Power of Siberia (Sila Sibiri, formerly named the Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline, also known as China–Russia East-Route Natural Gas pipeline; Russian: Сила Сибири, Chinese: 中俄东线天然气管道; pinyin: zhōng é dōng xiàn tiānránqì guǎndào) is a Gazprom-operated pipeline in Eastern Siberia that transports natural gas from Yakutia to Primorsky Krai and China. It is a part of the eastern gas route from Siberia to China. The proposed western gas route to China is known as Power of Siberia 2 (Altai gas pipeline).

Power of Siberia
Sila Sibiri
Ceremony to mark the joining of the Power of Siberia gas pipeline’s first section
Ceremony to mark the joining of the Power of Siberia gas pipeline’s first section
The routes of the Power of Siberia pipeline (left), the Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline (right) and the proposed link between them (centre)
The routes of the Power of Siberia pipeline (left), the Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline (right) and the proposed link between them (centre)
General directionWest-east-south
FromChayanda field (phase 1)
Kovykta field (phase 2)
Passes throughLensk
Khabarovsk (further expansion)
ToBlagoveshchensk (phase 1)
Vladivostok (further expansion)
Runs alongsideEastern Siberia-Pacific Ocean oil pipeline
General information
TypeNatural gas
Manufacturer of pipesVyksa Steel Works (OMK)
Chelyabinsk Pipe Rolling Plant
Izhora Pipe Mill (Severstal)
Volzhsky Pipe Plant of TMK
Zagorsk Pipe Plant
Pipe Innovative Technologies
Commissioned2 December 2019
Technical information
Length3,968 km (2,466 mi)
Maximum discharge61 billion cubic metres per annum (2.2×10^12 cu ft/a)
Diameter1,420 mm (56 in)
No. of compressor stations2 (operational)
9 (total)
Compressor stationsChayandinskaya



In 2007, the Ministry of Industry and Energy of Russia approved the Eastern Gas Program, which included construction of the Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline.[1]

On 29 October 2012, Russian president Vladimir Putin instructed Alexey Miller, CEO of Gazprom to start the construction of the pipeline.[2] The Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline project was officially renamed Power of Siberia at the end of 2012.[3]

On 21 May 2014, Russia and China signed a 30-year gas deal worth $400 billion which was needed to make the project feasible. Construction was launched on 1 September 2014 in Yakutsk by Putin and Chinese deputy prime minister Zhang Gaoli.[4][5][6] Construction of the connecting pipeline in China started on 29 June 2015.[7][8][9]

On 4 September 2016, Miller and China National Petroleum Corporation's Chairman Wang Yilin signed an agreement to build a crossing under the Amur River for the pipeline.[10] Two tunnels under the river were completed by China Petroleum Pipeline in March 2019.[11]

In 2017, construction of the Atamanskaya (Zeyskaya) compressor station began. The Atamanskaya and Chayandinskaya compressor stations were completed in 2019.[12][13] Construction of all compressor stations is scheduled to be completed by 2022.[12]

The pipeline was filled with gas in October 2019.[1][14] Deliveries to China started on 2 December 2019.[15][16] In 2020, China has imported 4.1 billion cubic meters of natural gas from Russia through the pipeline. It is expected that amount will increase to 38 billion cubic meters by 2023.[17]

Technical description


Together with the development of the Chayanda field and the Amur Gas Processing Plant, the whole Power of Siberia project was expected to cost US$55–70 billion.[18] As of April 2018, the pipeline was estimated to cost 1.1 trillion roubles, the development of the Chayanda field was estimated to cost 450 billion roubles, and the Amur Gas Processing Plant was estimated to cost 950 billion roubles.[19]

The total length of the pipeline, when fully completed, will be 3,968 km (2,466 mi).[7] The full capacity of the 1,420 mm (56 in) pipeline would be up to 61 billion m3 (2.2 trillion cu ft) per annum of natural gas,[5][20] of which 38 billion m3 (1.3 trillion cu ft) per annum are supplied to China.[21][22] In 2019, the export to China was expected to start with 5 billion m3 (180 billion cu ft) per annum in 2020, and to increase gradually to 38 billion m3 (1.3 trillion cu ft) per annum by 2025.[23][needs update]

The pipeline's working pressure is ensured by nine compressor stations[12][24] with a total capacity of 1,200 MW.[12] The working pressure between the Chayanda field and the Atamanskaya compressor station is 9.8 MPa (1,420 psi), and between the Atamanskaya compressor station and the border of China is 11.8 MPa (1,710 psi).[24][25] The Chayandinskaya compressor station has capacity of 577 MW and the Atamanskaya compressor station has capacity of 128 MW. The remaining seven compressor stations—Saldykelskaya,[26] Olyokminskaya,[26] Amginskaya,[26] Nimnyrkaya,[26] Nagornaya,[27] Skovorodinskaya,[27] and Sivakiskaya[27]—have a total capacity of 481 MW.[12]

The pipeline is able to withstand temperatures as low as −62 °C (−80 °F). It has a nanocomposite coating to increase the lifetime of the pipeline. To withstand earthquakes, the pipeline uses materials that will deform under seismic activity.[1][failed verification] Internal coatings ensure energy efficiency by reducing the friction of the pipeline's inner surfaces.[1] The mass of all the pipes used to construct the pipeline is more than 2.25 million tonnes (2.5 million tons).[28]

According to the study published by the Cambridge University Press, the pipeline seems to avoid technical and legal standards applied to similar pipelines from Russia to Europe because of lower requirements in both Russia and China.[29]



The pipeline is fed from the Chayanda field in Yakutia,[30] which was launched in 2019.[21] The Kovykta field in Irkutsk Oblast will start to supply to the pipeline in 2023.[23] The 2,156.1 km (1,339.7 mi) first phase of the pipeline starts at the Chayanda field in Yakutia.[12][25][31] It runs, partly within the same corridor as the Eastern Siberia–Pacific Ocean oil pipeline,[9][32] through Lensk, Olyokminsk, Aldan, Neryungri, Skovorodino, and Svobodny,[33] where the pipeline is connected to the Amur Gas Processing Plant. From there, the pipeline branches south to Blagoveshchensk on the Russia–China border.[31] By the two 1,139 m (3,737 ft) tunnels under the Amur River, it is connected to the 3,371 km (2,095 mi) HeiheShanghai pipeline in China.[11] Together they form the eastern route for gas supplies from Siberia to China.[11]

The 803.5 km (499.3 mi) second phase of the pipeline connects the Kovykta field to the Chayanda field.[12] According to the original plan, the further 1,000 km (620 mi) extension of the Power of Siberia pipeline will continue from Svobodny through Birobidzhan to Khabarovsk where the pipeline will be linked with the Sakhalin–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok pipeline.[6][34] Gazprom has not published if and when this extension will be built.



Gazprom Transgaz Tomsk was the main construction contractor, while VNIPIgazdobycha, both subsidiaries of Gazprom, was the general design contractor.[35]

Different sections of the pipeline were built by Stroytransgaz owned by Gennady Timchenko, Neftegazstroy, and Stroygazmontazh owned by Arkady Rotenberg.[36]

Pipes were manufactured by the Vyksa Steel Works of OMK, the Chelyabinsk Pipe Rolling Plant, the Izhora Pipe Mill of Severstal, the Volzhsky Pipe Plant of TMK, Zagorsk Pipe Plant, and Pipe Innovative Technologies.[37][38][39] Anti-corrosion nanocomposite coating of pipes was done by Metaclay, a joint venture of Rusnano and Gazprom.[37][40] Compressor turbine units were supplied by UEC-Perm Engines.[41]



The pipeline has strong implications for energy security in both China and Russia in the short term.[29]

For China, the pipeline diversifies natural gas supplies for China.[42] It is designed to reduce China's dependence on coal, which is more carbon intensive and causes more pollution than natural gas.[43]

For Russia, the pipeline allows another economic partnership in the face of resistance to pipelines being built in Western Europe.[43]

See also



  1. ^ a b c d "Сила Сибири" – сила прогресса и развития [Power of Siberia – the power of progress and development] (in Russian). Vostok Media. 26 November 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  2. ^ "Газпром" получил импульс для освоения Чаянды [Gazprom received an impulse for conquest of Chayanda] (in Russian). Interfax. 29 October 2012. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  3. ^ "Газопровод "Якутия - Хабаровск - Владивосток" получил название "Сила Сибири"" [The Yakutia–Khabarovsk–Vladivostok gas pipeline renamed Power of Siberia]. News Ykt (in Russian). 2012-12-28. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  4. ^ "Putin In Yakutsk To Inaugurate Construction Of Pipeline To China". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 2014-09-02.
  5. ^ a b "Putin gives start to Power of Siberia gas pipeline construction". TASS. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  6. ^ a b "Power of Siberia construction launched" (Press release). Gazprom. 1 September 2014. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  7. ^ a b "Half of pipes supplied for Russia's China-bound Power of Siberia gas pipeline construction". TASS. 2015-08-11. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  8. ^ "Construction goes smoothly on China-Russia gas pipeline". Xinhua. 2019-09-05. Archived from the original on January 9, 2020. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  9. ^ a b "Power of Siberia pipeline's construction launched in China". NRT24. 2015-06-30. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  10. ^ "Gazprom and CNPC sign EPC contract to construct underwater crossing of Power of Siberia" (Press release). Gazprom. 2016-09-04. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  11. ^ a b c "Underwater tunnels completed for China-Russia gas pipeline". Xinhua. 2019-03-29. Archived from the original on March 30, 2019. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g ""Газпром" завершит прокладку "Силы Сибири" в 2018 г." [Gazprom will complete the laying of the Power of Siberia in 2018]. Vesti (in Russian). 2018-04-25. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  13. ^ На Центральной ДКС Чаяндинского месторождения запущен в работу 1-й газоперекачивающий агрегат [The 1st gas pumping unit was launched at the Central BCS of the Chayandinskoye field]. Neftegaz.ru (in Russian). 12 September 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  14. ^ Balmforth, Tom (2019-10-25). "Gazprom finishes filling China-bound Power of Siberia gas pipeline". Reuters. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  15. ^ "China-Russia east-route natural gas pipeline in operation". Xinhua. 2019-12-02. Archived from the original on December 3, 2019. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  16. ^ Shabbir, Fahad (2019-11-25). "Putin, Xi Expected To Hold Teleconference For Launching Power Of Siberia Dec 2 - Kremlin". UrduPoint. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  17. ^ Pao, Jeff (2022-07-20). "Power of Siberia 2 to divert Europe-bound gas to China". Asia Times. Retrieved 2022-10-02.
  18. ^ d'Amora, Delphine (2014-07-09). "Gazprom's Gas Pipeline to China to Cost Up to $70Bln, Kremlin Says". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  19. ^ Стоимость строительства газопровода «Сила Сибири» превысила 1 трлн руб. [The cost of building the Power of Siberia gas pipeline exceeded 1 trillion rubles]. RBC (in Russian). 2018-04-27. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  20. ^ "Putting the Power into Siberia". Siberian Times. 2014-09-02. Retrieved 2017-10-15.
  21. ^ a b Khodyakova, Yelena (4 March 2014). «Газпром» отложил запуск газопровода «Сила Сибири» до 2019 г. [Gazprom postponed start of the Power of Siberia pipeline until 2019]. Vedomosti (in Russian). Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  22. ^ Soldatkin, Vladimir; Pinchuk, Denis (7 March 2014). "Rosneft challenges Gazprom monopoly to export Russian pipeline gas". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-04-11.
  23. ^ a b "Как устроен газопровод "Сила Сибири" и что даст его запуск" [How is the Power of Siberia gas pipeline arranged and what will its launch give] (in Russian). TASS. 2019-12-02. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  24. ^ a b "Реализация проекта «Магистральный газопровод «Сила Сибири» (ПАО «Газпром»)" [Implementation of the gas pipeline project Power of Siberia (PJSC Gazprom)] (in Russian). Ministry of Energy. Retrieved 2019-12-04.
  25. ^ a b "Gazprom project ahead of schedule". Pipelines International. 2017-06-15. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
  26. ^ a b c d 20% «Силы Сибири». Компания Тимченко без конкурса получила второй подряд на строительство трубопровода в Китай [20% of Power of Siberia. Timchenko's company received a second contract for the construction of a pipeline to China without a tender]. RBC (in Russian). 2016-05-20. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  27. ^ a b c Сумма контрактов на стройку "Силы Сибири" выросла до 554 млрд рублей [The amount of contracts for the construction of Power of Siberia increases to 554 billion rubles] (in Russian). Interfax. 26 March 2018. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  28. ^ "Power of Siberia Pipeline". www.pipeintech.com. Archived from the original on 2018-01-12.
  29. ^ a b Ozawa, Marc; Chi, Kong Chyong; Kun-Chin, Lin; Reilly, Tim; Humphrey, Caroline; Wood-Donnelly, Corine (June 2019). "The Power of Siberia: A Eurasian Pipeline Policy 'Good' for Whom?". In Search of Good Energy Policy. Cambridge Studies on Environment, Energy and Natural Resources Governance. Cambridge University Press: 305–335. doi:10.1017/9781108639439.021. ISBN 9781108639439. S2CID 197972584.
  30. ^ "Gazprom Eying Chayandinskoye, Sakhalin-3 Licenses". Rigzone. 2008-06-15. Retrieved 2008-08-02.
  31. ^ a b Tanas, Olga; Shiryaevskaya, Anna; Murtaugh, Dan (2019-11-25). "How Russia-China Gas Pipeline Changes Energy Calculus". Bloomberg. Retrieved 2019-11-26.
  32. ^ "Gazprom announces tender for construction of Power of Siberia section for $2.35 bln". TASS. 2015-11-30. Retrieved 2019-12-05.
  33. ^ ""Сила Сибири" – проект мирового значения" [Power of Siberia – a project of world significance]. PrimaMedia.ru (in Russian). 2018-11-12. Retrieved 2019-12-09.
  34. ^ [1]Gazprom map of gas pipelines in Siberia, planned and projected retrieved 2012-11-26
  35. ^ "The Power of Siberia Pipeline, Russia-China". NS Energy. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  36. ^ Стройтрансгаз без конкурса получил подряд на второй участок "Силы Сибири" [Stroytransgaz without a tender received a contract for the second section of Power of Siberia] (in Russian). Interfax. 2016-05-20. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  37. ^ a b Larionova, Anna (2015-04-23). Трубы "Метаклэй" будут использованы для большей части газопровода "Сила Сибири" [Metaclay pipes will be used for most of the Power of Siberia gas pipeline]. MRC (in Russian). Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  38. ^ Газпром выбрал поставщиков труб большого диаметра для газопровода Сила Сибири-1 на 65,8 млрд руб [Gazprom selected suppliers of large-diameter pipes for the Power of Siberia-1 gas pipeline for 65.8 billion rubles]. Neftegaz.ru (in Russian). 21 February 2017. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  39. ^ "Газпром" заключил крупнейшую трубную сделку [Gazprom concluded the largest pipe deal] (in Russian). Interfax. 2018-11-21. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  40. ^ "Joint actions of hi tech and oil and gas industries". Toinnov.com. 2016-06-09. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  41. ^ В газопроводе «Сила Сибири» работают 18 пермских газотурбинных установок [The Power of Siberia gas pipeline is operated by 18 Perm gas turbine units]. Tekst (in Russian). 2019-12-03. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  42. ^ "Сила Сибири" — это только начало. У газопровода появится брат-близнец [Power of Siberia is only the beginning. Twin pipeline appears] (in Russian). RIA Novosti. 2019-12-02. Retrieved 2019-12-12.
  43. ^ a b "'Power of Siberia': Russia, China launch massive gas pipeline". Al Jazeera. 2019-12-02. Retrieved 2019-12-03.