Praetorius, Prätorius, Prætorius was the name of several musicians and scholars in Germany.
In 16th and 17th century Germany it became a fashion for educated people named "Schulze," "Schultheiß," or "Richter" (which means "judge"), to Latinise their names as "Praetorius," referring to a former official position called "Praetor urbanus."
- Anton Praetorius (1560–1613), pastor, fighter against the persecution of witches and against torture
- Bartholomaeus Praetorius (c.1590–1623), composer and cornettist
- Christoph Praetorius (died 1609), composer, and uncle of Michael
- Franz Praetorius (1847–1927), semitist and Hebraist
- Hieronymus Praetorius (1560–1629), composer and organist
- Ida Praetorius (born 1993), Danish ballerina
- Jacob Praetorius (c.1530–1586), composer and organist, and father of Hieronymus
- Jacob Praetorius (1586–1651), composer, organist and teacher, and son of Hieronymus
- Johannes Praetorius (1537–1616), mathematician and astronomer
- Johannes Praetorius (musician) (1595–1660), organist and composer; son of Hieronymus and brother of Jacob
- Johannes Praetorius (writer) (1630–1680), writer and polymath, real name Hans Schultze
- Matthäus Prätorius (1635–1704), pastor, priest, historian, ethnographer
- Michael Praetorius (c.1571–1621), composer ("Terpsichore"), music theorist, and organist
- Stephan Praetorius (1536–1603), theologian
- "Praetorius (Courante)," a song by Blackmore’s Night from their 2001 album Fires at Midnight
- Cary Grant plays Dr. Noah Praetorius in People Will Talk (1951; dir. Joseph Mankiewicz).
- Praetorius (film), 1965 West German film