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Earth's Gravity according to PREM. Green curves show hypothetical Earths with density constant (dashed) and decreasing linearly from center to surface (stippled).

The Preliminary reference Earth model (PREM) is a one-dimensional model representing the average Earth properties as a function of planetary radius.[1] It includes a table of Earth properties, including elastic properties, attenuation, density, pressure, and gravity, as a function of planetary radius.

PREM has been widely used as the basis for seismic tomography and related global geophysical models.[2] It incorporates anelastic dispersion and anisotropy and therefore it is frequency-dependent and transversely isotropic for the upper mantle.

PREM was developed by Adam M. Dziewonski and Don L. Anderson in response to guidelines of a "Standard Earth Model Committee" of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Association of Seismology and Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) Other Earth reference models include iasp91[3] and ak135.[4]


  1. ^ Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L. (June 1981). "Preliminary reference Earth model" (PDF). Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors. 25 (4): 297–356. Bibcode:1981PEPI...25..297D. doi:10.1016/0031-9201(81)90046-7.
  2. ^ Dziewonski, A. M.; Romanowicz, B.A. (2007). Schubert, Gerald (ed.). 1.01 - Overview. Treatise on Geophysics. pp. 1–29. doi:10.1016/B978-044452748-6.00001-8. ISBN 9780444527486.
  3. ^ Kennett, B.L.N. (1991). IASPEI 1991 Seismological Tables. Canberra, Australia: Bibliotech.
  4. ^ Kennett, B. L. N.; Engdahl, E. R.; Buland, R. (1995-07-01). "Constraints on seismic velocities in the Earth from traveltimes". Geophysical Journal International. 122 (1): 108–124. Bibcode:1995GeoJI.122..108K. doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1995.tb03540.x. ISSN 1365-246X.

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