.24|
- 25 November 1870 – 7 January 1871. Died in office.
- 7 January 1871 – 9 December 1871.
- 9 December 1871 – 18 December 1871. Appointed by the Congress.
- 18 February 1940 – 10 July 1940. The post of Vice President is abolished with the Constitution of 1940.
- 10 July 1940 – 15 August 1993.
- 15 August 1998 – 23 March 1999. Assassinated.
- 23 March 1999 – 2 September 2000.
- 2 September 2000 – 16 October 2002. Elected in 2000. Resigned to run for presidency.
- 16 October 2002 – 15 August 2003.
- 15 August 2003 – 4 October 2007. Resigned to run for presidency.
- 4 October 2007 – 21 November 2007.
- 21 November 2007 – 15 August 2008. Appointed by the Congress.
- 22 June 2012 – 27 June 2012.
- 27 June 2012 – 15 August 2013. Appointed by the Congress.
- 15 August 2013 – 11 April 2018. Resigned to run for Senator.
- 11 April 2018 – 9 May 2018.
- 9 May 2018 – 15 August 2018. Appointed by the Congress.
- Following standard protocols based on the Spanish Empire tradition: the style His Excellency is given to individuals that became Chiefs of State. Its generally a lifetime style for the individual. In Paraguay, former presidents (unless removed by impeachment) are given the honorific title of Senador Vitalicio and retain the style of Excellency. The style The Most Excellent (Excelentísimo Señor/a), following Spanish tradition, is given to High Ranking Officials that are NOT Chiefs of State. For example, the President of the Paraguayan Congress is Excelentísimo Señor/a. The style Excelentísimo Señor/a is ex officio (unless the individual who holds it forms part of the nobility).
- "Paraguay congress set on fire as election protests turn deadly". BBC News. 1 April 2017. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- Romero, Simon (31 March 2017). "Protests Erupt in Paraguay Over Efforts to Extend President's Term". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Paraguay rioters storm Congress after Senate amends constitution". USA Today. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Paraguay MPs reject amendment allowing president re-election". BBC News. 27 April 2017. Retrieved 1 May 2017.
- Constitution of the Republic of Paraguay, 1992, Article 189 (subsection 1): "(1) Former presidents of the Republic who were democratically elected will be national senators for life, except for those who were impeached from office.
(2) They will not count toward a quorum. They will have the right to speak, but not to vote."