President of North Macedonia
The president of the Republic of North Macedonia (Macedonian: Претседател на Република Северна Македонија; Albanian: Presidenti i Republikës së Maqedonisë së Veriut) is the head of state of North Macedonia.
|President of the Republic of North Macedonia|
|Претседател на Република Северна Македонија (Macedonian)|
Presidenti i Republikës së Maqedonisë së Veriut (Albanian)
|Status||Head of State|
|Term length||Five years|
|Constituting instrument||Constitution of North Macedonia|
|Formation||16 April 1991|
|First holder||Kiro Gligorov|
|Salary||17,250 USD annually|
The institution of the presidency began after the declaration of independence on 8 September 1991. The first president was Kiro Gligorov, the oldest president in the world until his resignation in 1999. The presidency is largely a ceremonial post and the prime minister of North Macedonia is the country's leading political figure and de facto chief executive.
The president must be a citizen of North Macedonia, be over 40 years of age and have lived in North Macedonia for at least ten of the previous fifteen years before election.
The president of North Macedonia is elected using a modified two-round system; a candidate can only be elected in the first round of voting if they receive the equivalent of over 50% of the vote from all registered voters. In the second round, voter turnout must be at least 40% for the result to be deemed valid.
The Constitution mandates that the president must be over 40 years of age and have lived in the country for ten of the last fifteen years before election.
Before 2009, the constitution required a 50% turnout in the second round. The XXXI amendment voted on 9 January 2009 by all 86 present deputies lowered it to the current 40%, as the government feared the tendency of ever lower election turnout would make presidential elections frequently invalidated. In the 2009 Macedonian presidential election that followed, the turnout in the second round ended up being 42.6%.
During the period of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia, there was a collective presidency which was abolished in 1991. Its first president was Metodija Andonov Čento elected at the first plenary session of ASNOM, when the modern state was formed, while the last one was Vladimir Mitkov.
Following the transition from socialist system to parliamentary democracy in 1990, the Socialist Republic of Macedonia changed the collective leadership with a single-president post in 1991, few months before independence. Kiro Gligorov became the first democratically elected president of the Socialist Republic of Macedonia on 27 January 1991. On 16 April 1991 the parliament adopted a constitutional amendment removing the term "Socialist" from the official name of the country, and on 7 June of the same year, the new name Republic of Macedonia was officially established. Hence Gligorov continued his function as a president of the Republic of Macedonia.
After the process of dissolution of Yugoslavia began, the Republic of Macedonia proclaimed full independence following a referendum held on 8 September 1991. Kiro Gligorov was incapacitated after an assassination attempt in 1995. Stojan Andov served as acting president for 44 days during Gligorov's incapacitation. On completing his second term as head of the independent state, Gligorov was succeeded by Boris Trajkovski in 1999. Following Trajkovski's death in 2004, he was succeeded by Branko Crvenkovski. Gjorge Ivanov won the 2009 presidential election and took office on 12 May 2009. He was re-elected in 2014. Stevo Pendarovski is the current incumbent and he took the office on 12 May 2019.
List of presidentsEdit
|Portrait||Term of office||Political party|
|President of Initiatory Committee for Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation of Macedonia|
|1 October 1943||2 August 1944||KPM|
|Chairman of the Anti-Fascist Assembly of People's Liberation (ASNOM)|
|2 August 1944||1 January 1945||KPM|
|Presidents of the Presidium of the People's Assembly|
|1 January 1945||15 March 1946||KPM|
|16 March 1946||30 December 1946||KPM|
|1947||4 January 1951||KPM|
|4 January 1951||1953||KPM|
renamed in 1952 to
|Presidents of the People's Assembly|
|1953||19 December 1953||SKM|
|19 December 1953||26 June 1962||SKM|
|26 June 1962||24 June 1963||SKM|
|25 June 1963||12 May 1967||SKM|
|12 May 1967||1 August 1968||SKM|
|23 December 1968||6 May 1974||SKM|
|Presidents of the Presidency|
|6 May 1974||31 October 1979||SKM|
|31 October 1979||29 April 1982||SKM|
|29 April 1982||29 April 1983||SKM|
|29 April 1983||29 April 1984||SKM|
|29 April 1984||26 April 1985||SKM|
|26 April 1985||28 April 1986||SKM|
|28 April 1986||30 April 1986||SKM|
|30 April 1986||May 1988||SKM|
|May 1988||28 April 1990||SKM|
|28 April 1990||27 January 1991||SKM|
|27 January 1991||18 September 1991||Independent|
|Term of office||Political party||Election|
|Took office||Left office||Time in office|
|18 September 1991|
17 November 1995
|4 October 1995|
19 November 1999
|4 years, 16 days|
4 years, 2 days
|4 October 1995||17 November 1995||44 days||LPM||—|
|19 November 1999||15 December 1999||26 days||DA||—|
|15 December 1999||26 February 2004 †||4 years, 73 days||VMRO-DPMNE||1999|
|26 February 2004||12 May 2004||76 days||SDSM||—|
|12 May 2004||12 May 2009||5 years, 0 days||SDSM||2004|
|12 May 2009||12 May 2019||10 years, 0 days||VMRO-DPMNE||2009|
|12 May 2019||Incumbent||2 years, 168 days||SDSM||2019|
|Candidate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Stevo Pendarovski||Social Democratic Union of Macedonia||322.581||42,81||436.212||53,59|
- "www.dnevnik.com.mk". Archived from the original on 28 September 2011.
- "Infographic: What are the Monthly Salaries of Presidents in the Region". Sarajevo Times. 25 February 2018.
- Constitution of the Republic of Macedonia, Article 80.
- Polls Open in Macedonia Presidential Elections Balkan Insight, 13 April 2014
- AMENDMENT XXXI Constitution of North Macedonia
- "The Constitution of the Republic of North Macedonia". www.sobranie.mk.
- Anna Fruhstorfer; Michael Hein (12 October 2016). Constitutional Politics in Central and Eastern Europe: From Post-Socialist Transition to the Reform of Political Systems. Springer. pp. 325–. ISBN 978-3-658-13762-5.
- "Prof. Dr. Vladimir Mitkov - Faculty of Law, University of Skopje". Archived from the original on 30 June 2012.
- Kiro Gligorov was elected as a President on 27 January 1991, when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia was still an official name of the state. After the change of the state's name, he continued his function as a President of the Republic of Macedonia The Official Site of The President of the Republic of Macedonia Archived 2009-04-30 at the Wayback Machine
- "On This Day" - Macedonian Information Agency - MIA Archived 2008-01-25 at the Wayback Machine, see: 1991 (in Macedonian)