President of North Macedonia
The President of the Republic of North Macedonia (Macedonian: Претседател на Република Северна Македонија; Albanian: Presidenti i Republikës së Maqedonisë së Veriut) is the head of state of North Macedonia. The institution of the Presidency of the modern North Macedonia state began after the Macedonian declaration of independence on 8 September 1991. Its first president was Kiro Gligorov, the oldest president in the world until his resignation in 1999. The North Macedonia presidency is largely a ceremonial post and the Prime Minister of North Macedonia is the country's leading political figure and de facto chief executive.
|President of the Republic of |
Претседател на Република
Presidenti i Republikës së
Maqedonisë së Veriut
|Term length||Five years, renewable once|
|Inaugural holder||Kiro Gligorov|
27 January 1991
|Formation||Constitution of North Macedonia|
16 April 1991
The president must be a citizen of North Macedonia, be over 40 years of age and have lived in North Macedonia for at least ten of the previous fifteen years.
The President of North Macedonia is elected using a modified two-round system; a candidate can only be elected in the first round of voting if they receive the equivalent of over 50% of the vote from all registered voters. In the second round, voter turnout must be at least 40% for the result to be deemed valid.
The Constitution mandates that the President must be over 40 years of age and have lived in the country for ten of the last fifteen years.
Before 2009, the constitution required a 50% turnout in the second round. The XXXI amendment voted on 9 January 2009 by all 86 present deputies lowered it to the current 40%, as the government feared the tendency of ever lower election turnout would make presidential elections frequently invalidated. In the 2009 Macedonian presidential election that followed, the turnout in the second round ended up being 42.6%.
During the period of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, there was a collective presidency which was abolished in 1991. Its first president was Metodija Andonov Čento elected at the first plenary session of ASNOM, when the modern Macedonian state was formed, while the last one was Vladimir Mitkov.
Following the transition from socialist system to parliamentary democracy in 1990, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia changed the collective leadership with a single-president post in 1991. Kiro Gligorov became the first democratically elected president of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia on 27 January 1991. On 16 April 1991 the parliament adopted a constitutional amendment removing the term "Socialist" from the official name of the country, and on 7 June of the same year, the new name Republic of Macedonia was officially established. Hence Gligorov continued his function as a president of the Republic of Macedonia. After the process of dissolution of Yugoslavia began, the Republic of Macedonia proclaimed full independence following a referendum held on 8 September 1991. On completing his second term as head of the independent state Gligorov was succeeded by Boris Trajkovski in 1999. Following Trajkovski's death in 2004, he was succeeded by Branko Crvenkovski. Gjorge Ivanov won the 2009 presidential election and took office on 12 May 2009. He was re-elected in 2014.
List of Presidents of North MacedoniaEdit
|Portrait||Term of office||Political party|
|President of Initiatory Committee for Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation of Macedonia|
|1 October 1943||2 August 1944||non-party|
|Chairman of the Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation (ASNOM)|
|2 August 1944||1 January 1945||non-party|
|Presidents of the Presidium of the People's Assembly|
|1 January 1945||15 March 1946||non-party|
|16 March 1946||30 December 1946||Communist Party of Macedonia|
|1947||4 January 1951||Communist Party of Macedonia|
|4 January 1951||1953||Communist Party of Macedonia|
renamed in 1952 to
League of Communists of Macedonia
|Presidents of the People's Assembly|
|1953||19 December 1953||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|19 December 1953||26 June 1962||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|26 June 1962||24 June 1963||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|25 June 1963||12 May 1967||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|12 May 1967||1 August 1968||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|23 December 1968||6 May 1974||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|Presidents of the Presidency|
|6 May 1974||31 October 1979||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|31 October 1979||29 April 1982||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|29 April 1982||29 April 1983||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|29 April 1983||29 April 1984||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|29 April 1984||26 April 1985||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|26 April 1985||28 April 1986||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|28 April 1986||30 April 1986||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|30 April 1986||May 1988||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|May 1988||28 April 1990||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|28 April 1990||27 January 1991||League of Communists of Macedonia|
|27 January 1991||18 September 1991||League of Communists of Macedonia|
Republic of North MacedoniaEdit
(Birth – death)
|Portrait||Elected||Term of office||Political affiliation|
|1994||18 September 1991||4 October 1995||Social Democratic Union of Macedonia|
|—||4 October 1995||17 November 1995||Liberal Party of Macedonia|
|—||17 November 1995||19 November 1999||Social Democratic Union of Macedonia|
|—||19 November 1999||15 December 1999||Democratic Alternative|
|1999||15 December 1999||26 February 2004
(Died in plane crash)
|—||26 February 2004||12 May 2004||Social Democratic Union of Macedonia|
|2004||12 May 2004||12 May 2009||Social Democratic Union of Macedonia|
|12 May 2009||12 May 2019||VMRO-DPMNE|
|2019||12 May 2019||Incumbent||Social Democratic Union of Macedonia|
Kiro Gligorov was incapacitated after an assassination attempt in 1995. Stojan Andov served as acting leader during Gligorov's incapacitation.
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Stevo Pendarovski||Social Democratic Union of Macedonia||322.581||42,81||436.212||53,59|
- "www.dnevnik.com.mk". Archived from the original on September 28, 2011.
- Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, Article 80.
- Polls Open in Macedonia Presidential Elections Balkan Insight, 13 April 2014
- AMENDMENT XXXI Constitution of North Macedonia
- "The Constitution of the Republic of North Macedonia". www.sobranie.mk.
- Anna Fruhstorfer; Michael Hein (12 October 2016). Constitutional Politics in Central and Eastern Europe: From Post-Socialist Transition to the Reform of Political Systems. Springer. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-3-658-13762-5.
- "Prof. Dr. Vladimir Mitkov - Faculty of Law, University of Skopje". Archived from the original on June 30, 2012.
- Kiro Gligorov was elected as a President on 27 January 1991, when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia was still an official name of the state. After the change of the state's name, he continued his function as a President of the Republic of Macedonia The Official Site of The President of the Republic of Macedonia Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine
- On This Day - Macedonian Information Agency - MIA Archived 2008-01-25 at the Wayback Machine, see: 1991 (in Macedonian)