Pratt & Whitney/Allison 578-DX
The Pratt & Whitney/Allison 578-DX was an experimental aircraft engine, a hybrid between a turbofan and a turboprop known as a propfan. The engine was designed in the 1980s to power proposed propfan aircraft such as the Boeing 7J7 and the MD-91 and MD-92 derivatives of the McDonnell Douglas MD-80. As of 2019, it is still one of only four different contra-rotating propfan engines to have flown in service or in flight testing.
|The PW-Allison Model 578-DX geared propfan demonstrator.|
|National origin||United States|
|Manufacturer||Pratt & Whitney / Allison Engine Company|
|Major applications||Boeing 7J7 (proposed)|
McDonnell Douglas MD-91, MD-92, and MD-94X
|Number built||2 demonstrators|
|Program cost||US$1.5 billion (1985 estimate)|
|Unit cost||US$4 million (1989 estimate)|
|Developed from||Allison T701 (also known as the Model 501-M62)|
The Allison Engine Company, a division of automobile manufacturer General Motors (GM), unveiled its Model 578 contra-rotating propfan engine at the Paris Air Show in mid-1985. The engine represented Allison's attempt to re-enter the commercial airline engine market, because after turboprop aircraft were overtaken in civil aviation in the 1950s and 1960s, Allison was mostly confined to selling military aircraft engines. Targeted to power passenger airliners seating between 100 and 160 passengers, the engine would be based on the core of the Allison T701 heavy lift helicopter turboshaft engine, which first ran in 1975. The engine would come in two sizes: a 10,000 shaft horsepower (7,500 kilowatts) variant with a 23:1 compression ratio and a three-stage boost compressor and power turbine added to the T701 core, and a 16,000 shaft hp (12,000 kW) variant with a 33:1 pressure ratio and a four-stage boost and power section. Since Allison estimated that a 100-seat plane required two 9,000–10,000 shaft hp (6,700–7,500 kW) engines and that a 150-seat plane needed two 13,000–15,000 shaft hp (9,700–11,200 kW) engines, the two sizes chosen should handle the 100-160 passenger aircraft market. Allison hoped to have its 578 engine ready for flight tests in late 1987.
Pratt & Whitney, a division of United Technologies, joined Allison shortly afterward to make the engine development a joint venture. The agreement , which was announced on February 25, 1986, was reached because Pratt & Whitney would not be able to develop its own propfan engine by the planned 1992 certification date of the 7J7, and because it also did not have an engine core in the size range of 10,000–16,000 shaft hp (7,500–11,900 kW). Allison would develop the engine and perform ground testing, while Pratt & Whitney would integrate the propulsion system into the aircraft and manage the flight test program.
In February 1987, Pratt & Whitney and Allison officially formed a joint company named PW–Allison Engines. The new company claimed that compared a commercial jet engine, its propfan engines would consume 30-percent less fuel, require shorter runway lengths during takeoffs and landings, and be quieter (because of the slower propfan rotational speeds enabled by the 578's gearbox). The partnership would last 20 years and cover geared propfan development in the 8,200–16,000 shaft hp (6,100–11,900 kW) range, though the power range could be increased by fifteen percent with a specific mechanical modification. The new company also expected Japanese and European engine makers to eventually join its program instead of creating competing propfan engines. PW–Allison Engines was to invest at least 500 million dollars to bring the engine into commercial production (depending on airline commitments to buy aircraft using its engines), and it assumed that the new company would take half of the market for new medium-sized airliners over the next ten years—a 13-to-18 billion dollar market, it estimated. Other members of the new company included GM subsidiaries Hughes Aircraft and Delco Electronics and United Technologies subsidiary Hamilton Standard, the propeller manufacturer that invented the propfan concept with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the 1970s.
On December 20, 1985, Boeing and Allison agreed to test its new propfan engine for use on the Boeing 7J7. As of early 1986, Allison maintained that it could have its propfan engine certified by early 1990, although a few months later the company changed the certification target timeline to 1992. By early/mid 1987, Boeing had rejected using the PW–Allison engine for its 7J7. Although Boeing had not tested PW–Allison's propfan in flight, the airframer said that the PW–Allison engine's off-the-shelf core was not powerful enough to power the 150-seat plane. PW–Allison vigorously objected, claiming its engine's gearbox could handle 13,000 shaft hp (9,700 kW), the agreement between Pratt & Whitney and Allison covered up to 16,000 shaft hp (12,000 kW), and the gearbox design could go to 25,000 shaft hp (19,000 kW). The decision became moot in December 1987, when Boeing indefinitely suspended development of the 7J7 aircraft, four months after delaying the 7J7 availability date from 1992 to 1993.
McDonnell Douglas MD-91X/MD-92XEdit
In January 1986, Allison also signed a memorandum of understanding with McDonnell Douglas to perform flight tests on the Allison demonstrator engine, now known as the 578-DX, on an MD-80 testbed in late 1987. The flight test program was in preparation for McDonnell Douglas's ultra-high bypass (UHB) MD-91X derivative, a 114-seat airliner that had a planned service entry in the early 1990s. The demonstrator engine would convert 10,400 shaft hp (7,800 kW) into 19,000 pounds-force (85 kilonewtons) of thrust. One engine would be built for ground testing, while another would be used in flight tests. The 578-DX would follow in testing the competing General Electric GE36 UDF engine, which was scheduled for 75 hours of flight tests on the MD-80 testbed from May 1987 through August 1987; the 578-DX would complete its 75 hours of flight testing from December 1987 through February 1988. During the middle of each engine's test program, McDonnell Douglas would let airline representatives fly in the testbed aircraft to assess the passenger experience. McDonnell Douglas would begin installing one 578-DX demonstrator on its testbed in September 1987, while PW-Allison would perform ground tests with its other 578-DX demonstrator from mid-June 1987 to November 1987. By August 1987, ground testing began, and PW–Allison was confident that its engine would be flight tested by early December.
A number of issues kept the 578-DX on the ground, though. First, there was difficulty in manufacturing the thin, swept blades. Then, after one test engine was disassembled for inspection, the second engine ingested parts of the first engine into its compressor during testing. These problems delayed flight tests until the end of February 1988. In February 1988, PW–Allison postponed the service entry date until the end of 1993 at the earliest, as it said that the 578-DX was not powerful enough for the MD-92, and the required increase in engine power from 14,000 to 16,000 shaft hp (10,000 to 12,000 kW) could not be finished in time for the McDonnell Douglas's 1992 target date. PW–Allison moved the beginning of flight tests to May 1988, but the flight date target was missed again because of endurance problems from the electrical pitch-change motors, so flight testing was put off until August to October of 1988.
Amidst the flight test delays, McDonnell Douglas repeatedly expressed dismay that PW–Allison had not made a formal offer to place its engines into an MD-90 production program. The airframer wanted to offer its proposed derivatives to airlines with a choice of powerplant options, instead of advertising aircraft availability with just the competing GE36 UDF engine. However, PW–Allison refused to submit an offering to McDonnell Douglas and the airlines before its flight tests were completed and evaluated.
Ground tests for the 578-DX finished on August 10, 1988 after almost 2,500 hours of runs, resulting in a successful preliminary flight rating test (PFRT), which cleared the way for flight testing. However, the 578-DX could not undergo flight tests until early 1989, because the GE36 demonstrator had been reinstalled on the MD-80 testbed for additional tests. The 578-DX was shipped off for testbed installation on October 18, 1988, and it was installed on the MD-80 testbed in November 1988. The testbed then performed ground runs and taxi tests at Edwards Air Force Base, with the first flight scheduled for January 1989. More delays occurred, though, including one during preparation for a planned March 12, 1989 first flight that was caused by an abrasion on the gearbox's bearing separator.
Nearly a year and a half after the flight test was originally planned, the 578-DX engine finally flew on April 13, 1989, with the first five flights being described as performing "flawlessly" through nearly the whole flight envelope. At the time, the 578-DX demonstration program was planning to conduct 50 hours of flight tests over the upcoming three to four months. The demonstrator covered a flight envelope of up to Mach 0.77 and up to an altitude of 30,000 ft (9,100 m), with one flight attaining an indicated airspeed (IAS) of 340 knots (390 mph; 630 km/h) at an altitude of 22,000 feet (6,700 m), or over Mach 0.8. However, the 578-DX testbed aircraft ended up flying only through May 1989, making 14 test flights for a total of just 20 hours.
Due to the absence of firm propfan orders, McDonnell Douglas announced in May 1989 that the V2500 turbofan engine from International Aero Engines (a multinational engine consortium that included Pratt & Whitney as a member) would be provided as a powerplant option for the MD-90 series. In September 1989, with the order drought continuing, McDonnell Douglas decided to offer the MD-90 series exclusively with the V2500 turbofan engine, ending the airliner sales prospects for the PW–Allison 578-DX propfan. Allison acknowledged that the higher price of its propfan, which some estimated to have a cost of US$4 million (or 40 percent higher than existing turbofan engines), would be unattractive to airline customers at the low fuel prices of the time. It also said that it would not perform any more flight tests of its propfan, preferring to study the data from the flight tests previously done on the MD-80.
Allison's engine was also being examined by the military for airlift and reconnaissance aircraft, and it was offered unsuccessfully for some military aircraft applications. In July 1987, the Allison 578 engine was the base powerplant for the Future International Military/Civil Airlifter (FIMA) consortium, which intended to build a replacement military transport aircraft for the Lockheed C-130 Hercules and the French-German Transall C-160 for American and western European military airfleets. The FIMA engine would be smaller than the demonstrator engine, as its contra-rotating propellers would have only four blades in front and four blades in back, and it would generate 8,800 hp (6,600 kW).
The propfan engine had 11.6 ft diameter (3.5 m; 139 in; 350 cm) coaxial contra-rotating propellers, with the front and back propellers (supplied by Hamilton Standard) each containing six blades. The propellers had a recommended tip speed of 750 feet per second (230 metres per second; 510 miles per hour; 820 kilometres per hour), and the engine could support a maximum aircraft flight speed of Mach 0.80–0.82. 44 percent of the engine's torque would be handled by the front propeller, while the other 56 percent would be absorbed by the back propeller. The 578-DX engine was longer and thinner than the competing GE36 UDF engine.
The design adopted many aspects of the Allison 501-M78 single-rotation propfan engine, a single-rotation, 9 ft diameter (2.7 m; 110 in; 270 cm) powerplant being prepared for flight testing on a Gulfstream II business jet. The 501-M78 was an experimental engine that Allison was developing since 1984 as part of the NASA Propfan Test Assessment (PTA). It was a variant of the Allison T701 heavy lift helicopter turboshaft engine, which was also known as the Allison 501-M62. The T701 was to power the eventually-abandoned Boeing Vertol XCH-62 helicopter in the 1970s, but the T701 entered service as the Allison 570 industrial/marine gas turbine. The 578-DX was derived from the Allison 571, a variant of the Allison 570 that entered service in 1985. There was much commonality in the participants of both engines: in addition to Allison supplying both of the engine cores, the PTA engine also used propellers designed by Hamilton Standard, and both the 501-M78 and the 578-DX had nacelles built by Rohr Industries. This arrangement facilitated the technology transfer from the 501-M78 to the 578-DX. In addition, the blades and the coaxial propellers on the 578-DX were inspired by the SR-7 single-rotation fan on the 501-M78 and the NASA-studied CRP-X1, a 2 ft contra-rotating (0.61 m; 24 in; 61 cm) model propfan with a 5x5 blade configuration.
Unlike the GE36, the 578-DX was fairly conventional, having a reduction gearbox between the low-pressure turbine and the propfan blades, which was thought to give a fuel efficiency advantage of seven percent against the GE36, according to McDonnell Douglas. Allison, which developed the gearbox, claimed a fuel savings of ten percent and the elimination of 1,000 turbine blades. The demonstrator engines produced 10,400 horsepower (7,800 kilowatts), generating a thrust of 21,000 pounds-force (93 kilonewtons). The gearbox would have a reduction ratio of 8.33 to 1, and it would be in service to an airline for 30,000 flight hours (ten years) before requiring a major overhaul, which bettered the mean time between removals (MTBR) of 8,000 flight hours for the Allison T56 turboprop, Allison's top-performing gearbox. The new gearbox, which the propfan developers said had only 15 major parts and was technologically simple, would provide accessory access without having to remove the engine or gearbox, since half of the removals historically were caused by failures of accessories. The design was also aided by a study funded by NASA and Allison to develop a 13,000 shaft hp (9,700 kW) contra-rotating gearbox.
As of early 1986, Pratt & Whitney and Allison planned to offer their propfan in three different production models: the 578-D, which produced 10,000 shaft hp (7,500 kW); the 578-E, a 13,000 shaft hp (9,700 kW) model; and the 578-F, the most powerful engine at 16,000 shaft hp (12,000 kW). The 578-DX demonstrator engine did not completely reflect the design of the planned production models. For example, the 578-DX expels its hot exhaust gases forward of the propfan blades, initially requiring the use of heat-resistant blade materials to withstand the 500 °F (260 °C) exhaust stream, but the production engine design was modified to release the gases at the back of the engine to prevent the blades from heating up.
Engines on displayEdit
The 578-DX demonstrator engines are on public display at the following museums:
- Type: Propfan
- Diameter: 11 ft 7 in (3.54 m; 139 in; 354 cm)
- Dry weight:
- Compressor: Three-stage low pressure compressor
- Turbine: Three-stage power turbine
- Fuel type: Aviation kerosene to MIL-F-5624E / JP-4 / JP-5
- Anderson, N. E.; Wagner, D. A. (July 12–16, 1989). Development testing of the 578 propfan gear system. Joint Propulsion Conference (25th ed.). Monterey, California, USA. doi:10.2514/6.1989-2817.
- Hawkins, Chuck (December 15, 1985). "Will General Motors unit enter the propfan race?". Atlanta Constitution. ISSN 2473-151X – via Newspapers.com.
- Koenig, Bill (October 18, 1989). "Gas Turbine puts propfan on hold". Business. Indianapolis Star. p. C–6. ISSN 1930-2533 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Propfans ready by 1990" (PDF). Paris Report. Flight International. Vol. 127 no. 3963. June 8, 1985. p. 5. ISSN 0015-3710. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 25, 2014. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- Fulton, Ken (January 7, 1978). "International turbine engine directory". Flight International. p. 37. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Allison unveiled its Model 578 engine driving a Hamilton Standard counter-rotating Prop-Fan. Exhaust from the engine is ducted to several ports and "integrated" by the turning propeller to reduce blade temperatures". Paris Report. Flight International. Vol. 127 no. 3963. June 8, 1985. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Propfan plane is more fuel-efficient". Kokomo Tribune. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. Associated Press. June 18, 1986. ISSN 0746-2034 – via NewspaperARCHIVE.com.
- "Propfan/UDF: some answers questioned". Paris Review. Flight International. 127 (3964). June 15, 1985. pp. 8–9. ISSN 0015-3710. Retrieved March 28, 2019.
- "Pratt joins Allison on propfan" (PDF). Flight International. Vol. 129 no. 4003. East Hartford, Connecticut, USA. March 22, 1986. p. 3. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Allison chooses Pratt & Whitney for Osprey" (PDF). Propulsion. Flight International. Vol. 129 no. 4006. Washington, D. C., USA. April 12, 1986. p. 36. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "GM and UTC are working on an engine". Business. Los Angeles Times. February 25, 1987. p. 2. ISSN 0458-3035.
- Warwick, Graham; Moxon, Julian (May 23, 1987). "The power of persuasion". Flight International. Vol. 131 no. 4063. Washington, DC, USA. pp. 39–41. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Moxon, Julian (May 23, 1987). "Propfan gears up" (PDF). Propulsion. Flight International. Vol. 131 no. 4063. Washington, DC, USA. p. 21. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Buss, Dale D. (February 24, 1987). "GM and United Technologies join on airliner engine". Wall Street Journal. p. 1. ISSN 0099-9660.
- "Prop-fan engine model planned by year-end". Aviation Briefs. Journal of Commerce. Detroit, Michigan, USA. February 24, 1987. ISSN 1530-7557.
- Sweetman, Bill (September 2005). "The short, happy life of the Prop-fan: Meet the engine that became embroiled in round one of Boeing v. Airbus, a fight fueled by the cost of oil". Air & Space/Smithsonian Magazine. Vol. 20 no. 3. pp. 42–49. ISSN 0886-2257. OCLC 109549426. Archived from the original on August 14, 2017. Retrieved January 28, 2019.
- "Boeing to test new Allison engines for use in airliners". Finance. Indianapolis Star. December 21, 1985. p. 33. ISSN 1930-2533 – via Newspapers.com.
- Woolsey, James P. (March 1986). "Boeing continues effort to leapfrog current transport offerings; manufacturer is stressing lower unit costs and greater emphasis on passenger appeal in attempts to put program together for 1992". Air Transport World. Vol. 26. pp. 44+. ISSN 0002-2543.
- Sutcliffe, Peter L. (June 18, 1986). "The Boeing 7J7 advanced technology airplane: Keynote speech to the 1986 American Control Conference" (PDF). IEEE Control Systems Magazine. Seattle, Washington, USA: IEEE (published February 1987). 7 (1): 9–15. doi:10.1109/MCS.1987.1105251. ISSN 0272-1708. OCLC 4631908460.
- "Company news; staff cutbacks for Boeing jet". New York Times. December 16, 1987. p. D3.
- "Date set for Allison UHB flight test". Flight International. Vol. 129 no. 3997. Long Beach, California, USA. February 8, 1986. pp. 50–51. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Warwick, Graham (August 15, 1987). "UHB: The acid test". Flight International. pp. 22–23. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- Moxon, Julian (December 19, 1987). "McDonnell Douglas ready to launch UDF airliners" (PDF). Air Transport. Flight International. Vol. 132 no. 4093. Long Beach, California, USA. p. 6. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Pratt & Whitney backpedals on propfan" (PDF). Flight International. Vol. 133 no. 4100. February 13, 1988. p. 6. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Moxon, Julian (February 27, 1988). "Douglas begins MD-90 hard sell: McDonnell Douglas's campaign to launch the propfan-powered MD-90 series airliners by mid-year moved into higher gear this month as the company began flying airline executives in its ultrahigh-bypass demonstrator". Flight International. Vol. 133 no. 4102. pp. 30–31. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Propfan blades checked" (PDF). Propulsion. Flight International. Vol. 133 no. 4103. March 5, 1988. p. 16. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Dormer, Ian (May 21, 1988). "MD-90 slips to early 1989" (PDF). Flight International. Vol. 133 no. 4114. p. 9. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Donoghue, J. A. (March 1988). "McDonnell Douglas markets MD-90 transports with G.E. UDF power". Air Transport World. Vol. 25 no. 3. pp. 37+. ISSN 0002-2543.
- Donoghue, J. A.; Woolsey, James P. (November 1988). "Boeing sales lead industry to record backlog". Air Transport World. Vol. 25 no. 11. pp. 32+. ISSN 0002-2543.
- Meehl, MaryAnn; Perona, Tony (August 11, 1988). "Pratt & Whitney-Allison propfan completes durability testing" (Press release). Business Wire.
- "Allison propfan clear for flight" (PDF). Flight International. Vol. 134 no. 4127. August 20, 1988. p. 5. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Gas Turbine". Business. Indianapolis Star. October 19, 1988. ISSN 1930-2533 – via Newspapers.com.
- Hanson, Don (April 13, 1989). "New type ultra high bypass engine completes first flight" (Press release). Long Beach, California, USA: Business Wire.
- Daly, Kieran (January 14, 1989). "P&W/Allison propfan flight due" (PDF). Flight International. Vol. 135 no. 4147. p. 7. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "V-22 tilt-rotor flies" (PDF). Flight International. Vol. 135 no. 4157. March 25, 1989. p. 2. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "'Flawless' propfan performance claimed". Flight International. Vol. 135 no. 4163. May 6, 1989. pp. 6–7. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Weaver, Al; Berch, Mike. "PW–Allison 578-DX propfan demonstrator". Pratt & Whitney museum gas turbines. East Hartford, Connecticut, USA: Pratt & Whitney Hangar Museum. Retrieved June 1, 2019 – via Aircraft Engine Historical Society.
- Chapman, D. C.; Fleury, R. E.; Smith, D. E. (July 12–16, 1989). Testing of the 578-DX propfan propulsion system. Joint Propulsion Conference (25th ed.). Monterey, California, USA. doi:10.2514/6.1989-2581.
- Bailey, John (May 13, 1989). "Douglas offers V2500, keeps propfans" (PDF). Flight International. Vol. 135 no. 4164. Los Angeles, California, USA. p. 3. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Douglas set to go with V2500-engined MD-90". Technical: Air Transport. Flight International. Vol. 136 no. 4183. September 23, 1989. p. 24. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Europe moves to replace Hercules" (PDF). Defence. Flight International. Vol. 132 no. 4072. Cirencester, England, United Kingdom. July 25, 1987. p. 10. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Anderson et al. 1987, p. 3–3
- Alekseyev, Col. Yu. (1988). "Propfan engines". Zarubezhnoye Voyennoye Obozreniye. Moscow: Soviet Union Ministry of Defense (published March 21, 1989) (10): 27–29. OCLC 946659244 – via Soviet Union Foreign Military Review.
- Anderson, N. E.; Nightingale, L.; Wagner, D. A. (June 29 – July 2, 1987). "Design and test of a propfan gear system". Journal of Propulsion and Power. San Diego, California, USA (published January–February 1989). 5 (1): 95+. doi:10.2514/3.23120.
- Donelson, John E.; Lewerenz, William T.; Durbin, Roger T. (July 12–16, 1989). UHB demonstrator flight test program: Phase 2. Joint Propulsion Conference (25th ed.). Monterey, California, USA. doi:10.2514/6.1989-2582.
- "Propfan impresses during ground tests". Machine Design. Vol. 58. July 24, 1986. pp. 2+. ISSN 0024-9114.
- "More money for propfan" (PDF). Propulsion. Flight International. Vol. 125 no. 3909. Lewis Research Center. April 7, 1984. p. 965. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Rolls-Royce Allison 570/571/572-K. Gas Turbine Forecast. Forecast International (Report). June 2000. Archived from the original on May 29, 2019.
- Haggerty, James J. (August 1987). "Toward future flight". Spinoff (PDF) (1987 ed.). NASA. pp. 30–33. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009.
- Whitlow, John B., Jr.; Sievers, G. Keith (August 8–11, 1988). NASA advanced turboprop research and concept validation program. Conference and Exposition on Future Transportation Technology. Society of Automotive Engineers (1988 ed.). San Francisco, California, USA. hdl:2060/19880013518. OCLC 47143980. Lay summary.
- Hager & Vrabel 1988, pp. 76 to 79.
- Learmount, David (June 13, 1987). "Propfan: the price factor". Flight International. Seattle, Washington and Long Beach, California, USA. pp. 76–79. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Propfan to fly in March" (PDF). Propulsion. Flight International. Vol. 133 no. 4097. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. January 23, 1988. p. 62. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Geared-up propfan". Flight International. Vol. 134 no. 4143. December 16, 1988. p. 16. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Propfan promises fuel efficiency, low noise propulsion. But marketability of the counter-rotation aircraft system is tied to future fuel-price increases" (DjVu). ICAO Journal: Official Magazine of International Civil Aviation. Vol. 45 no. 2. February 1990. pp. 1, 13. ISSN 1014-8876. OCLC 22283622.
- Anderson et al. 1987.
- Donoghue, J. A. (March 1986). "Allison 578 propfan could be ready for service in early 1990 if production go-ahead is given". Air Transport World. Vol. 26. pp. 20+. ISSN 0002-2543.
- Sanford, Robert (January 23, 1989). "Testing: New propfan engine may change aviation". Business Plus. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. pp. 1, 18. ISSN 1930-9600 – via Newspapers.com.
- David Newill (July 9, 2015). "Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust Allison Branch - Indianapolis, Indiana - Local business" – via Facebook.
- "Whatever happened to propfans?". Flight International. June 12, 2007. ISSN 0015-3710.
- Sutcliffe, Peter L. (November 13, 1987). The Boeing 7J7—The evolution of technology and design. International Pacific Air and Space Technology Conference and Exposition. SAE 1987 Transactions: Aerospace. 96. Melbourne, Australia: SAE International (published September 1988). pp. 6.1757–6.1768. doi:10.4271/872405. ISSN 0096-736X. JSTOR 44473078. OCLC 939484633.
- Donoghue, J. A.; Moorman, Robert W.; Reed, Arthur; Woolsey, James P. (July 1989). "Soviets dominate transport displays". Air Transport World. pp. 26+.
- Howe, D. C.; Sundt, C. V.; McKibbon, A. H. (October 1988). Advanced gearbox technology: Advanced counter-rotating gearbox: Detailed design report, Aug. 1984 - Jan. 1987 (PDF) (Report). United Technologies Corporation, Pratt & Whitney. hdl:2060/19940005945. OCLC 1052948385 – via NASA. Lay summary.
- Chapman, D. C.; Godston, J.; Smith, D. E. (July 11–13, 1988). Testing of the 578-DX propfan propulsion system. Joint Propulsion Conference (24th ed.). Boston, Massachusetts, USA. doi:10.2514/6.1988-2804.
- Hager, Roy V.; Vrabel, Deborah (1988). Advanced turboprop project. NASA SP-495. Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, Ohio: National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Scientific and Technical Information Division. hdl:2060/19890003194. OCLC 17508419. Archived (PDF) from the original on March 13, 2017. Retrieved February 2, 2019. Lay summary.
- Anderson, N. E.; Cedoz, R. W.; Salama, E. E.; Wagner, D. A. (June 1987). Advanced gearbox technology: Final report (PDF) (Report). Allison Gas Turbine Division, General Motors Corporation. hdl:2060/19900014958. OCLC 60652153 – via NASA. Lay summary.
- Anderson, R. D. (July 1985). Advanced propfan engine technology (APET) definition study, single and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism design (PDF) (Report). Allison Gas Turbine Division, General Motors Corporation. hdl:2060/19870019121. OCLC 24834544 – via NASA. Lay summary.
- Reynolds, C. N. (July 1985). Advanced Prop-fan Engine Technology (APET) single- and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism: Final report (volume 1) (PDF) (Report). United Technologies Corporation, Pratt & Whitney Engineering Division. hdl:2060/19870019119. OCLC 24833372 – via NASA. Lay summary.
- Reynolds, C. N. (July 1985). Advanced Prop-fan Engine Technology (APET) single- and counter-rotation gearbox/pitch change mechanism: Final report (volume 2) (PDF) (Report). United Technologies Corporation, Pratt & Whitney Engineering Division. hdl:2060/19870019123. OCLC 24833372 – via NASA. Lay summary.
- Rolls-Royce Heritage Trust - Allison Branch archives. PW-Allison 578-DX propfan. YouTube. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
- Guy Norris (May 12, 2008). "New-generation GE open rotor and regional jet engine demo efforts planned". Aviation Week & Space Technology. Archived from the original on Mar 28, 2009.
- "Green sky thinking - carbon credits and the propfan comeback?". Flight International. June 12, 2007.
- "US DoD launches cruise missile engine contest" (PDF). Headlines. Flight International. Vol. 138 no. 4222. June 27 – July 3, 1990. p. 4. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Allison and Williams link up for propfan" (PDF). Technical: Defence. Flight International. Vol. 137 no. 4220. June 13–19, 1990. p. 24. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Engines under test" (PDF). Propulsion. Flight International. Vol. 132 no. 4083. October 10, 1987. p. 20. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "MDC studies propfan ASW" (PDF). Defence. Flight International. Vol. 132 no. 4076. Long Beach, California, USA. August 22, 1987. p. 8. ISSN 0015-3710.
- "Allison propfan delayed". Propulsion. Flight International. Vol. 130 no. 4042. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA. December 20, 1986. pp. 64–65. ISSN 0015-3710.
|This aircraft engine article is missing some (or all) of its specifications. If you have a source, you can help Wikipedia by adding them.|